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NAMED(8)			     BIND9			      NAMED(8)

       named - Internet	domain name server

       named [-4] [-6] [-c config-file]	[-d debug-level] [-E engine-name] [-f]
	     [-g] [-M option] [-m flag]	[-n #cpus] [-p port] [-s]
	     [-S #max-socks] [-t directory] [-U	#listeners] [-u	user] [-v]
	     [-V] [-x cache-file]

       named is	a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part	of the BIND 9
       distribution from ISC. For more information on the DNS, see RFCs	1033,
       1034, and 1035.

       When invoked without arguments, named will read the default
       configuration file /etc/named.conf, read	any initial data, and listen
       for queries.

	   Use IPv4 only even if the host machine is capable of	IPv6.  -4 and
	   -6 are mutually exclusive.

	   Use IPv6 only even if the host machine is capable of	IPv4.  -4 and
	   -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -c config-file
	   Use config-file as the configuration	file instead of	the default,
	   /etc/named.conf. To ensure that reloading the configuration file
	   continues to	work after the server has changed its working
	   directory due to to a possible directory option in the
	   configuration file, config-file should be an	absolute pathname.

       -d debug-level
	   Set the daemon's debug level	to debug-level.	Debugging traces from
	   named become	more verbose as	the debug level	increases.

       -E engine-name
	   Use a crypto	hardware (OpenSSL engine) for the crypto operations it
	   supports, for instance re-signing with private keys from a secure
	   key store. When compiled with PKCS#11 support engine-name defaults
	   to pkcs11, the empty	name resets it to no engine.

	   Run the server in the foreground (i.e. do not daemonize).

	   Run the server in the foreground and	force all logging to stderr.

       -M option
	   Sets	the default memory context options. Currently the only
	   supported option is external, which causes the internal memory
	   manager to be bypassed in favor of system-provided memory
	   allocation functions.

       -m flag
	   Turn	on memory usage	debugging flags. Possible flags	are usage,
	   trace, record, size,	and mctx. These	correspond to the
	   ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in	<isc/mem.h>.

       -n #cpus
	   Create #cpus	worker threads to take advantage of multiple CPUs. If
	   not specified, named	will try to determine the number of CPUs
	   present and create one thread per CPU. If it	is unable to determine
	   the number of CPUs, a single	worker thread will be created.

       -p port
	   Listen for queries on port port. If not specified, the default is
	   port	53.

	   Write memory	usage statistics to stdout on exit.

	       This option is mainly of	interest to BIND 9 developers and may
	       be removed or changed in	a future release.

       -S #max-socks
	   Allow named to use up to #max-socks sockets.

	       This option should be unnecessary for the vast majority of
	       users. The use of this option could even	be harmful because the
	       specified value may exceed the limitation of the	underlying
	       system API. It is therefore set only when the default
	       configuration causes exhaustion of file descriptors and the
	       operational environment is known	to support the specified
	       number of sockets. Note also that the actual maximum number is
	       normally	a little fewer than the	specified value	because	named
	       reserves	some file descriptors for its internal use.

       -t directory
	   Chroot to directory after processing	the command line arguments,
	   but before reading the configuration	file.

	       This option should be used in conjunction with the -u option,
	       as chrooting a process running as root doesn't enhance security
	       on most systems;	the way	chroot(2) is defined allows a process
	       with root privileges to escape a	chroot jail.

       -U #listeners
	   Use #listeners worker threads to listen for incoming	UDP packets on
	   each	address. If not	specified, named will calculate	a default
	   value based on the number of	detected CPUs: 1 for 1 CPU, and	the
	   number of detected CPUs minus one for machines with more than 1
	   CPU.	This cannot be increased to a value higher than	the number of
	   CPUs. If -n has been	set to a higher	value than the number of
	   detected CPUs, then -U may be increased as high as that value, but
	   no higher. On Windows, the number of	UDP listeners is hardwired to
	   1 and this option has no effect.

       -u user
	   Setuid to user after	completing privileged operations, such as
	   creating sockets that listen	on privileged ports.

	       On Linux, named uses the	kernel's capability mechanism to drop
	       all root	privileges except the ability to bind(2) to a
	       privileged port and set process resource	limits.	Unfortunately,
	       this means that the -u option only works	when named is run on
	       kernel 2.2.18 or	later, or kernel 2.3.99-pre3 or	later, since
	       previous	kernels	did not	allow privileges to be retained	after

	   Report the version number and exit.

	   Report the version number and build options,	and exit.

       -x cache-file
	   Load	data from cache-file into the cache of the default view.

	       This option must	not be used. It	is only	of interest to BIND 9
	       developers and may be removed or	changed	in a future release.

       In routine operation, signals should not	be used	to control the
       nameserver; rndc	should be used instead.

	   Force a reload of the server.

	   Shut	down the server.

       The result of sending any other signals to the server is	undefined.

       The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here.
       A complete description is provided in the BIND 9	Administrator
       Reference Manual.

       named inherits the umask	(file creation mode mask) from the parent
       process.	If files created by named, such	as journal files, need to have
       custom permissions, the umask should be set explicitly in the script
       used to start the named process.

	   The default configuration file.

	   The default process-id file.

       RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, named-checkconf(8), named-checkzone(8),
       rndc(8),	lwresd(8), named.conf(5), BIND 9 Administrator Reference

       Internet	Systems	Consortium, Inc.

       Copyright (C) 2004-2009,	2011, 2013-2016	Internet Systems Consortium,
       Inc. ("ISC")
       Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2003 Internet Software	Consortium.

ISC				  2014-02-20			      NAMED(8)


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