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namespace(n)		     Tcl Built-In Commands		  namespace(n)


       namespace - create and manipulate contexts for commands and variables

       namespace ?subcommand? ?arg ...?

       The  namespace  command	lets  you create, access, and destroy separate
       contexts	for commands and variables.  See the section WHAT IS  A	 NAME-
       SPACE?  below  for a brief overview of namespaces.  The legal values of
       subcommand are listed below.  Note that you can abbreviate the  subcom-

       namespace children ?namespace? ?pattern?
	      Returns  a list of all child namespaces that belong to the name-
	      space namespace.	If namespace is	not specified, then the	 chil-
	      dren  are	 returned for the current namespace.  This command re-
	      turns fully-qualified names, which start	with  a	 double	 colon
	      (::).   If  the optional pattern is given, then this command re-
	      turns only the names that	match the glob-style pattern.  The ac-
	      tual  pattern  used  is  determined  as  follows:	a pattern that
	      starts with double colon (::) is used  directly,	otherwise  the
	      namespace	 namespace (or the fully-qualified name	of the current
	      namespace) is prepended onto the pattern.

       namespace code script
	      Captures the current namespace context for  later	 execution  of
	      the  script script.  It returns a	new script in which script has
	      been wrapped in a	namespace inscope command.  The	new script has
	      two  important  properties.   First,  it can be evaluated	in any
	      namespace	and will cause script to be evaluated in  the  current
	      namespace	 (the  one  where  the	namespace code command was in-
	      voked).  Second, additional arguments can	be appended to the re-
	      sulting  script  and they	will be	passed to script as additional
	      arguments.  For example, suppose the command set	script	[name-
	      space code {foo bar}] is invoked in namespace ::a::b.  Then eval
	      $script [list x y] can be	executed in  any  namespace  (assuming
	      the  value  of script has	been passed in properly) and will have
	      the same effect as the command ::namespace eval ::a::b {foo  bar
	      x	 y}.   This  command is	needed because extensions like Tk nor-
	      mally execute callback  scripts  in  the	global	namespace.   A
	      scoped  command  captures	 a command together with its namespace
	      context in a way that allows it to be executed  properly	later.
	      See  the section SCOPED SCRIPTS for some examples	of how this is
	      used to create callback scripts.

       namespace current
	      Returns the fully-qualified name for the current namespace.  The
	      actual  name  of	the  global  namespace	is  "" (i.e., an empty
	      string), but this	command	returns	:: for the global namespace as
	      a	convenience to programmers.

       namespace delete	?namespace namespace ...?
	      Each  namespace  namespace  is deleted and all variables,	proce-
	      dures, and child	namespaces  contained  in  the	namespace  are
	      deleted.	If a procedure is currently executing inside the name-
	      space, the namespace will	be kept	alive until the	procedure  re-
	      turns;  however,	the  namespace is marked to prevent other code
	      from looking it up by name.  If a	namespace does not exist, this
	      command returns an error.	 If no namespace names are given, this
	      command does nothing.

       namespace ensemble subcommand ?arg ...?
	      Creates and manipulates a	command	that is	formed out of  an  en-
	      semble of	subcommands.  See the section ENSEMBLES	below for fur-
	      ther details.

       namespace eval namespace	arg ?arg ...?
	      Activates	a namespace called namespace and evaluates  some  code
	      in that context.	If the namespace does not already exist, it is
	      created.	If more	than one arg argument is specified, the	 argu-
	      ments are	concatenated together with a space between each	one in
	      the same fashion as the eval command, and	the result  is	evalu-

	      If  namespace  has  leading namespace qualifiers and any leading
	      namespaces do not	exist, they are	automatically created.

       namespace exists	namespace
	      Returns 1	if namespace is	a valid	namespace in the current  con-
	      text, returns 0 otherwise.

       namespace export	?-clear? ?pattern pattern ...?
	      Specifies	which commands are exported from a namespace.  The ex-
	      ported commands are those	that can be later  imported  into  an-
	      other namespace using a namespace	import command.	 Both commands
	      defined in a namespace and commands the namespace	has previously
	      imported	can  be	 exported by a namespace.  The commands	do not
	      have to be defined at the	time the namespace export  command  is
	      executed.	  Each	pattern	may contain glob-style special charac-
	      ters, but	it may not include any namespace qualifiers.  That is,
	      the pattern can only specify commands in the current (exporting)
	      namespace.  Each pattern is appended onto	the  namespace's  list
	      of  export  patterns.   If  the  -clear flag is given, the name-
	      space's export pattern list is reset to empty before any pattern
	      arguments	are appended.  If no patterns are given	and the	-clear
	      flag is not given, this command returns the namespace's  current
	      export list.

       namespace forget	?pattern pattern ...?
	      Removes  previously  imported  commands  from a namespace.  Each
	      pattern is a simple or qualified	name  such  as	x,  foo::x  or
	      a::b::p*.	  Qualified names contain double colons	(::) and qual-
	      ify a name with the name of one or more namespaces.  Each	"qual-
	      ified  pattern" is qualified with	the name of an exporting name-
	      space and	may have glob-style special characters in the  command
	      name  at the end of the qualified	name.  Glob characters may not
	      appear in	a namespace name.  For each "simple pattern" this com-
	      mand deletes the matching	commands of the	current	namespace that
	      were imported from a different namespace.	 For  "qualified  pat-
	      terns", this command first finds the matching exported commands.
	      It then checks whether any of those commands were	previously im-
	      ported  by  the  current namespace.  If so, this command deletes
	      the corresponding	imported commands.  In	effect,	 this  un-does
	      the action of a namespace	import command.

       namespace import	?-force? ?pattern pattern ...?
	      Imports  commands	 into  a  namespace, or	queries	the set	of im-
	      ported commands in a namespace.  When no arguments are  present,
	      namespace	 import	 returns  the  list of commands	in the current
	      namespace	that have been imported	from  other  namespaces.   The
	      commands in the returned list are	in the format of simple	names,
	      with no namespace	qualifiers at all.  This  format  is  suitable
	      for composition with namespace forget (see EXAMPLES below).

	      When  pattern arguments are present, each	pattern	is a qualified
	      name like	foo::x or a::p*.  That is, it includes the name	of  an
	      exporting	 namespace  and	may have glob-style special characters
	      in the command name at the end  of  the  qualified  name.	  Glob
	      characters  may  not appear in a namespace name.	When the name-
	      space name is not	fully qualified	(i.e., does not	start  with  a
	      namespace	 separator)  it	is resolved as a namespace name	in the
	      way described in the NAME	RESOLUTION section; it is an error  if
	      no namespace with	that name can be found.

	      All  the commands	that match a pattern string and	which are cur-
	      rently exported from their namespace are added  to  the  current
	      namespace.   This	 is done by creating a new command in the cur-
	      rent namespace that points to the	exported command in its	origi-
	      nal  namespace;  when the	new imported command is	called,	it in-
	      vokes the	exported command.  This	command	 normally  returns  an
	      error if an imported command conflicts with an existing command.
	      However, if the -force option is given, imported	commands  will
	      silently	replace	 existing commands.  The namespace import com-
	      mand has snapshot	semantics: that	is,  only  requested  commands
	      that  are	 currently  defined in the exporting namespace are im-
	      ported.  In other	words, you can import only the	commands  that
	      are in a namespace at the	time when the namespace	import command
	      is executed.  If another command is defined and exported in this
	      namespace	later on, it will not be imported.

       namespace inscope namespace script ?arg ...?
	      Executes	a  script  in  the context of the specified namespace.
	      This command is not expected to be used directly by programmers;
	      calls to it are generated	implicitly when	applications use name-
	      space code commands to create callback scripts that the applica-
	      tions  then  register with, e.g.,	Tk widgets.  The namespace in-
	      scope command is much like the  namespace	 eval  command	except
	      that the namespace must already exist, and namespace inscope ap-
	      pends additional args as proper list elements.

		     namespace inscope ::foo $script $x	$y $z

	      is equivalent to

		     namespace eval ::foo [concat $script [list	$x $y $z]]

	      thus additional arguments	will not undergo  a  second  round  of
	      substitution, as is the case with	namespace eval.

       namespace origin	command
	      Returns  the  fully-qualified  name  of  the original command to
	      which the	imported command command refers.  When	a  command  is
	      imported	into  a	 namespace,  a	new command is created in that
	      namespace	that points to the actual  command  in	the  exporting
	      namespace.   If  a  command is imported into a sequence of name-
	      spaces a,	b,...,n	where each successive namespace	 just  imports
	      the  command  from  the previous namespace, this command returns
	      the fully-qualified name of the original command	in  the	 first
	      namespace, a.  If	command	does not refer to an imported command,
	      the command's own	fully-qualified	name is	returned.

       namespace parent	?namespace?
	      Returns the fully-qualified name of  the	parent	namespace  for
	      namespace	 namespace.  If	namespace is not specified, the	fully-
	      qualified	name of	the current namespace's	parent is returned.

       namespace path ?namespaceList?
	      Returns the command resolution path of the current namespace. If
	      namespaceList  is	 specified  as a list of named namespaces, the
	      current namespace's command resolution  path  is	set  to	 those
	      namespaces and returns the empty list. The default command reso-
	      lution path is always empty. See the section NAME	RESOLUTION be-
	      low for an explanation of	the rules regarding name resolution.

       namespace qualifiers string
	      Returns any leading namespace qualifiers for string.  Qualifiers
	      are namespace names separated by double colons  (::).   For  the
	      string  ::foo::bar::x,  this command returns ::foo::bar, and for
	      :: it returns an empty string.  This command is  the  complement
	      of  the  namespace  tail	command.   Note	that it	does not check
	      whether the namespace names are, in fact,	the names of currently
	      defined namespaces.

       namespace tail string
	      Returns the simple name at the end of a qualified	string.	 Qual-
	      ifiers are namespace names separated by double colons (::).  For
	      the  string ::foo::bar::x, this command returns x, and for :: it
	      returns an empty string.	This command is	the complement of  the
	      namespace	 qualifiers  command.	It  does not check whether the
	      namespace	names are, in fact, the	 names	of  currently  defined

       namespace upvar namespace ?otherVar myVar ...?
	      This  command  arranges  for zero	or more	local variables	in the
	      current procedure	to refer to variables in namespace. The	 name-
	      space  name is resolved as described in section NAME RESOLUTION.
	      The command namespace upvar $ns a	b has the  same	 behaviour  as
	      upvar  0	${ns}::a  b, with the sole exception of	the resolution
	      rules used for qualified namespace or variable names.  namespace
	      upvar returns an empty string.

       namespace unknown ?script?
	      Sets  or	returns	 the  unknown  command handler for the current
	      namespace.  The handler is invoked when a	 command  called  from
	      within  the  namespace cannot be found in	the current namespace,
	      the namespace's path nor in the global  namespace.   The	script
	      argument,	 if given, should be a well formed list	representing a
	      command name and optional	arguments. When	 the  handler  is  in-
	      voked,  the  full	invocation line	will be	appended to the	script
	      and the result evaluated in the context of  the  namespace.  The
	      default  handler for all namespaces is ::unknown.	If no argument
	      is given,	it returns the handler for the current namespace.

       namespace which ?-command? ?-variable? name
	      Looks up name as either a	command	or variable  and  returns  its
	      fully-qualified  name.   For  example, if	name does not exist in
	      the current namespace but	does exist in  the  global  namespace,
	      this  command returns a fully-qualified name in the global name-
	      space.  If the command or	variable does not exist, this  command
	      returns  an  empty string.  If the variable has been created but
	      not defined, such	as with	the  variable  command	or  through  a
	      trace on the variable, this command will return the fully-quali-
	      fied name	of the variable.  If no	flag is	given, name is treated
	      as a command name.  See the section NAME RESOLUTION below	for an
	      explanation of the rules regarding name resolution.

       A namespace is a	collection of commands and variables.  It encapsulates
       the  commands and variables to ensure that they will not	interfere with
       the commands and	variables of other namespaces.	Tcl has	always had one
       such collection,	which we refer to as the global	namespace.  The	global
       namespace holds all global variables and	commands.  The namespace  eval
       command lets you	create new namespaces.	For example,

	      namespace	eval Counter {
		  namespace export bump
		  variable num 0

		  proc bump {} {
		      variable num
		      incr num

       creates	a  new namespace containing the	variable num and the procedure
       bump.  The commands and variables in this namespace are	separate  from
       other  commands	and variables in the same program.  If there is	a com-
       mand named bump in the global namespace,	for example, it	will  be  dif-
       ferent from the command bump in the Counter namespace.

       Namespace  variables resemble global variables in Tcl.  They exist out-
       side of the procedures in a namespace but can be	accessed in  a	proce-
       dure via	the variable command, as shown in the example above.

       Namespaces  are dynamic.	 You can add and delete	commands and variables
       at any time, so you can build up	the contents of	a namespace over  time
       using  a	series of namespace eval commands.  For	example, the following
       series of commands has the same	effect	as  the	 namespace  definition
       shown above:

	      namespace	eval Counter {
		  variable num 0
		  proc bump {} {
		      variable num
		      return [incr num]
	      namespace	eval Counter {
		  proc test {args} {
		      return $args
	      namespace	eval Counter {
		   rename test ""

       Note  that  the	test  procedure	is added to the	Counter	namespace, and
       later removed via the rename command.

       Namespaces can have other namespaces within them, so they nest  hierar-
       chically.   A  nested namespace is encapsulated inside its parent name-
       space and can not interfere with	other namespaces.

       Each namespace has a textual name such as  history  or  ::safe::interp.
       Since  namespaces  may  nest, qualified names are used to refer to com-
       mands, variables, and child  namespaces	contained  inside  namespaces.
       Qualified  names	 are  similar  to the hierarchical path	names for Unix
       files or	Tk widgets, except that	:: is used as the separator instead of
       /  or  ..   The	topmost	 or global namespace has the name "" (i.e., an
       empty string), although :: is a	synonym.   As  an  example,  the  name
       ::safe::interp::create  refers  to  the command create in the namespace
       interp that is a	child of namespace ::safe, which in turn is a child of
       the global namespace, ::.

       If  you	want  to access	commands and variables from another namespace,
       you must	use some extra syntax.	Names must be qualified	by  the	 name-
       space  that  contains them.  From the global namespace, we might	access
       the Counter procedures like this:

	      Counter::bump 5

       We could	access the current count like this:

	      puts "count = $Counter::num"

       When one	namespace contains another, you	may need more than one	quali-
       fier  to	 reach its elements.  If we had	a namespace Foo	that contained
       the namespace Counter, you could	invoke its  bump  procedure  from  the
       global namespace	like this:

	      Foo::Counter::bump 3

       You  can	 also use qualified names when you create and rename commands.
       For example, you	could add a procedure to the Foo namespace like	this:

	      proc Foo::Test {args} {return $args}

       And you could move the same procedure to	another	namespace like this:

	      rename Foo::Test Bar::Test

       There are a few remaining points	about qualified	names that  we	should
       cover.  Namespaces have nonempty	names except for the global namespace.
       :: is disallowed	in simple command, variable, and namespace  names  ex-
       cept as a namespace separator.  Extra colons in any separator part of a
       qualified name are ignored; i.e.	two or more colons are	treated	 as  a
       namespace  separator.  A	trailing :: in a qualified variable or command
       name refers to the variable or command named {}.	 However,  a  trailing
       :: in a qualified namespace name	is ignored.

       In  general, all	Tcl commands that take variable	and command names sup-
       port qualified names.  This means you can give qualified	names to  such
       commands	 as  set,  proc,  rename,  and interp alias.  If you provide a
       fully-qualified name that starts	with a ::, there is no question	 about
       what  command,  variable,  or namespace you mean.  However, if the name
       does not	start with a ::	(i.e., is relative), Tcl follows  basic	 rules
       for looking it up:

       o      Variable	names are always resolved by looking first in the cur-
	      rent namespace, and then in the global namespace.

       o      Command names are	always resolved	 by  looking  in  the  current
	      namespace	 first.	 If  not found there, they are searched	for in
	      every namespace on the current namespace's command  path	(which
	      is  empty	 by  default).	If  not	found there, command names are
	      looked up	in the global namespace	(or, failing  that,  are  pro-
	      cessed by	the appropriate	namespace unknown handler.)

       o      Namespace	 names are always resolved by looking in only the cur-
	      rent namespace.

       In the following	example,

	      set traceLevel 0
	      namespace	eval Debug {
		  printTrace $traceLevel

       Tcl looks for traceLevel	in the namespace Debug and then	in the	global
       namespace.   It	looks up the command printTrace	in the same way.  If a
       variable	or command name	is not found in	either context,	 the  name  is
       undefined.  To make this	point absolutely clear,	consider the following

	      set traceLevel 0
	      namespace	eval Foo {
		  variable traceLevel 3

		  namespace eval Debug {
		      printTrace $traceLevel

       Here Tcl	looks for traceLevel first in the namespace Foo::Debug.	 Since
       it  is  not found there,	Tcl then looks for it in the global namespace.
       The variable Foo::traceLevel is completely ignored during the name res-
       olution process.

       You  can	use the	namespace which	command	to clear up any	question about
       name resolution.	 For example, the command:

	      namespace	eval Foo::Debug	{namespace which -variable traceLevel}

       returns ::traceLevel.  On the other hand, the command,

	      namespace	eval Foo {namespace which -variable traceLevel}

       returns ::Foo::traceLevel.

       As mentioned above, namespace names are looked up differently than  the
       names  of  variables and	commands.  Namespace names are always resolved
       in the current namespace.  This means, for example,  that  a  namespace
       eval command that creates a new namespace always	creates	a child	of the
       current namespace unless	the new	namespace name begins with ::.

       Tcl has no access control to limit what variables, commands,  or	 name-
       spaces  you  can	 reference.   If you provide a qualified name that re-
       solves to an element by the name	resolution rule	above, you can	access
       the element.

       You  can	access a namespace variable from a procedure in	the same name-
       space by	using the variable command.  Much  like	 the  global  command,
       this  creates a local link to the namespace variable.  If necessary, it
       also creates the	variable in the	current	namespace and initializes  it.
       Note  that  the	global	command	only creates links to variables	in the
       global namespace.  It is	not necessary to use a variable	command	if you
       always  refer  to the namespace variable	using an appropriate qualified

       Namespaces are often used to represent libraries.   Some	 library  com-
       mands are used so frequently that it is a nuisance to type their	quali-
       fied names.  For	example, suppose that all of the commands in a package
       like  BLT  are contained	in a namespace called Blt.  Then you might ac-
       cess these commands like	this:

	      Blt::graph .g -background	red
	      Blt::table . .g 0,0

       If you use the graph and	table commands frequently, you may want	to ac-
       cess  them  without the Blt:: prefix.  You can do this by importing the
       commands	into the current namespace, like this:

	      namespace	import Blt::*

       This adds all exported commands from the	Blt namespace into the current
       namespace context, so you can write code	like this:

	      graph .g -background red
	      table . .g 0,0

       The  namespace  import  command	only imports commands from a namespace
       that that namespace exported with a namespace export command.

       Importing every command from a namespace	is generally a bad idea	 since
       you  do	not  know  what	you will get.  It is better to import just the
       specific	commands you need.  For	example, the command

	      namespace	import Blt::graph Blt::table

       imports only the	graph and table	commands into the current context.

       If you try to import a command that already exists, you will get	an er-
       ror.   This  prevents you from importing	the same command from two dif-
       ferent packages.	 But from time to time (perhaps	when  debugging),  you
       may  want  to get around	this restriction.  You may want	to reissue the
       namespace import	command	to pick	up new commands	that have appeared  in
       a namespace.  In	that case, you can use the -force option, and existing
       commands	will be	silently overwritten:

	      namespace	import -force Blt::graph Blt::table

       If for some reason, you want to stop using the imported	commands,  you
       can remove them with a namespace	forget command,	like this:

	      namespace	forget Blt::*

       This searches the current namespace for any commands imported from Blt.
       If it finds any,	it removes them.  Otherwise, it	does  nothing.	 After
       this, the Blt commands must be accessed with the	Blt:: prefix.

       When you	delete a command from the exporting namespace like this:

	      rename Blt::graph	""

       the  command  is	 automatically removed from all	namespaces that	import

       You can export commands from a namespace	like this:

	      namespace	eval Counter {
		  namespace export bump	reset
		  variable Num 0
		  variable Max 100

		  proc bump {{by 1}} {
		      variable Num
		      incr Num $by
		      return $Num
		  proc reset {}	{
		      variable Num
		      set Num 0
		  proc Check {}	{
		      variable Num
		      variable Max
		      if {$Num > $Max} {
			  error	"too high!"

       The procedures bump and reset are exported, so they are	included  when
       you import from the Counter namespace, like this:

	      namespace	import Counter::*

       However,	 the  Check procedure is not exported, so it is	ignored	by the
       import operation.

       The namespace import command only imports commands that	were  declared
       as exported by their namespace.	The namespace export command specifies
       what commands may be imported by	other namespaces.  If a	namespace  im-
       port  command  specifies	a command that is not exported,	the command is
       not imported.

       The namespace code command is the means by which	a script may be	 pack-
       aged  for  evaluation in	a namespace other than the one in which	it was
       created.	 It is used most often to create event handlers, Tk  bindings,
       and  traces  for	 evaluation  in	the global context.  For instance, the
       following code indicates	how to direct a	variable trace	callback  into
       the current namespace:

	      namespace	eval a {
		  variable b
		  proc theTraceCallback	{ n1 n2	op } {
		      upvar 1 $n1 var
		      puts "the	value of $n1 has changed to $var"
		  trace	add variable b write [namespace	code theTraceCallback]
	      set a::b c

       When executed, it prints	the message:

	      the value	of a::b	has changed to c

       The  namespace  ensemble	is used	to create and manipulate ensemble com-
       mands, which are	commands formed	by grouping subcommands	together.  The
       commands	 typically  come  from the current namespace when the ensemble
       was created, though this	is configurable.  Note that there may  be  any
       number  of  ensembles  associated  with	any namespace (including none,
       which is	true of	all namespaces by default), though all	the  ensembles
       associated with a namespace are deleted when that namespace is deleted.
       The link	between	an ensemble command and	its  namespace	is  maintained
       however the ensemble is renamed.

       Three subcommands of the	namespace ensemble command are defined:

       namespace ensemble create ?option value ...?
	      Creates  a new ensemble command linked to	the current namespace,
	      returning	the fully qualified name of the	command	created.   The
	      arguments	 to  namespace ensemble	create allow the configuration
	      of the command as	if with	the namespace ensemble configure  com-
	      mand.   If not overridden	with the -command option, this command
	      creates an ensemble with exactly the same	 name  as  the	linked
	      namespace.   See	the  section ENSEMBLE OPTIONS below for	a full
	      list of options supported	and their effects.

       namespace ensemble configure command ?option? ?value ...?
	      Retrieves	the value of an	option associated  with	 the  ensemble
	      command  named  command, or updates some options associated with
	      that ensemble command.  See the section ENSEMBLE	OPTIONS	 below
	      for a full list of options supported and their effects.

       namespace ensemble exists command
	      Returns  a boolean value that describes whether the command com-
	      mand exists and is an ensemble command.  This command only  ever
	      returns  an  error  if the number	of arguments to	the command is

       When called, an ensemble	command	takes its first	argument and looks  it
       up (according to	the rules described below) to discover a list of words
       to replace the ensemble command and  subcommand	with.	The  resulting
       list  of	 words is then evaluated (with no further substitutions) as if
       that was	what was typed originally (i.e.	by passing the list  of	 words
       through	Tcl_EvalObjv)  and  returning the result of the	command.  Note
       that it is legal	to make	the target of an ensemble rewrite  be  another
       (or  even the same) ensemble command.  The ensemble command will	not be
       visible through the use of the uplevel or info level commands.

       The following options, supported	by the namespace ensemble  create  and
       namespace  ensemble configure commands, control how an ensemble command

       -map   When non-empty, this option supplies a dictionary	that  provides
	      a	 mapping  from	subcommand  names to a list of prefix words to
	      substitute in place of the ensemble command and subcommand words
	      (in  a manner similar to an alias	created	with interp alias; the
	      words are	not reparsed after substitution); if the first word of
	      any  target is not fully qualified when set, it is assumed to be
	      relative to the current namespace	and changed to be exactly that
	      (that is,	it is always fully qualified when read). When this op-
	      tion is empty, the mapping will be from the local	 name  of  the
	      subcommand to its	fully-qualified	name.  Note that when this op-
	      tion is non-empty	and the	-subcommands option is empty, the  en-
	      semble  subcommand  names	 will be exactly those words that have
	      mappings in the dictionary.

	      This option gives	a list of named	 arguments  (the  names	 being |
	      used during generation of	error messages)	that are passed	by the |
	      caller of	the ensemble between the name of the ensemble and  the |
	      subcommand argument. By default, it is the empty list.

	      This  option  (which is enabled by default) controls whether the
	      ensemble command recognizes unambiguous prefixes of its  subcom-
	      mands.   When  turned  off,  the ensemble	command	requires exact
	      matching of subcommand names.

	      When non-empty, this option lists	exactly	what  subcommands  are
	      in the ensemble.	The mapping for	each of	those commands will be
	      either whatever is defined in the	-map option, or	to the command
	      with  the	same name in the namespace linked to the ensemble.  If
	      this option is empty, the	subcommands of the namespace will  ei-
	      ther  be the keys	of the dictionary listed in the	-map option or
	      the exported commands of the linked namespace at the time	of the
	      invocation of the	ensemble command.

	      When non-empty, this option provides a partial command (to which
	      all the words that are arguments to the  ensemble	 command,  in-
	      cluding  the fully-qualified name	of the ensemble, are appended)
	      to handle	the case where an ensemble subcommand  is  not	recog-
	      nized  and  would	 otherwise generate an error.  When empty (the
	      default) an error	(in the	style of Tcl_GetIndexFromObj) is  gen-
	      erated  whenever	the ensemble is	unable to determine how	to im-
	      plement a	particular subcommand.	See UNKNOWN HANDLER  BEHAVIOUR
	      for more details.

       The following extra option is allowed by	namespace ensemble create:

	      This  write-only	option allows the name of the ensemble created
	      by namespace ensemble create to  be  anything  in	 any  existing
	      namespace.  The default value for	this option is the fully-qual-
	      ified name of the	namespace in which the namespace ensemble cre-
	      ate command is invoked.

       The following extra option is allowed by	namespace ensemble configure:

	      This  read-only  option allows the retrieval of the fully-quali-
	      fied name	of  the	 namespace  which  the	ensemble  was  created

       If  an  unknown	handler	 is specified for an ensemble, that handler is
       called when the ensemble	command	would otherwise	return an error	due to
       it  being unable	to decide which	subcommand to invoke. The exact	condi-
       tions under which that occurs are controlled by the -subcommands,  -map
       and -prefixes options as	described above.

       To execute the unknown handler, the ensemble mechanism takes the	speci-
       fied -unknown option and	appends	each argument of the attempted	ensem-
       ble  command  invocation	 (including  the  ensemble command itself, ex-
       pressed as a fully qualified name). It invokes the resulting command in
       the  scope  of the attempted call. If the execution of the unknown han-
       dler terminates normally, the ensemble engine reparses  the  subcommand
       (as described below) and	tries to dispatch it again, which is ideal for
       when the	ensemble's configuration has been updated by the unknown  sub-
       command	handler.  Any other kind of termination	of the unknown handler
       is treated as an	error.

       The result of the unknown handler is expected to	be a list  (it	is  an
       error if	it is not). If the list	is an empty list, the ensemble command
       attempts	to look	up the original	subcommand again and,  if  it  is  not
       found  this  time,  an  error will be generated just as if the -unknown
       handler was not there (i.e. for any particular invocation of an	ensem-
       ble,  its  unknown  handler will	be called at most once.) This makes it
       easy for	the unknown handler to update  the  ensemble  or  its  backing
       namespace  so as	to provide an implementation of	the desired subcommand
       and reparse.

       When the	result is a non-empty list, the	words of that list are used to
       replace	the  ensemble command and subcommand, just as if they had been
       looked up in the	-map. It is up to the unknown handler  to  supply  all
       namespace qualifiers if the implementing	subcommand is not in the name-
       space of	the caller of the ensemble command. Also note that when	ensem-
       ble commands are	chained	(e.g. if you make one of the commands that im-
       plement an ensemble subcommand into an ensemble,	in a manner similar to
       the text	widget's tag and mark subcommands) then	the rewrite happens in
       the context of the caller of the	outermost ensemble.  That  is  to  say
       that ensembles do not in	themselves place any namespace contexts	on the
       Tcl call	stack.

       Where an	empty -unknown handler is given	(the  default),	 the  ensemble
       command	will  generate	an error message based on the list of commands
       that the	ensemble has defined (formatted	similarly to the error message
       from  Tcl_GetIndexFromObj).  This is the	error that will	be thrown when
       the subcommand is still not recognized during reparsing.	It is also  an
       error for an -unknown handler to	delete its namespace.

       Create a	namespace containing a variable	and an exported	command:

	      namespace	eval foo {
		  variable bar 0
		  proc grill {}	{
		      variable bar
		      puts "called [incr bar] times"
		  namespace export grill

       Call the	command	defined	in the previous	example	in various ways.

	      #	Direct call

	      #	Use the	command	resolution path	to find	the name
	      namespace	eval boo {
		  namespace path ::foo

	      #	Import into current namespace, then call local alias
	      namespace	import foo::grill

	      #	Create two ensembles, one with the default name	and one	with a
	      #	specified name.	 Then call through the ensembles.
	      namespace	eval foo {
		  namespace ensemble create
		  namespace ensemble create -command ::foobar
	      foo grill
	      foobar grill

       Look up where the command imported in the previous example came from:

	      puts "grill came from [namespace origin grill]"

       Remove all imported commands from the current namespace:

	      namespace	forget {*}[namespace import]

       Create  an ensemble for simple working with numbers, using the -parame- |
       ters option to allow the	operator to be put between the first and  sec- |
       ond arguments.							       |

	      namespace	eval do	{					       |
		  namespace export *					       |
		  namespace ensemble create -parameters	x		       |
		  proc plus  {x	y} {expr { $x +	$y }}			       |
		  proc minus {x	y} {expr { $x -	$y }}			       |
	      }								       |

	      #	In use,	the ensemble works like	this:			       |
	      puts [do 1 plus [do 9 minus 7]]				       |

       interp(n), upvar(n), variable(n)

       command,	ensemble, exported, internal, variable

Tcl				      8.5			  namespace(n)


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