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MTREE(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		      MTREE(8)

     mtree -- map a directory hierarchy

     mtree [-LPUcdeinqruxw] [-f	spec] [-f spec]	[-K keywords] [-k keywords]
	   [-p path] [-s seed] [-X exclude-list]

     The mtree utility compares	the file hierarchy rooted in the current di-
     rectory against a specification read from the standard input.  Messages
     are written to the	standard output	for any	files whose characteristics do
     not match the specifications, or which are	missing	from either the	file
     hierarchy or the specification.

     The options are as	follows:

     -L	   Follow all symbolic links in	the file hierarchy.

     -P	   Don't follow	symbolic links in the file hierarchy, instead consider
	   the symbolic	link itself in any comparisons.	 This is the default.

     -U	   Modify the owner, group, permissions, and modification time of ex-
	   isting files	to match the specification and create any missing di-
	   rectories or	symbolic links.	 User, group and permissions must all
	   be specified	for missing directories	to be created.	Corrected mis-
	   matches are not considered errors.

     -c	   Print a specification for the file hierarchy	to the standard	out-

     -d	   Ignore everything except directory type files.

     -e	   Don't complain about	files that are in the file hierarchy, but not
	   in the specification.

     -i	   Indent the output 4 spaces each time	a directory level is descended
	   when	create a specification with the	-c option.  This does not af-
	   fect	either the /set	statements or the comment before each direc-
	   tory.  It does however affect the comment before the	close of each

     -n	   Do not emit pathname	comments when creating a specification.	 Nor-
	   mally a comment is emitted before each directory and	before the
	   close of that directory when	using the -c option.

     -q	   Quiet mode.	Do not complain	when a "missing" directory cannot be
	   created because it already exists.  This occurs when	the directory
	   is a	symbolic link.

     -r	   Remove any files in the file	hierarchy that are not described in
	   the specification.

     -u	   Same	as -U except a status of 2 is returned if the file hierarchy
	   did not match the specification.

     -w	   Make	some errorconditions non-fatal warnings.

     -x	   Don't descend below mount points in the file	hierarchy.

     -f	file
	   Read	the specification from file, instead of	from the standard in-

	   If this option is specified twice, the two specifications are com-
	   pared to each other rather than to the file hierarchy.  The speci-
	   fications be	sorted like output generated using -c.	The output
	   format in this case is somewhat remniscent of comm(1), having "in
	   first spec only", "in second	spec only", and	"different" columns,
	   prefixed by zero, one and two TAB characters	respectively.  Each
	   entry in the	"different" column occupies two	lines, one from	each

     -K	keywords
	   Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords to the
	   current set of keywords.

     -k	keywords
	   Use the ``type'' keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma
	   separated) keywords instead of the current set of keywords.

     -p	path
	   Use the file	hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current di-

     -s	seed
	   Display a single checksum to	the standard error output that repre-
	   sents all of	the files for which the	keyword	cksum was specified.
	   The checksum	is seeded with the specified value.

     -X	exclude-list
	   The specified file contains fnmatch(3) patterns matching files to
	   be excluded from the	specification, one to a	line.  If the pattern
	   contains a `/' character, it	will be	matched	against	entire path-
	   names (relative to the starting directory); otherwise, it will be
	   matched against basenames only.  No comments	are allowed in the
	   exclude-list	file.

     Specifications are	mostly composed	of ``keywords'', i.e., strings that
     specify values relating to	files.	No keywords have default values, and
     if	a keyword has no value set, no checks based on it are performed.

     Currently supported keywords are as follows:

     cksum	 The checksum of the file using	the default algorithm speci-
		 fied by the cksum(1) utility.

     flags	 The file flags	as a symbolic name.  See chflags(1) for	infor-
		 mation	on these names.	 If no flags are to be set the string
		 "none"	may be used to override	the current default.

     ignore	 Ignore	any file hierarchy below this file.

     gid	 The file group	as a numeric value.

     gname	 The file group	as a symbolic name.

     md5digest	 The MD5 message digest	of the file.

     sha1digest	 The FIPS 160-1	("SHA-1") message digest of the	file.

		 The RIPEMD160 message digest of the file.

     mode	 The current file's permissions	as a numeric (octal) or	sym-
		 bolic value.

     nlink	 The number of hard links the file is expected to have.

     nochange	 Make sure this	file or	directory exists but otherwise ignore
		 all attributes.

     uid	 The file owner	as a numeric value.

     uname	 The file owner	as a symbolic name.

     size	 The size, in bytes, of	the file.

     link	 The file the symbolic link is expected	to reference.

     time	 The last modification time of the file.

     type	 The type of the file; may be set to any one of	the following:

		 block	     block special device
		 char	     character special device
		 dir	     directory
		 fifo	     fifo
		 file	     regular file
		 link	     symbolic link
		 socket	     socket

     The default set of	keywords are flags, gid, mode, nlink, size, link,
     time, and uid.

     There are four types of lines in a	specification.

     The first type of line sets a global value	for a keyword, and consists of
     the string	``/set'' followed by whitespace, followed by sets of key-
     word/value	pairs, separated by whitespace.	 Keyword/value pairs consist
     of	a keyword, followed by an equals sign (``=''), followed	by a value,
     without whitespace	characters.  Once a keyword has	been set, its value
     remains unchanged until either reset or unset.

     The second	type of	line unsets keywords and consists of the string	``/un-
     set'', followed by	whitespace, followed by	one or more keywords, sepa-
     rated by whitespace.

     The third type of line is a file specification and	consists of a file
     name, followed by whitespace, followed by zero or more whitespace sepa-
     rated keyword/value pairs.	 The file name may be preceded by whitespace
     characters.  The file name	may contain any	of the standard	file name
     matching characters (``['', ``]'',	``?'' or ``*''), in which case files
     in	the hierarchy will be associated with the first	pattern	that they

     Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of	a keyword, followed by an
     equals sign (``=''), followed by the keyword's value, without whitespace
     characters.  These	values override, without changing, the global value of
     the corresponding keyword.

     All paths are relative.  Specifying a directory will cause	subsequent
     files to be searched for in that directory	hierarchy.  Which brings us to
     the last type of line in a	specification: a line containing only the
     string ".." causes	the current directory path to ascend one level.

     Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character	is a hash mark
     (``#'') are ignored.

     The mtree utility exits with a status of 0	on success, 1 if any error oc-
     curred, and 2 if the file hierarchy did not match the specification.  A
     status of 2 is converted to a status of 0 if the -U option	is used.

     To	detect system binaries that have been ``trojan horsed'', it is recom-
     mended that mtree -K sha1digest be	run on the file	systems, and a copy of
     the results stored	on a different machine,	or, at least, in encrypted
     form.  The	output file itself should be digested using the	md5(1) util-
     ity.  Then, periodically, mtree and md5(1)	should be run against the on-
     line specifications.  While it is possible	for the	bad guys to change the
     on-line specifications to conform to their	modified binaries, it is be-
     lieved to be impractical for them to create a modified specification
     which has the same	MD5 digest as the original.

     The -d and	-u options can be used in combination to create	directory hi-
     erarchies for distributions and other such	things;	the files in
     /etc/mtree	were used to create almost all directories in this FreeBSD

     /etc/mtree	 system	specification directory

     The mtree utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an	error occurs.

     chflags(1), chgrp(1), chmod(1), cksum(1), md5(1), stat(2),	fts(3),
     md5(3), chown(8)

     The mtree utility appeared	in 4.3BSD-Reno.	 The MD5 digest	capability was
     added in FreeBSD 2.1, in response to the widespread use of	programs which
     can spoof cksum(1).  The SHA-1 and	RIPEMD160 digests were added in
     FreeBSD 4.0, as new attacks have demonstrated weaknesses in MD5.  Support
     for file flags was	added in FreeBSD 4.0, and mostly comes from NetBSD.

BSD			       January 11, 2004				   BSD


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