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MTREE(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		      MTREE(8)

     mtree -- map a directory hierarchy

     mtree [-cdeinrUux]	[-f spec] [-K keywords]	[-k keywords] [-p path]
	   [-s seed]

     The utility mtree compares	the file hierarchy rooted in the current di-
     rectory against a specification read from the standard input.  Messages
     are written to the	standard output	for any	files whose characteristics do
     not match the specifications, or which are	missing	from either the	file
     hierarchy or the specification.

     The options are as	follows:

     -c	   Print a specification for the file hierarchy	to the standard	out-

     -d	   Ignore everything except directory type files.

     -e	   Don't complain about	files that are in the file hierarchy, but not
	   in the specification.

     -f	file
	   Read	the specification from file, instead of	from the standard in-

     -i	   Indent the output 4 spaces each time	a directory level is descended
	   when	create a specification with the	-c option.  This does not ef-
	   fect	either the /set	statements or the comment before each direc-
	   tory.  It does however effect the comment before the	close of each

     -K	keywords
	   Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords to the
	   current set of keywords.

     -k	keywords
	   Use the ``type'' keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma
	   separated) keywords instead of the current set of keywords.

     -n	   Do not emit pathname	comments when creating a specification.	 Nor-
	   mally a comment is emitted before each directory and	before the
	   close of that directory when	using the -c option.

     -p	path
	   Use the file	hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current di-

     -r	   Remove any files in the file	hierarchy that are not described in
	   the specification.

     -s	seed
	   Display a single checksum to	the standard error output that repre-
	   sents all of	the files for which the	keyword	cksum was specified.
	   The checksum	is seeded with the specified value.

     -U	   Modify the owner, group, and	permissions of existing	files to match
	   the specification and create	any missing directories.  User,	group,
	   and permissions must	all be specified for missing directories to be
	   created.  Exit with a status	of 0 on	success, 1 if any error	oc-
	   curred, a mismatch is not considered	an error if it was corrected.

     -u	   Same	as -U except a status of 2 is returned if the file hierarchy
	   did not match the specification.

     -x	   Don't descend below mount points in the file	hierarchy.

     Specifications are	mostly composed	of ``keywords'', i.e. strings that
     that specify values relating to files.  No	keywords have default values,
     and if a keyword has no value set,	no checks based	on it are performed.

     Currently supported keywords are as follows:

     cksum	 The checksum of the file using	the default algorithm speci-
		 fied by the cksum(1) utility.

     ignore	 Ignore	any file hierarchy below this file.

     gid	 The file group	as a numeric value.

     gname	 The file group	as a symbolic name.

     md5digest	 The MD5 message digest	of the file.

     mode	 The current file's permissions	as a numeric (octal) or	sym-
		 bolic value.

     nlink	 The number of hard links the file is expected to have.

     nochange	 Make sure this	file or	directory exists but otherwise ignore
		 all attributes.

     uid	 The file owner	as a numeric value.

     uname	 The file owner	as a symbolic name.

     size	 The size, in bytes, of	the file.

     link	 The file the symbolic link is expected	to reference.

     time	 The last modification time of the file.

     type	 The type of the file; may be set to any one of	the following:

		 block	     block special device
		 char	     character special device
		 dir	     directory
		 fifo	     fifo
		 file	     regular file
		 link	     symbolic link
		 socket	     socket

     The default set of	keywords are gid, mode,	nlink, size, link, time, and

     There are four types of lines in a	specification.

     The first type of line sets a global value	for a keyword, and consists of
     the string	``/set'' followed by whitespace, followed by sets of key-
     word/value	pairs, separated by whitespace.	 Keyword/value pairs consist
     of	a keyword, followed by an equals sign (``=''), followed	by a value,
     without whitespace	characters.  Once a keyword has	been set, its value
     remains unchanged until either reset or unset.

     The second	type of	line unsets keywords and consists of the string	``/un-
     set'', followed by	whitespace, followed by	one or more keywords, sepa-
     rated by whitespace.

     The third type of line is a file specification and	consists of a file
     name, followed by whitespace, followed by zero or more whitespace sepa-
     rated keyword/value pairs.	 The file name may be preceded by whitespace
     characters.  The file name	may contain any	of the standard	file name
     matching characters (``['', ``]'',	``?'' or ``*''), in which case files
     in	the hierarchy will be associated with the first	pattern	that they

     Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of	a keyword, followed by an
     equals sign (``=''), followed by the keyword's value, without whitespace
     characters.  These	values override, without changing, the global value of
     the corresponding keyword.

     All paths are relative.  Specifying a directory will cause	subsequent
     files to be searched for in that directory	hierarchy.  Which brings us to
     the last type of line in a	specification: a line containing only the
     string ".." causes	the current directory path to ascend one level.

     Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character	is a hash mark
     (``#'') are ignored.

     The mtree utility exits with a status of 0	on success, 1 if any error oc-
     curred, and 2 if the file hierarchy did not match the specification.  A
     status of 2 is converted to a status of 0 if the -U option	is used.

     To	detect system binaries that have been ``trojan horsed'', it is recom-
     mended that mtree -K md5digest be run on the file systems,	and a copy of
     the results stored	on a different machine,	or, at least, in encrypted
     form.  The	output file itself should be digested using the	md5(1) util-
     ity.  Then, periodically, mtree and md5(1)	should be run against the on-
     line specifications.  While it is possible	for the	bad guys to change the
     on-line specifications to conform to their	modified binaries, it is be-
     lieved to be impractical for them to create a modified specification
     which has the same	MD5 digest as the original.

     The -d and	-u options can be used in combination to create	directory hi-
     erarchies for distributions and other such	things;	the files in
     /etc/mtree	were used to create almost all directories in this FreeBSD

     /etc/mtree	 system	specification directory

     chgrp(1), chmod(1), cksum(1), md5(1), stat(2), fts(3), md5(3), chown(8)

     The mtree utility appeared	in 4.3BSD-Reno.	 The MD5 digest	capability was
     added in FreeBSD 2.1, in response to the widespread use of	programs which
     can spoof cksum(1).

BSD			       February	9, 1995				   BSD


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