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ncftp(1)		    General Commands Manual		      ncftp(1)

       ncftp - Browser program for the File Transfer Protocol

       ncftp [host]

       ncftp []

       The purpose of ncftp is to provide a powerful and flexible interface to
       the Internet standard File Transfer Protocol.  It is  intended  to  re-
       place the stock ftp program that	comes with the system.

       Although	 the  program  appears	to be rather spartan, you'll find that
       ncftp has a wealth of valuable performance  and	usage  features.   The
       program was designed with an emphasis on	usability, and it does as much
       as it can for you automatically so you can do what  you	expect	to  do
       with  a	file transfer program, which is	transfer files between two in-
       terconnected systems.

       Some of the cooler features include progress meters,  filename  comple-
       tion,  command-line  editing,  background processing, auto-resume down-
       loads, bookmarking, cached directory listings, host redialing,  working
       with  firewalls	and proxies, downloading entire	directory trees, etc.,

       The  ncftp  distribution	 comes	with  the  useful   utility   programs
       ncftpget(1) and ncftpput(1) which were designed to do command-line FTP.
       In particular, they are very handy for shell scripts.  This version  of
       ncftp  no longer	does command-line FTP, since the main ncftp program is
       more of a browser-type program.

       The program allows you to specify a host	or directory URL on  the  com-
       mand line.  This	is a synonym for running ncftp and then	using the open
       command.	 A few command-line flags are allowed with this	mode:

       -u XX   Use username XX instead of anonymous.

       -p XX   Use password XX with the	username.

       -j XX   Use account XX in supplement to the username and	password (dep-

       -P XX   Use  port  number  XX  instead  of the default FTP service port

       Upon running the	program	you are	presented a command prompt  where  you
       type  commands to the program's shell.  Usually you will	want to	open a
       remote filesystem to transfer files to and from	your  local  machine's
       filesystem.   To	do that, you need to know the symbolic name of the re-
       mote system, or its Internet Protocol (IP)  address.   For  example,  a
       symbolic	name might be ``,'' and its IP address could be
       ``''  To open a connection to that	system,	 you  use  the
       program's open command:


       Both  of	these try to open the machine called typhoon at	the University
       of Nebraska.  Using the symbolic	name is	the preferred way, because  IP
       addresses  may  change without notice, while the	symbolic names usually
       stay the	same.

       When you	open a remote filesystem, you need to  have  permission.   The
       FTP Protocol's authentication system is very similar to that of logging
       in to your account.  You	have to	give an	account	name, and its password
       for  access to that account's files.  However, most remote systems that
       have anything you might be interested in	don't require an account  name
       for use.	 You can often get anonymous access to a remote	filesystem and
       exchange	files that have	been made publicly  accessible.	  The  program
       attempts	 to  get  anonymous  permission	to a remote system by default.
       What actually happens is	that the program tries to use ``anonymous'' as
       the  account  name,  and	when prompted for a password, uses your	E-mail
       address as a courtesy to	the remote system's maintainer.	 You can  have
       the program try to use a	specific account also.	That will be explained

       After the open command completes	successfully, you are connected	to the
       remote  system  and  logged  in.	 You should now	see the	command	prompt
       change to reflect the name of the current  remote  directory.   To  see
       what's  in  the	current	remote directory, you can use the program's ls
       and dir commands.  The former is	terse, preferring more remote files in
       less  screen space, and the latter is more verbose, giving detailed in-
       formation about each item in the	directory.

       You can use the program's cd command to move to	other  directories  on
       the  remote  system.  The cd command behaves very much like the command
       of the same name	in the Bourne and Korn shell.

       The purpose of the program is to	exchange data with other systems.  You
       can use the program's get command to copy a file	from the remote	system
       to your local system:

	    get	README.txt

       The program will	display	the progress of	the transfer on	the screen, so
       you  can	 tell  how much	needs to be done before	the transfer finishes.
       When the	transfer does finish, then you can enter more commands to  the
       program's command shell.

       You  can	 use the program's put command to copy a file from your	system
       to the remote system:

	    put	something.tar

       When you	are finished using the remote system, you can open another one
       or use the quit

       Before  quitting,  you  may want	to save	the current FTP	session's set-
       tings for later.	 You can use the bookmark command  to  save  an	 entry
       into  your $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks file.	When you use the bookmark com-
       mand, you also specify a	bookmark name, so the  next  time  instead  of
       opening	the  full  hostname  you  can use the name of the bookmark.  A
       bookmark	acts just like one for your web	browser, so it saves  the  re-
       mote  directory you were	in, the	account	name you used, etc., and other
       information it learned so that the next time you	use  the  bookmark  it
       should require as little	effort from you	as possible.

       help   The first	command	to know	is help.  If you just type


	      from  the	 command shell,	the program prints the names of	all of
	      the supported commands.  From there, you can get	specific  help
	      for a command by typing the command after, for example:

		   help	open

	      prints information about the open	command.

       ascii  This command sets	the transfer type to ASCII text.  This is use-
	      ful for text-only	transfers because the concept  of  text	 files
	      differs  between operating systems.  For example on UNIX,	a text
	      file denotes line	breaks with the	linefeed character,  while  on
	      MS-DOS a line break is denoted by	both a carriage	return charac-
	      ter and a	line feed character.  Therefore,  for  data  transfers
	      that  you	 consider the data as text you can use ascii to	ensure
	      that both	the remote system and local system  translate  accord-
	      ingly.   The default transfer type that ncftp uses is not	ASCII,
	      but straight binary.

       bgget and bgput
	      These commands correspond	to the get and put commands  explained
	      below,  except that they do the job in the background.  Normally
	      when you do a get	then the program  does	the  download  immedi-
	      ately,  and  does	 not  return control to	you until the download
	      completes.  The background transfers are nice  because  you  can
	      continue browsing	the remote filesystem and even open other sys-
	      tems.  In	fact, they are done by a daemon	process,  so  even  if
	      you  log	off  your  UNIX	 host  the daemon should still do your
	      transfers.  The daemon will also automatically continue to retry
	      the  transfers  until they finish.  To tell when background jobs
	      have finished, you have to  examine  the	$HOME/.ncftp/spool/log
	      file, or run the jobs command from within	NcFTP.

	      Both  the	bgget and bgput	commands allow you to schedule when to
	      do the transfers.	 They take a ``-@'' parameter, whose  argument
	      is  a  date  of the form YYYYMMDDhhmmss (four digit year,	month,
	      day, hour, minute, second).  For example,	to schedule a download
	      at 3 AM on November 6, you could try:

		   bgget -@ 19971106030000 /pub/idstuff/quake/

	      This  command  tells  ncftp  to immediately start	the background
	      transfers	you've requested, which	simply	runs  a	 copy  of  the
	      ncftpbatch program which is responsible for the background jobs.
	      Normally the program will	start the background job  as  soon  as
	      you  close  the  current site, open a new	site, or quit the pro-
	      gram.  The reason	for this is because since so many users	 still
	      use  slow	 dialup	 links	that starting the transfers would slow
	      things to	a crawl, making	it difficult to	browse the remote sys-
	      tem.   An	 added	bonus  of starting the background job when you
	      close the	site is	that ncftp can pass off	that  open  connection
	      to the ncftpbatch	program.  That is nice when the	site is	always
	      busy, so that the	background job doesn't have to	wait  and  get
	      re-logged	on to do its job.

       binary Sets  the	transfer type to raw binary, so	that no	translation is
	      done on the data transferred.  This is the default anyway, since
	      most files are in	binary.

	      Saves  the current session settings for later use.  This is use-
	      ful to save the remote system and	remote	working	 directory  so
	      you  can quickly resume where you	left off some other time.  The
	      bookmark data is stored in your $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks file.

	      Lists the	contents of your $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks	file in	a  hu-
	      man-readable  format.   You  can	use this command to recall the
	      bookmark name of a previously saved bookmark, so	that  you  can
	      use the open command with	it.

       cat    Acts  like the ``/bin/cat'' UNIX command,	only for remote	files.
	      This downloads the file you specify and dumps it directly	to the
	      screen.	You  will  probably find the page command more useful,
	      since that lets you view the file	one screen at a	 time  instead
	      of printing the entire file at once.

       cd     Changes the working directory on the remote host.	 Use this com-
	      mand to move to different	areas on the remote  server.   If  you
	      just  opened  a  new  site,  you might be	in the root directory.
	      Perhaps	   there      was	a	directory	called
	      ``/pub/news/comp.sources.d''  that someone told you about.  From
	      the root directory, you could:

		   cd pub
		   cd news
		   cd comp.sources.d

	      or, more concisely,

		   cd /pub/news/comp.sources.d

	      Then, commands such as get, put, and ls could be used  to	 refer
	      to items in that directory.

	      Some shells in the UNIX environment have a feature I like, which
	      is switching to the previous directory.  Like those shells,  you
	      can do:

		   cd -

	      to change	to the last directory you were in.

       chmod  Acts  like  the  ``/bin/chmod''  UNIX  command,  only for	remote
	      files.  However, this is not a standard command, so  remote  FTP
	      servers may not support it.

       close  Disconnects  you	from the remote	server.	 The program does this
	      for you automatically when needed, so you	can simply open	 other
	      sites  or	 quit  the  program without worrying about closing the
	      connection by hand.

       debug  This command is mostly for internal testing.  You	could type

		   debug 1

	      to turn debugging	mode on.  Then you could see all messages  be-
	      tween  the  program  and	the remote server, and things that are
	      only printed in debugging	mode.  However,	 this  information  is
	      also  available in the $HOME/.ncftp/trace	file, which is created
	      each time	you run	ncftp.	If you need to report a	 bug,  send  a
	      trace file if you	can.

       dir    Prints  a	 detailed  directory listing.  It tries	to behave like
	      UNIX's ``/bin/ls -l'' command.  If the remote server seems to be
	      a	 UNIX host, you	can also use the same flags you	would with ls,
	      for instance

		   dir -rt

	      would try	to act like

		   /bin/ls -lrt

	      would on UNIX.

       edit   Downloads	into a temporary file for editing on the  local	 host,
	      then uploads the changed file back to the	remote host.

       get    Copies  files  from  the current working directory on the	remote
	      host to your machine's current working directory.	  To  place  a
	      copy  of	``README'' and ``README.too'' in your local directory,
	      you could	try:

		   get README README.too

	      You could	also accomplish	that by	using a	 wildcard  expression,
	      such as:

		   get README*

	      This  command  is	similar	to the behavior	of other FTP programs'
	      mget command.  To	retrieve a remote file but give	it a different
	      name  on	your  host, you	can use	the ``-z'' flag.  This example
	      shows how	to download a file called ReadMe.txt but name  it  lo-
	      cally as README:

		   get -z ReadMe.txt README

	      The  program  tries  to  ``resume''  downloads by	default.  This
	      means that if the	remote FTP server lost the connection and  was
	      only  able  to  send  490	 kilobytes of a	500 kilobyte file, you
	      could reconnect to the FTP server	and do another get on the same
	      file name	and it would get the last 10 kilobytes,	instead	of re-
	      trieving the entire file again.  There are some occasions	 where
	      you  may not want	that behavior.	To turn	it off you can use the
	      ``-f'' flag.

	      There are	also times where you want to  append  to  an  existing
	      file.  You can do	this by	using the ``-A'' flag, for example

		   get -A log.11

	      would append to a	file named ``log.11'' if it existed locally.

	      Another thing you	can do is delete a remote file after you down-
	      load it.	This can be useful when	a remote host expects  a  file
	      to  be  removed  when  it	 has been retrieved.  Use the double-D
	      flag, such as ``get -DD''	to do this.

	      The get command lets you retrieve	entire directory  trees,  too.
	      Although	it  may	not work with some remote systems, you can try
	      ``get -R'' with a	directory to download the  directory  and  its

	      When  using the ``-R'' flag, you can also	use the	``-T'' flag to
	      disable automatic	on-the-fly TAR mode for	downloading whole  di-
	      rectory  trees.	The  program  uses TAR whenever	possible since
	      this usually preserves symbolic links and	file permissions.  TAR
	      mode  can	 also  result in faster	transfers for directories con-
	      taining many small files,	since a	single data connection can  be
	      used rather than an FTP data connection for each small file. The
	      downside to using	TAR is that it forces downloading of the whole
	      directory, even if you had previously downloaded a portion of it
	      earlier, so you may want to use this option if you want  to  re-
	      sume downloading of a directory.

       jobs   Views  the  list	of currently executing NcFTP background	tasks.
	      This actually just runs ncftpbatch -l for	you.

       lcd    The lcd command is the first of a	few ``l'' commands  that  work
	      with the local host.  This changes the current working directory
	      on the local host.  If you want to download files	into a differ-
	      ent  local directory, you	could use lcd to change	to that	direc-
	      tory and then do your downloads.

       lchmod Runs ``/bin/chmod'' on the local host.

       lls    Another local command that comes in handy	is  the	 lls  command,
	      which  runs  ``/bin/ls''	on the local host and displays the re-
	      sults in the program's window.  You can use the same flags  with
	      lls  as  you  would  in your command shell, so you can do	things

		   lcd ~/doc
		   lls -lrt p*.txt

       lmkdir Runs ``/bin/mkdir'' on the local host.

       lookup The program also has a built-in interface	to  the	 name  service
	      via  the	lookup command.	 This means you	can lookup entries for
	      remote hosts, like:



	      There is also a more detailed option, enabled with ``-v,'' i.e.:

		   lookup -v


	      You can also give	IP addresses, so this would work too:



       lpage  Views a local file one page  at  a  time,	 with  your  preferred
	      $PAGER program.

       lpwd   Prints  the  current local directory.  Use this command when you
	      forget where you are on your local machine.

	      Runs ``/bin/mv'' on the local host.

       lrm    Runs ``/bin/rm'' on the local host.

       lrmdir Runs ``/bin/rmdir'' on the local host.

       ls     Prints a directory listing from the remote system.  It tries  to
	      behave  like  UNIX's  ``/bin/ls -CF''  command.	If  the	remote
	      server seems to be a UNIX	host, you can also use the same	 flags
	      you would	with ls, for instance

		   ls -rt

	      would try	to act like

		   /bin/ls -CFrt

	      would on UNIX.

	      ncftp  has a powerful built-in system for	dealing	with directory
	      listings.	 It tries to cache each	one, so	if you list  the  same
	      directory,  odds	are  it	 will  display	instantly.  Behind the
	      scenes, ncftp always tries a long	listing, and then reformats it
	      as  it  needs  to.  So even if your first	listing	of a directory
	      was a regular ``ls'' which displayed the files in	columns,  your
	      next  listing could be ``ls -lrt'' and ncftp would still use the
	      cached directory listing to quickly display the information  for

       mkdir  Creates a	new directory on the remote host.  For many public ar-
	      chives, you won't	have the proper	access permissions to do that.

       open   Establishes an FTP control connection to a remote	host.  By  de-
	      fault,  ncftp  logs  in anonymously to the remote	host.  You may
	      want to use a specific user account when you log in, so you  can
	      use  the	``-u'' flag to specify which user.  This example shows
	      how to open the host ``'' using  the	 user-
	      name ``mario:''

		   open	-u mario

	      Here  is	a list of options available for	use with the open com-

	      -u XX Use	username XX instead of anonymous.

	      -p XX Use	password XX with the username.

	      -j XX Use	account	XX in supplement to the	username and  password

	      -P XX Use	port number XX instead of the default FTP service port

       page   Browses a	remote file one	page at	a time,	using your $PAGER pro-
	      gram.   This  is	useful for reading README's on the remote host
	      without downloading them first.

       pdir and	pls
	      These commands are equivalent to dir and ls  respectively,  only
	      they feed	their output to	your pager.  These commands are	useful
	      if the directory listing scrolls off your	screen.

       put    Copies files from	the local host to the remote machine's current
	      working directory.  To place a copy of ``''	and ``''
	      in the remote directory, you could try:


	      You could	also accomplish	that by	using a	 wildcard  expression,
	      such as:

		   put *.zip

	      This  command  is	similar	to the behavior	of other FTP programs'
	      mput command.  To	send a remote file but	give  it  a  different
	      name  on	your  host, you	can use	the ``-z'' flag.  This example
	      shows how	to upload a file  called  ``ncftpd-2.0.6.tar.gz''  but
	      name it remotely as ``NFTPD206.TGZ:''

		   put -z ncftpd-2.0.6.tar.gz NFTPD206.TGZ

	      The  program  does not try to ``resume'' uploads by default.  If
	      you do want to resume an upload, use the ``-z'' flag.

	      There are	also times where you want to append to an existing re-
	      mote  file.  You can do this by using the	``-A'' flag, for exam-

		   put -A log11.txt

	      would append to a	file named ``log11.txt'' if it existed on  the
	      remote server.

	      Another thing you	can do is delete a local file after you	upload
	      it.  Use the double-D flag, such as ``put	-DD'' to do this.

	      The put command lets you send entire directory trees,  too.   It
	      should  work  on	all  remote systems, so	you can	try ``put -R''
	      with a directory to upload the directory and its contents.

       pwd    Prints the current remote	working	directory.  A portion  of  the
	      pathname is also displayed in the	shell's	prompt.

       quit   Of  course,  when	you finish using the program, type quit	to end
	      the program (You could also use bye, exit, or ^D).

       quote  This can be used to send a direct	FTP Protocol  command  to  the
	      remote  server.	Generally this isn't too useful	to the average

       rename If you need to change the	name of	a remote file, you can use the
	      rename command, like:

		   rename SPHYGMTR.TAR sphygmomanometer-2.3.1.tar

       rhelp  Sends a help request to the remote server.  The list of FTP Pro-
	      tocol commands is	often printed, and sometimes some other	infor-
	      mation  that  is actually	useful,	like how to reach the site ad-

	      Depending	on the remote server, you may be able to give a	param-
	      eter to the server also, like:

		   rhelp NLST

	      One server responded:

		   Syntax: NLST	[ <sp> path-name ]

       rm     If  you need to delete a remote file you can try the rm command.
	      Much of the time this won't work	because	 you  won't  have  the
	      proper  access  permissions.   This  command  doesn't accept any
	      flags, so	you can't nuke a whole tree  by	 using	``-rf''	 flags
	      like you can on UNIX.

       rmdir  Similarly,  the rmdir command removes a directory.  Depending on
	      the remote server, you may be able to remove a non-empty	direc-
	      tory, so be careful.

       set    This  lets you configure some program variables, which are saved
	      between runs in the $HOME/.ncftp/prefs file.  The	 basic	syntax

		   set <option>	<value>

	      For example, to change the value you use for the anonymous pass-
	      word, you	might do:

		   set anon-password

	      See the next section for a list of things	you change.

       show   This  lets  you  display	program	  variables.	You   can   do
	      ``show all''  to display all of them, or give a variable name to
	      just display that	one, such as:

		   show	anon-password

       site   One obscure command you may have to use someday  is  site.   The
	      FTP  Protocol  allows  for  ``site  specific''  commands.	 These
	      ``site'' commands	vary of	course,	such as:

		   site	chmod 644 README

	      Actually,	ncftp's	chmod command really does the above.

	      Try doing	one of these to	see what the remote  server  supports,
	      if any:

		   rhelp SITE
		   site	help

       type   You  may	need  to  change transfer types	during the course of a
	      session with a server.  You can use the type command to do this.
	      Try one of these:

		   type	ascii
		   type	binary
		   type	image

	      The  ascii  command  is equivalent to ``type a'',	and the	binary
	      command is equivalent to ``type i'' and ``type b''.

       umask  Sets the process'	umask on the remote server, if it has any con-
	      cept of a	umask, i.e.:

		   umask 077

	      However,	this  is not a standard	command, so remote FTP servers
	      may not support it.

	      This command dumps some information about	the particular edition
	      of  the  program you are using, and how it was installed on your

	      Specifies	what to	use for	the password when  logging  in	anony-
	      mously.  Internet	convention has been to use your	E-mail address
	      as a courtesy to the site	administrator.	If you change this, be
	      aware that some sites require (i.e. they check for) valid	E-mail

	      NcFTP 3 now prompts the user by default when you try to download
	      a	 file  that  already exists locally, or	upload a file that al-
	      ready exists remotely.  Older versions of	the program  automati-
	      cally  guessed whether to	overwrite the existing file or attempt
	      to resume	where it left off, but	sometimes  the	program	 would
	      guess  wrong.  If	you would prefer that the program always guess
	      which action to take, set	this variable to yes, otherwise, leave
	      it set to	no and the program will	prompt you for which action to

	      If set to	a list of pipe-character delimited  extensions,	 files
	      with  these extensions will be sent in ASCII mode	even if	binary
	      mode is currently	in effect.  This option	allows you to transfer
	      most  files  in  binary,	with the exception of a	few well-known
	      file types that should be	sent in	ASCII.	This option is enabled
	      by  default,  and	set to a list of common	extensions (e.g., .txt
	      and .html).

	      With the advent of version 3 of NcFTP, the program treats	 book-
	      marks  more  like	 they would with your web browser, which means
	      that once	you bookmark the site, the remote directory is static.
	      If you set this variable to yes, then the	program	will automati-
	      cally update the bookmark's starting remote directory  with  the
	      directory	 you  were in when you closed the site.	 This behavior
	      would be more like that of NcFTP version 2.

	      By default the program will ask you  when	 a  site  you  haven't
	      bookmarked  is about to be closed.  To turn this prompt off, you
	      can set this variable to no.

	      Previous versions	of the program used a single timeout value for
	      everything.  You can now have different values for different op-
	      erations.	 However, you probably do not  need  to	 change	 these
	      from the defaults	unless you have	special	requirements.

	      The  connect-timeout variable controls how long to wait, in sec-
	      onds, for	a connection establishment to complete before  consid-
	      ering  it	 hopeless.  You	can choose to not use a	timeout	at all
	      by setting this to -1.

	      This is the timer	used when ncftp	sends an FTP command over  the
	      control  connection  to the remote server.  If the server	hasn't
	      replied in that many seconds, it considers the session lost.

	      This is controls how large the transfer  log  ($HOME/.ncftp/log)
	      can  grow	 to,  in kilobytes.  The default is 200, for 200kB; if
	      you don't	want a log, set	this to	0.

       pager  This is the external program to use to view a text file, and  is
	      more by default.

	      This  controls ncftp's behavior for data connections, and	can be
	      set to one of on,	off, or	the default, optional.	 When  passive
	      mode  is	on,  ncftp uses	the FTP	command	primitive PASV to have
	      the client establish data	connections to the  server.   The  de-
	      fault  FTP protocol behavior is to use the FTP command primitive
	      PORT which has the server	 establish  data  connections  to  the
	      client.  The default setting for this variable, optional,	allows
	      ncftp to choose whichever	method it deems	necessary.

	      You can change how the program  reports  file  transfer  status.
	      Select from meter	2, 1, or 0.

	      When  a host is busy or unavailable, the program waits this num-
	      ber of seconds before trying again.  The smallest	 you  can  set
	      this is to 10 seconds -- so if you were planning on being	incon-
	      siderate,	think again.

	      If you set this variable to yes, the program will	save passwords
	      along  with the bookmarks	you save.  While this makes non-anony-
	      mous logins more convenient, this	can be	very  dangerous	 since
	      your    account	 information	is    now   sitting   in   the
	      $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks file.   The  passwords  aren't  in	 clear
	      text, but	it is still trivial to decode them if someone wants to
	      make a modest effort.

	      If set to	yes and	operating from within  an  xterm  window,  the
	      program will change the window's titlebar	accordingly.

	      If your operating	system supports	TCP Large Windows, you can try
	      setting this variable to the number of bytes to set  the	TCP/IP
	      socket  buffer  to.  This	option won't be	of much	use unless the
	      remote server also supports large	window sizes and  is  pre-con-
	      figured with them	enabled.

	      This  timer  controls  how  long to wait for data	blocks to com-
	      plete.  Don't set	this too low or	else your transfers will time-
	      out without completing.

       You  may	find that your network administrator has placed	a firewall be-
       tween your machine and the Internet, and	that you cannot	reach external

       The  answer may be as simple as setting ncftp to	use passive mode only,
       which you can do	from a ncftp command prompt like this:

	    set	passive	on

       The reason for this is because many firewalls  do  not  allow  incoming
       connections  to the site, but do	allow users to establish outgoing con-
       nections.  A passive data connection is established by  the  client  to
       the server, whereas the default is for the server to establish the con-
       nection to the client, which firewalls may object to.  Of  course,  you
       now  may	 have  problems	 with sites whose primitive FTP	servers	do not
       support passive mode.

       Otherwise, if you know you need to have ncftp communicate directly with
       a   firewall   or   proxy,   you	  can	try   editing	the   separate
       $HOME/.ncftp/firewall configuration file.  This file is	created	 auto-
       matically  the first time you run the program, and contains all the in-
       formation you need to get the program to	work in	this setup.

       The basics of this process are configuring a firewall (proxy)  host  to
       go through, a user account and password for authentication on the fire-
       wall, and which type of firewall	method to use.	You can	also setup  an
       exclusion  list,	 so  that ncftp	does not use the firewall for hosts on
       the local network.

	      Saves bookmark and host information.

	      Firewall access configuration file.

	      Program preferences.

	      Debugging	output for entire program run.

	      Used to tell if this version of the program has run before.

	      Directory	where background jobs are stored in the	form of	 spool
	      configuration files.

	      Information for background data transfer processes.

       PATH   User's  search path, used	to find	the ncftpbatch program,	pager,
	      and some other system utilities.

       PAGER  Program to use to	view text files	one page at a time.

       TERM   If the program was compiled with support	for  GNU  Readline  it
	      will  need  to know how to manipulate the	terminal correctly for
	      line-editing, etc.  The pager program will also  take  advantage
	      of this setting.

       HOME   By  default,  the	 program  writes  its  configuration data in a
	      .ncftp subdirectory of the HOME directory.

	      If  set,	the  program  will  use	 this  directory  instead   of
	      $HOME/.ncftp.   This variable is optional	except for those users
	      whose home directory is the root directory.

	      Both the built-in	ls command and the external  ls	 command  need
	      this to determine	how many screen	columns	the terminal has.

       There  are  no such sites named or	sphygmomanome-

       Auto-resume should check	the file timestamps instead  of	 relying  upon
       just  the  file	sizes,	but it is difficult to do this reliably	within

       Directory caching and recursive downloads depend	on UNIX-like  behavior
       of the remote host.

       Mike Gleason, NcFTP Software (

       ncftpput(1), ncftpget(1), ncftpbatch(1),	ftp(1),	rcp(1),	tftp(1).

       LibNcFTP	(

       NcFTPd (

       Thanks  to  everyone who	uses the program.  Your	support	is what	drives
       me to improve the program!

       I thank Dale Botkin and Tim Russell at my former	ISP, Probe Technology.

       Ideas and some code contributed by my partner, Phil Dietz.

       Thanks to Brad Mittelstedt and Chris Tjon, for driving and refining the
       development of the backbone of this project, LibNcFTP.

       I'd like	to thank my former system administrators, most notably Charles
       Daniel, for making testing on a variety of platforms possible,  letting
       me have some extra disk space, and for maintaining the UNL FTP site.

       For  testing  versions  1 and 2 above and beyond	the call of duty, I am
       especially grateful to: Phil Dietz, Kok Hon Yin,	and  Andrey A. Chernov

       Thanks  to Tim MacKenzie	(	for the	original file-
       name completion code for	version	2.3.0 and 2.4.2.

       Thanks to DaviD W. Sanderson (, for helping me out with the
       man page.

       Thanks to those of you at UNL who appreciate my work.

       Thanks  to  Red	Hat  Software for honoring my licensing	agreement, but
       more importantly, thanks	for providing a	solid and affordable  develop-
       ment platform.

       To  the users, for not being able to respond personally to most of your

       To Phil,	for things not being the way they should be.

ncftp				NcFTP Software			      ncftp(1)


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