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named(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		      named(8)

     named -- Internet domain name server (DNS)

     named [-d debuglevel] [-p port#] [-(b|c) config_file] [-f -q -r -v]
	   [-u user_name] [-g group_name] [-t directory] [-w directory]

     Named is the Internet domain name server.	See RFC's 1033,	1034, and 1035
     for more information on the Internet name-domain system.  Without any ar-
     guments, named will read the default configuration	file
     /etc/namedb/named.conf, read any initial data, and	listen for queries.  A
     config_file argument given	at the end of the command line will override
     any config_file specified by using	the "-b" or "-c" flags.

     NOTE: Several of named's options, and much	more of	its behaviour, can be
     controlled	in the configuration file.  Please refer to the	configuration
     file guide	included with this BIND	distribution for further information.

     Options are:

     -d	debuglevel
		 Print debugging information.  The debuglevel is a number de-
		 termines the level of messages	printed.  If negative,
		 debuglevel is set to "1".

		 NOTE: The new debugging framework is considerably more	so-
		 phisticated than it was in older versions of named.  The con-
		 figuration file's "logging" statement allows for multiple,
		 distinct levels of debugging for each of a large set of cate-
		 gories	of events (such	as queries, transfers in or out,
		 etc.).	 Please	refer to the configuration file	guide included
		 with this BIND	distribution for further information about
		 these extensive new capabilities.

     -p	port#	 Use the specified remote port number; this is the port	number
		 to which named	will send queries.  The	default	value is the
		 standard port number, i.e., the port number returned by
		 getservbyname(3) for service "domain".

		 NOTE: Previously, the syntax "-p port#[/localport#]" was sup-
		 ported; the first port	was that used when contacting remote
		 servers, and the second one was the service port bound	by the
		 local instance	of named.  The current usage is	equivalent to
		 the old usage without the localport# specified; this func-
		 tionality can be specified with the "listen-on" clause	of the
		 configuration file's "options"	statement.

     -(b|c) config_file
		 Use an	alternate config_file; this argument is	overridden by
		 any config_file which is specified at the end of the command
		 line.	The default value is /etc/namedb/named.conf.

     -f		 Run this process in the foreground; don't fork(2) and daemo-
		 nize.	(The default is	to daemonize.)

     -q		 Trace all incoming queries if named has been compiled with
		 QRYLOG	defined.

		 NOTE: This option is deprecated in favor of the "queries"
		 logging category of the configuration file's "logging"	state-
		 ment; for more	information, please refer to the configuration
		 file guide included with this distribution of BIND.

     -r		 Turns recursion off in	the server.  Answers can come only
		 from local (primary or	secondary) zones.  This	can be used on
		 root servers.	The default is to use recursion.

		 NOTE: This option can be overridden by	and is deprecated in
		 favor of the "recursion" clause of the	configuration file's
		 "options" statement.

     -v		 Report	the version and	exit.

     -u	user_name
		 Specifies the user the	server should run as after it initial-
		 izes.	The value specified may	be either a username or	a nu-
		 meric user id.	 If the	"-g" flag is not specified, then the
		 group id used will be the primary group of the	user specified
		 (initgroups() is called, so all of the	user's groups will be
		 available to the server).

     -g	group_name
		 Specifies the group the server	should run as after it ini-
		 tializes.  The	value specified	may be either a	groupname or a
		 numeric group id.

     -t	directory
		 Specifies the directory the server should chroot() into as
		 soon as it is finished	processing command line	arguments.

     -w	directory
		 Sets the working directory of the server.  The	"directory"
		 clause	of the configuration file's "options" statement	over-
		 rides any value specified on the command line.	 The default
		 working directory is the current directory (".").

     Any additional argument is	taken as the name of the configuration file,
     for compatibility with older implementations; as noted above, this	argu-
     ment overrides any	config_file specified by the use of the	"-b" or	"-c"
     flags.  If	no further argument is given, then the default configuration
     file is used (/etc/namedb/named.conf).

   Master File Format
     The master	file consists of control information and a list	of resource
     records for objects in the	zone of	the forms:

	   $INCLUDE <filename> <opt_domain>
	   $ORIGIN <domain>
	   $TTL	<ttl>
	   <domain> <opt_ttl> <opt_class> <type> <resource_record_data>


     domain	   is "." for root, "@"	for the	current	origin,	or a standard
		   domain name.	If domain is a standard	domain name that does
		   not end with	".", the current origin	is appended to the do-
		   main. Domain	names ending with "." are unmodified.

     opt_domain	   This	field is used to define	an origin for the data in an
		   included file.  It is equivalent to placing an $ORIGIN
		   statement before the	first line of the included file.  The
		   field is optional.  Neither the opt_domain field nor
		   $ORIGIN statements in the included file modify the current
		   origin for this file.

     ttl	   A integer number that sets the default time-to-live for fu-
		   ture	records	without	an explicit ttl.

     opt_ttl	   An optional integer number for the time-to-live field.  If
		   not set the ttl is taken from the last $TTL statement.  If
		   no $TTL statement has occurred then the SOA minimum value
		   is used and a warning is generated.

     opt_class	   The object address type; currently only one type is sup-
		   ported, IN, for objects connected to	the DARPA Internet.

     type	   This	field contains one of the following tokens; the	data
		   expected in the resource_record_data	field is in parenthe-

			 A	    a host address (dotted-quad	IP address)

			 NS	    an authoritative name server (domain)

			 MX	    a mail exchanger (domain), preceded	by a
				    preference value (0..32767), with lower
				    numeric values representing	higher logical

			 CNAME	    the	canonical name for an alias (domain)

			 SOA	    marks the start of a zone of authority
				    (domain of originating host, domain	ad-
				    dress of maintainer, a serial number and
				    the	following parameters in	seconds: re-
				    fresh, retry, expire and minimum TTL (see
				    RFC	883 and	RFC 2308)).

			 NULL	    a null resource record (no format or data)

			 RP	    a Responsible Person for some domain name
				    (mailbox, TXT-referral)

			 PTR	    a domain name pointer (domain)

			 HINFO	    host information (cpu_type OS_type)

     Resource records normally end at the end of a line, but may be continued
     across lines between opening and closing parentheses.  Comments are in-
     troduced by semicolons and	continue to the	end of the line.

     NOTE: There are other resource record types not shown here.  You should
     consult the BIND Operations Guide ("BOG") for the complete	list.  Some
     resource record types may have been standardized in newer RFC's but not
     yet implemented in	this version of	BIND.

   SOA Record Format
     Each master zone file should begin	with an	SOA record for the zone.  An
     example SOA record	is as follows:

     @	     IN	     SOA     ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. rwh.ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. (
				     1989020501	     ; serial
				     10800   ; refresh
				     3600    ; retry
				     3600000 ; expire
				     86400 ) ; minimum

     The SOA specifies a serial	number,	which should be	incremented each time
     the master	file is	changed.  Note that the	serial number can be given as
     a dotted number, but this is a very unwise	thing to do since the transla-
     tion to normal integers is	via concatenation rather than multiplication
     and addition.  You	can spell out the year,	month, day of month, and 0..99
     version number and	still fit inside the unsigned 32-bit size of this
     field.  (It's true	that we	will have to rethink this strategy in the year
     4294, but we're not worried about it.)

     Secondary servers check the serial	number at intervals specified by the
     refresh time in seconds; if the serial number changes, a zone transfer
     will be done to load the new data.	 If a master server cannot be con-
     tacted when a refresh is due, the retry time specifies the	interval at
     which refreshes should be attempted.  If a	master server cannot be	con-
     tacted within the interval	given by the expire time, all data from	the
     zone is discarded by secondary servers.  The minimum value	is the cache
     time-to-live for negative answers (RFC 2308).

     The boot file directives "domain" and "suffixes" have been	obsoleted by a
     more useful, resolver-based implementation	of suffixing for partially-
     qualified domain names.  The prior	mechanisms could fail under a number
     of	situations, especially when then local nameserver did not have com-
     plete information.

     The following signals have	the specified effect when sent to the server
     process using the kill(1) command:

     SIGHUP    Causes server to	read named.conf	and reload the database.  If
	       the server is built with	the FORCED_RELOAD compile-time option,
	       then SIGHUP will	also cause the server to check the serial num-
	       ber on all secondary zones; normally, the serial	numbers	are
	       only checked at the SOA-specified intervals.

     SIGINT    Dumps the current data base and cache to
	       "/var/tmp/named_dump.db"	or the value of	_PATH_DUMPFILE.

     SIGILL    Dumps statistics	data into named.stats if the server is com-
	       piled with -DSTATS.  Statistics data is appended	to the file.

     SIGSYS    Dumps the profiling data	in /var/tmp if the server is compiled
	       with profiling (server forks, chdirs and	exits).

     SIGTERM   Saves any modified dynamic zones	to the file system, and	shuts
	       down the	server.

     SIGUSR1   Turns on	debugging; each	SIGUSR1	increments debug level.
	       (SIGEMT on older	systems	without	SIGUSR1.)

     SIGUSR2   Turns off debugging completely.	(SIGFPE	on older systems
	       without SIGUSR2.)

     SIGWINCH  Toggles logging of all incoming queries via syslog(3) (requires
	       server to have been built with the QRYLOG option).

     /etc/namedb/named.conf			 default name server configu-
						 ration	file
     /var/run/	(_PATH_PIDFILE)		 the process id
     /var/tmp/named_dump.db (_PATH_DUMPFILE)	 dump of the name server data-
     /var/tmp/	(file: _PATH_DEBUG)	 debug output
     /var/tmp/named.stats (file: _PATH_STATS)	 nameserver statistics data

     named.conf(5), gethostbyname(3), hostname(7), kill(1), resolver(3),
     resolver(5), signal(3), RFC 882, RFC 883, RFC 973,	RFC 974, RFC 1033, RFC
     1034, RFC 1035, RFC 1123, RFC 2308	"Name Server Operations	Guide for

4th Berkeley Distribution      February	1, 1996	     4th Berkeley Distribution


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