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ncurses(3X)							   ncurses(3X)

       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package

       #include	<curses.h>

       The  ncurses  library  routines	give  the  user	a terminal-independent
       method of updating  character  screens  with  reasonable	 optimization.
       This  implementation  is	"new curses" (ncurses) and is the approved re-
       placement for 4.4BSD classic curses, which has been discontinued.  This
       describes ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20140222).

       The  ncurses  library emulates the curses library of System V Release 4
       UNIX, and XPG4 (X/Open Portability Guide) curses	 (also	known  as  XSI
       curses).	  XSI  stands  for  X/Open  System  Interfaces Extension.  The
       ncurses library is freely redistributable in source form.   Differences
       from  the SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS and PORTABIL-
       ITY sections below and described	in detail  in  the  respective	EXTEN-
       SIONS, PORTABILITY and BUGS sections of individual man pages.

       The  ncurses  library  also provides many useful	extensions, i.e., fea-
       tures which cannot be implemented by a simple add-on library but	 which
       require access to the internals of the library.

       A  program  using  these	routines must be linked	with the -lncurses op-
       tion, or	 (if  it  has  been  generated)	 with  the  debugging  library
       -lncurses_g.  (Your system integrator may also have installed these li-
       braries under the names -lcurses	and -lcurses_g.)   The	ncurses_g  li-
       brary generates trace logs (in a	file called 'trace' in the current di-
       rectory)	that describe curses actions.  See also	the section on	ALTER-

       The  ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad manipula-
       tion; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input; control  over
       terminal	 and  curses  input and	output options;	environment query rou-
       tines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys;  terminfo  capabili-
       ties; and access	to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       The  library uses the locale which the calling program has initialized.
       That is normally	done with setlocale:

	     setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

       If the locale is	not initialized, the library assumes  that  characters
       are  printable  as in ISO-8859-1, to work with certain legacy programs.
       You should initialize the locale	and not	rely on	 specific  details  of
       the library when	the locale has not been	setup.

       The  function  initscr  or newterm must be called to initialize the li-
       brary before any	of the other  routines	that  deal  with  windows  and
       screens are used.  The routine endwin must be called before exiting.

       To  get	character-at-a-time  input  without echoing (most interactive,
       screen oriented programs	want this), the	following sequence  should  be

	     initscr();	cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally	use the	sequence:

	     intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
	     keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before a	curses program is run, the tab stops of	the terminal should be
       set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be	output.	  This
       can  be done by executing the @TPUT@ init command after the shell envi-
       ronment variable	TERM has been exported.	 @TSET@(1) is usually  respon-
       sible for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The  ncurses  library  permits  manipulation of data structures,	called
       windows,	which can be thought of	as two-dimensional arrays  of  charac-
       ters representing all or	part of	a CRT screen.  A default window	called
       stdscr, which is	the size of the	terminal screen, is supplied.	Others
       may be created with newwin.

       Note  that  curses  does	not handle overlapping windows,	that's done by
       the panel(3X) library.  This means that you can either  use  stdscr  or
       divide the screen into tiled windows and	not using stdscr at all.  Mix-
       ing the two will	result in unpredictable, and undesired,	effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as	WINDOW *.  These  data
       structures  are	manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere
       in the ncurses manual pages.  Among those, the most basic routines  are
       move  and  addch.  More general versions	of these routines are included
       with names beginning with w, allowing the user  to  specify  a  window.
       The routines not	beginning with w affect	stdscr.

       After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling
       curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The  characters
       in a window are actually	of type	chtype,	(character and attribute data)
       so that other information about the character may also be  stored  with
       each character.

       Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These are windows
       which are not constrained to the	size of	the screen and whose  contents
       need  not  be completely	displayed.  See	curs_pad(3X) for more informa-

       In addition to drawing characters on the	screen,	video  attributes  and
       colors  may  be	supported,  causing  the characters to show up in such
       modes as	underlined, in reverse video, or in color  on  terminals  that
       support	such  display  enhancements.   Line  drawing characters	may be
       specified to be output.	On input, curses is also able to translate ar-
       row  and	 function keys that transmit escape sequences into single val-
       ues.  The video attributes, line	drawing	characters, and	 input	values
       use  names,  defined  in	 <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE,	ACS_HLINE, and

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the  pro-
       gram  is	executing in a window environment, line	and column information
       in the environment will override	information read  by  terminfo.	  This
       would affect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer, for	example, where
       the size	of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       If the environment variable TERMINFO  is	 defined,  any	program	 using
       curses  checks  for  a local terminal definition	before checking	in the
       standard	place.	For example, if	TERM is	set to att4424,	then the  com-
       piled terminal definition is found in


       (The  a is copied from the first	letter of att4424 to avoid creation of
       huge directories.)  However,  if	 TERMINFO  is  set  to	$HOME/myterms,
       curses first checks


       and if that fails, it then checks


       This  is	 useful	 for developing	experimental definitions or when write
       permission in /usr/share/misc/terminfo is not available.

       The integer variables LINES and COLS are	defined	in <curses.h> and will
       be  filled  in  by  initscr with	the size of the	screen.	 The constants
       TRUE and	FALSE have the values 1	and 0, respectively.

       The curses routines also	define the WINDOW * variable curscr  which  is
       used  for  certain  low-level  operations like clearing and redrawing a
       screen containing garbage.  The curscr can be used in only a  few  rou-

   Routine and Argument	Names
       Many  curses routines have two or more versions.	 The routines prefixed
       with w require a	window argument.  The routines prefixed	with p require
       a pad argument.	Those without a	prefix generally use stdscr.

       The  routines  prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to
       before performing the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply	a call
       to  move	before the call	to the other routine.  The coordinate y	always
       refers to the row (of the window), and x	always refers to  the  column.
       The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The  routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y
       coordinates.  The window	argument is always specified before the	 coor-

       In  each	case, win is the window	affected, and pad is the pad affected;
       win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the  value  TRUE
       or  FALSE;  bf  is always of type bool.	Most of	the data types used in
       the library routines, such as WINDOW, SCREEN, bool, and chtype are  de-
       fined in	<curses.h>.  Types used	for the	terminfo routines such as TER-
       MINAL are defined in <term.h>.

       This manual page	describes functions which may appear in	any configura-
       tion  of	 the  library.	There are two common configurations of the li-

		   the "normal"	library, which handles 8-bit characters.   The
		   normal  (8-bit) library stores characters combined with at-
		   tributes in chtype data.

		   Attributes alone (no	corresponding character) may be	stored
		   in  chtype  or the equivalent attr_t	data.  In either case,
		   the data is stored in something like	an integer.

		   Each	cell (row and column) in  a  WINDOW  is	 stored	 as  a

		   the so-called "wide"	library, which handles multibyte char-
		   acters (see the section on ALTERNATE	CONFIGURATIONS).   The
		   "wide"  library includes all	of the calls from the "normal"
		   library.  It	adds about one third  more  calls  using  data
		   types which store multibyte characters:

			corresponds to chtype.	However	it is a	structure, be-
			cause more data	is stored than can fit into  an	 inte-
			ger.   The  characters	are  large enough to require a
			full integer value - and there may be  more  than  one
			character  per	cell.	The video attributes and color
			are stored in separate fields of the structure.

			Each cell (row and column) in a	WINDOW is stored as  a

			stores	a  "wide" character.  Like chtype, this	may be
			an integer.

			stores a wchar_t or WEOF - not the same,  though  both
			may have the same size.

		   The	"wide" library provides	new functions which are	analo-
		   gous	to functions in	the "normal" library.  There is	a nam-
		   ing	convention which relates many of the normal/wide vari-
		   ants: a "_w"	is inserted into the name.  For	example,  wad-
		   dch becomes wadd_wch.

   Routine Name	Index
       The  following table lists each curses routine and the name of the man-
       ual page	on which it is	described.   Routines  flagged	with  `*'  are
       ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.

		     curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
		     COLOR_PAIR		     curs_color(3X)
		     PAIR_NUMBER	     curs_attr(3X)
		     _nc_free_and_exit	     curs_memleaks(3X)*
		     _nc_freeall	     curs_memleaks(3X)*
		     _nc_tracebits	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _traceattr		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _traceattr2	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechar		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechtype	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechtype2	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracedump		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracef		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracemouse	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     add_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     add_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     add_wchstr		     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     addch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     addchnstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     addchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     addnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     addnwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     addstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     addwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     assume_default_colors   default_colors(3X)*
		     attr_get		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_off		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_on		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attroff		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attron		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attrset		     curs_attr(3X)
		     baudrate		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     beep		     curs_beep(3X)
		     bkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     bkgdset		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     bkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     bkgrndset		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)

		     border		     curs_border(3X)
		     border_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     box		     curs_border(3X)
		     box_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     can_change_color	     curs_color(3X)
		     cbreak		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     chgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     clear		     curs_clear(3X)
		     clearok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     clrtobot		     curs_clear(3X)
		     clrtoeol		     curs_clear(3X)
		     color_content	     curs_color(3X)
		     color_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     copywin		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     curs_set		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     curses_version	     curs_extend(3X)*
		     def_prog_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     def_shell_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     define_key		     define_key(3X)*
		     del_curterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     delay_output	     curs_util(3X)
		     delch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     deleteln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     delscreen		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     delwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     derwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     doupdate		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     dupwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     echo		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     echo_wchar		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     echochar		     curs_addch(3X)
		     endwin		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     erase		     curs_clear(3X)
		     erasechar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     erasewchar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     filter		     curs_util(3X)
		     flash		     curs_beep(3X)
		     flushinp		     curs_util(3X)
		     get_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     get_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     getattrs		     curs_attr(3X)
		     getbegx		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getbegy		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getbegyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getbkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     getbkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     getcchar		     curs_getcchar(3X)
		     getch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     getcurx		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getcury		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getmaxx		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getmaxy		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getmaxyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getmouse		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     getn_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     getnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     getparx		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getpary		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getparyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     getsyx		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     getwin		     curs_util(3X)
		     getyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     halfdelay		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     has_colors		     curs_color(3X)
		     has_ic		     curs_termattrs(3X)

		     has_il		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     has_key		     curs_getch(3X)*
		     hline		     curs_border(3X)
		     hline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     idcok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     idlok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     immedok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     in_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     in_wchnstr		     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     in_wchstr		     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     inch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     inchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     inchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     init_color		     curs_color(3X)
		     init_pair		     curs_color(3X)
		     initscr		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     innstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     innwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     ins_nwstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     ins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)
		     ins_wstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     insch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     insdelln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     insertln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     insnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     insstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     instr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     intrflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     inwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     is_cleared		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_idcok		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_idlok		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_immedok		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_keypad		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_leaveok		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_linetouched	     curs_touch(3X)
		     is_nodelay		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_notimeout	     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_scrollok	     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_syncok		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_term_resized	     resizeterm(3X)*
		     is_wintouched	     curs_touch(3X)
		     isendwin		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     key_defined	     key_defined(3X)*
		     key_name		     curs_util(3X)
		     keybound		     keybound(3X)*
		     keyname		     curs_util(3X)
		     keyok		     keyok(3X)*
		     keypad		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     killchar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     killwchar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     leaveok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     longname		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     mcprint		     curs_print(3X)*
		     meta		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     mouse_trafo	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     mouseinterval	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     mousemask		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     move		     curs_move(3X)
		     mvadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     mvadd_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvadd_wchstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvaddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     mvaddchnstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvaddchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvaddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)

		     mvaddnwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvaddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvaddwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     mvcur		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     mvdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     mvderwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     mvget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     mvget_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     mvgetn_wstr	     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvhline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvhline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     mvin_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     mvin_wchnstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvin_wchstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvinch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     mvinchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvinchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvinnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvinnwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvins_nwstr	     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)
		     mvins_wstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvinsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     mvinsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvinsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvinstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvinwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     mvscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     mvvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvvline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     mvwadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     mvwadd_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwadd_wchstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     mvwaddchnstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddchstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvwaddnwstr	     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvwaddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvwaddwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvwchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     mvwdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     mvwget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     mvwget_wstr	     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvwgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     mvwgetn_wstr	     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvwgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvwgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvwhline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvwhline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     mvwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     mvwin_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     mvwin_wchnstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwin_wchstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwinch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     mvwinchnstr	     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvwinchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvwinnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvwinnwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvwins_nwstr	     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvwins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)

		     mvwins_wstr	     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvwinsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     mvwinsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvwinsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvwinstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvwinwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvwprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     mvwscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     mvwvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvwvline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     napms		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     newpad		     curs_pad(3X)
		     newterm		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     newwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     nl			     curs_outopts(3X)
		     nocbreak		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     nodelay		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     noecho		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     nofilter		     curs_util(3X)*
		     nonl		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     noqiflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     noraw		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     notimeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     overlay		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     overwrite		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     pair_content	     curs_color(3X)
		     pechochar		     curs_pad(3X)
		     pnoutrefresh	     curs_pad(3X)
		     prefresh		     curs_pad(3X)
		     printw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     putp		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     putwin		     curs_util(3X)
		     qiflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     raw		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     redrawwin		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     refresh		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     reset_prog_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     reset_shell_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     resetty		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     resizeterm		     resizeterm(3X)*
		     restartterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     ripoffline		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     savetty		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     scanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     scr_dump		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_init		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_restore	     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_set		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scrl		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     scroll		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     scrollok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     set_curterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     set_term		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     setcchar		     curs_getcchar(3X)
		     setscrreg		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     setsyx		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     setterm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     setupterm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     slk_attr		     curs_slk(3X)*
		     slk_attr_off	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attr_on	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attr_set	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attroff	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attron		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attrset	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_clear		     curs_slk(3X)

		     slk_color		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_init		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_label		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_noutrefresh	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_refresh	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_restore	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_set		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_touch		     curs_slk(3X)
		     standend		     curs_attr(3X)
		     standout		     curs_attr(3X)
		     start_color	     curs_color(3X)
		     subpad		     curs_pad(3X)
		     subwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     syncok		     curs_window(3X)
		     term_attrs		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     termattrs		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     termname		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     tgetent		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetflag		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetnum		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetstr		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgoto		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tigetflag		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tigetnum		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tigetstr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     timeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     touchline		     curs_touch(3X)
		     touchwin		     curs_touch(3X)
		     tparm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tputs		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tputs		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     trace		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     typeahead		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     unctrl		     curs_util(3X)
		     unget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     ungetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     ungetmouse		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     untouchwin		     curs_touch(3X)
		     use_default_colors	     default_colors(3X)*
		     use_env		     curs_util(3X)
		     use_extended_names	     curs_extend(3X)*
		     use_legacy_coding	     legacy_coding(3X)*
		     use_tioctl		     curs_util(3X)
		     vid_attr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vid_puts		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vidattr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vidputs		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vline		     curs_border(3X)
		     vline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     vw_printw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     vw_scanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     vwprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     vwscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     wadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     wadd_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     wadd_wchstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     waddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     waddchnstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     waddchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     waddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     waddnwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     waddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     waddwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     wattr_get		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattr_off		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattr_on		     curs_attr(3X)

		     wattr_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattroff		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattron		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattrset		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wbkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     wbkgdset		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     wbkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     wbkgrndset		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     wborder		     curs_border(3X)
		     wborder_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     wchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wclear		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wclrtobot		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wclrtoeol		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wcolor_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wcursyncup		     curs_window(3X)
		     wdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     wdeleteln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     wecho_wchar	     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     wechochar		     curs_addch(3X)
		     wenclose		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     werase		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     wget_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     wgetbkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     wgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     wgetn_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     wgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     wgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     whline		     curs_border(3X)
		     whline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     win_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     win_wchnstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     win_wchstr		     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     winch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     winchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     winchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     winnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     winnwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     wins_nwstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     wins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)
		     wins_wstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     winsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     winsdelln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     winsertln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     winsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     winsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     winstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     winwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     wmouse_trafo	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     wmove		     curs_move(3X)
		     wnoutrefresh	     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     wredrawln		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wrefresh		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wresize		     wresize(3X)*
		     wscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     wscrl		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     wsetscrreg		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     wstandend		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wstandout		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wsyncdown		     curs_window(3X)
		     wsyncup		     curs_window(3X)
		     wtimeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     wtouchln		     curs_touch(3X)
		     wunctrl		     curs_util(3X)

		     wvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     wvline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)

       Routines	 that return an	integer	return ERR upon	failure	and an integer
       value other than	ERR upon successful completion,	unless otherwise noted
       in the routine descriptions.

       As  a  general rule, routines check for null pointers passed as parame-
       ters, and handle	this as	an error.

       All macros return  the  value  of  the  w  version,  except  setscrreg,
       wsetscrreg,  getyx,  getbegyx,  and  getmaxyx.	The  return  values of
       setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx,  getbegyx,	 and  getmaxyx	are  undefined
       (i.e.,  these  should  not be used as the right-hand side of assignment

       Routines	that return pointers return NULL on error.

       The following environment symbols are useful for	customizing  the  run-
       time  behavior  of  the	ncurses	library.  The most important ones have
       been already discussed in detail.

	    The	debugging library checks this environment  variable  when  the
	    application	 has  redirected output	to a file.  The	variable's nu-
	    meric value	is used	for the	 baudrate.   If	 no  value  is	found,
	    ncurses  uses  9600.   This	allows testers to construct repeatable
	    test-cases that take into account costs that depend	on baudrate.

       CC   When set, change occurrences of the	command_character  (i.e.,  the
	    cmdch  capability)	of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of
	    this variable.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.

	    Because this name is also used in development environments to rep-
	    resent  the	 C  compiler's name, ncurses ignores it	if it does not
	    happen to be a single character.

	    Specify the	width of the screen in characters.  Applications  run-
	    ning  in  a	 windowing  environment	usually	are able to obtain the
	    width of the window	in which they are executing.  If  neither  the
	    COLUMNS value nor the terminal's screen size is available, ncurses
	    uses the size which	may be	specified  in  the  terminfo  database
	    (i.e., the cols capability).

	    It	is  important that your	application use	a correct size for the
	    screen.  This is not always	possible because your application  may
	    be running on a host which does not	honor NAWS (Negotiations About
	    Window Size), or because you are temporarily  running  as  another
	    user.   However,  setting  COLUMNS	and/or LINES overrides the li-
	    brary's use	of the screen size obtained from the operating system.

	    Either COLUMNS or LINES symbols may	 be  specified	independently.
	    This is mainly useful to circumvent	legacy misfeatures of terminal
	    descriptions, e.g.,	xterm  which  commonly	specifies  a  65  line
	    screen.   For best results,	lines and cols should not be specified
	    in a terminal description for terminals which are  run  as	emula-

	    Use	 the  use_env function to disable all use of external environ-
	    ment (but not including system  calls)  to	determine  the	screen
	    size.   Use	 the use_tioctl	function to update COLUMNS or LINES to
	    match the screen size obtained from	system calls or	 the  terminal

	    Specifies  the total time, in milliseconds,	for which ncurses will
	    await a character sequence,	e.g., a	 function  key.	  The  default
	    value, 1000	milliseconds, is enough	for most uses.	However, it is
	    made a variable to accommodate unusual applications.

	    The	most common instance where you may wish	to change  this	 value
	    is	to  work  with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network.	If the
	    host cannot	read characters	rapidly	enough,	it will	have the  same
	    effect  as if the terminal did not send characters rapidly enough.
	    The	library	will still see a timeout.

	    Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences
	    received  from  the	xterm.	If your	application makes heavy	use of
	    multiple-clicking, you may wish to lengthen	this default value be-
	    cause  the	timeout	 applies  to the composed multi-click event as
	    well as the	individual clicks.

	    In addition	to the environment variable, this implementation  pro-
	    vides a global variable with the same name.	 Portable applications
	    should not rely upon the presence of ESCDELAY in either form,  but
	    setting  the  environment variable rather than the global variable
	    does not create problems when compiling an application.

       HOME Tells ncurses where	your home directory is.	 That is where it  may
	    read and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:


	    Like COLUMNS, specify the height of	the screen in characters.  See
	    COLUMNS for	a detailed description.

	    This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It	specifies the order of
	    buttons  on	 the  mouse.   OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse inconsis-
	    tently from	other platforms:

	    1 =	left
	    2 =	right
	    3 =	middle.

	    This variable lets you customize the mouse.	 The variable must  be
	    three numeric digits 1-3 in	any order, e.g., 123 or	321.  If it is
	    not	specified, ncurses uses	132.

	    Override the compiled-in assumption	that  the  terminal's  default
	    colors  are	 white-on-black	(see default_colors(3X)).  You may set
	    the	foreground and background color	values with  this  environment
	    variable  by proving a 2-element list: foreground,background.  For
	    example, to	tell ncurses to	not assume anything about the  colors,
	    set	 this to "-1,-1".  To make it green-on-black, set it to	"2,0".
	    Any	positive value from zero to the	terminfo max_colors  value  is

	    This applies only to ncurses configured to use the GPM interface.

	    If present,	the environment	variable is a list of one or more ter-
	    minal  names  against  which  the  TERM  environment  variable  is
	    matched.  Setting it to an empty value disables the	GPM interface;
	    using the built-in support for xterm, etc.

	    If the environment variable	is absent,  ncurses  will  attempt  to
	    open GPM if	TERM contains "linux".

	    Ncurses  may use tabs as part of the cursor	movement optimization.
	    In some cases, your	terminal driver	may not	handle these properly.
	    Set	 this  environment  variable  to disable the feature.  You can
	    also adjust	your stty settings to avoid the	problem.

	    Some terminals use a magic-cookie feature which  requires  special
	    handling  to  make highlighting and	other video attributes display
	    properly.  You can suppress	the highlighting  entirely  for	 these
	    terminals by setting this environment variable.

	    Most  of  the  terminal  descriptions in the terminfo database are
	    written for	real "hardware"	terminals.  Many people	 use  terminal
	    emulators  which  run  in  a windowing environment and use curses-
	    based applications.	 Terminal emulators can	duplicate all  of  the
	    important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do not have the
	    same limitations.  The chief limitation  of	 a  hardware  terminal
	    from  the  standpoint  of  your  application  is the management of
	    dataflow, i.e., timing.  Unless a hardware terminal	is  interfaced
	    into  a  terminal  concentrator  (which does flow control),	it (or
	    your application) must manage dataflow, preventing overruns.   The
	    cheapest  solution	(no  hardware  cost) is	for your program to do
	    this by pausing after operations that the  terminal	 does  slowly,
	    such as clearing the display.

	    As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have
	    delay times	embedded.  You may wish	to use these descriptions, but
	    not	want to	pay the	performance penalty.

	    Set	the NCURSES_NO_PADDING environment variable to disable all but
	    mandatory padding.	Mandatory padding is used as a part of special
	    control sequences such as flash.

	    This setting is obsolete.  Before changes

	    o	started	with 5.9 patch 20120825	and

	    o	continued though 5.9 patch 20130126

	    ncurses  enabled  buffered	output during terminal initialization.
	    This was done (as in SVr4 curses) for  performance	reasons.   For
	    testing  purposes,	both of	ncurses	and certain applications, this
	    feature was	made optional.	Setting	the NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable
	    disabled  output  buffering,  leaving  the	output in the original
	    (usually line buffered) mode.

	    In the current implementation, ncurses performs its	own  buffering
	    and	 does  not  require  this  workaround.	It does	not modify the
	    buffering of the standard output.

	    The	reason for the change was to make the behavior for  interrupts
	    and	 other signals more robust.  One drawback is that certain non-
	    conventional programs would	mix ordinary stdio calls with  ncurses
	    calls  and	(usually)  work.   This	 is  no	 longer	possible since
	    ncurses is not using the buffered standard output but its own out-
	    put	 (to  the  same	file descriptor).  As a	special	case, the low-
	    level calls	such as	putp still use the standard output.  But high-
	    level curses calls do not.

	    During  initialization,  the  ncurses  library  checks for special
	    cases where	VT100 line-drawing (and	 the  corresponding  alternate
	    character set capabilities)	described in the terminfo are known to
	    be missing.	 Specifically, when running in	a  UTF-8  locale,  the
	    Linux  console  emulator  and the GNU screen program ignore	these.
	    Ncurses checks the TERM environment	variable for these.  For other
	    special  cases,  you  should set this environment variable.	 Doing
	    this tells ncurses to use Unicode values which correspond  to  the
	    VT100  line-drawing	 glyphs.   That	 works	for  the special cases
	    cited, and is likely to work for terminal emulators.

	    When setting this variable,	you should set it to a nonzero	value.
	    Setting  it	to zero	(or to a nonnumber) disables the special check
	    for	"linux"	and "screen".

	    As an alternative to the environment variable, ncurses checks  for
	    an	extended terminfo capability U8.  This is a numeric capability
	    which can be compiled using	tic -x.	 For example

	    # linux console, if	patched	to provide working
	    # VT100 shift-in/shift-out,	with corresponding font.
	    linux-vt100|linux console with VT100 line-graphics,
		    U8#0, use=linux,

	    # uxterm with vt100Graphics	resource set to	false
	    xterm-utf8|xterm relying on	UTF-8 line-graphics,
		    U8#1, use=xterm,

	    The	name "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it	to  be
	    used by applications that use ncurses' termcap interface.

	    During  initialization,  the  ncurses debugging library checks the
	    NCURSES_TRACE environment variable.	 If it is defined,  to	a  nu-
	    meric value, ncurses calls the trace function, using that value as
	    the	argument.

	    The	argument values, which are defined in curses.h,	 provide  sev-
	    eral types of information.	When running with traces enabled, your
	    application	will write the file trace to the current directory.

       TERM Denotes your terminal  type.   Each	 terminal  type	 is  distinct,
	    though many	are similar.

	    If	the  ncurses library has been configured with termcap support,
	    ncurses will check for a terminal's	description in termcap form if
	    it is not available	in the terminfo	database.

	    The	 TERMCAP  environment  variable	contains either	a terminal de-
	    scription (with newlines stripped out), or	a  file	 name  telling
	    where the information denoted by the TERM environment variable ex-
	    ists.  In either case, setting it directs ncurses  to  ignore  the
	    usual place	for this information, e.g., /etc/termcap.

	    Overrides  the directory in	which ncurses searches for your	termi-
	    nal	description.  This is the simplest, but	not the	 only  way  to
	    change  the	list of	directories.  The complete list	of directories
	    in order follows:

	    o	the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is searched

	    o	the directory specified	by the TERMINFO	environment variable

	    o	$HOME/.terminfo

	    o	directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS	environment variable

	    o	one  or	 more  directories whose names are configured and com-
		piled into the ncurses library,	i.e.,

		o   @TERMINFO_DIRS@ (corresponding to the TERMINFO_DIRS	 vari-

		o   /usr/share/misc/terminfo  (corresponding  to  the TERMINFO

	    Specifies a	list of	directories to search  for  terminal  descrip-
	    tions.  The	list is	separated by colons (i.e., ":")	on Unix, semi-
	    colons on OS/2 EMX.

	    All	of the terminal	descriptions are in terminfo  form.   Normally
	    these  are	stored in a directory tree, using subdirectories named
	    by the first letter	of the terminal	names therein.

	    If ncurses is built	with a hashed database,	 then  each  entry  in
	    this list can also be the path of the corresponding	database file.

	    If	ncurses	 is built with a support for reading termcap files di-
	    rectly, then an entry in this list may be the path	of  a  termcap

	    If	TERMCAP	 does  not  hold  a  file name then ncurses checks the
	    TERMPATH environment variable.  This is a list of filenames	 sepa-
	    rated  by spaces or	colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2

	    If the TERMPATH environment	variable is not	set, ncurses looks  in
	    the	 files	/etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.term-
	    cap, in that order.

       The library may be configured to	disregard the following	variables when
       the  current  user  is the superuser (root), or if the application uses
       setuid or setgid	permissions:


       Several different configurations	are possible, depending	on the config-
       ure  script  options  used when building	ncurses.  There	are a few main
       options whose effects are visible to the	applications  developer	 using

	    The	standard include for ncurses is	as noted in SYNOPSIS:

	    #include <curses.h>

	    This  option  is  used to avoid filename conflicts when ncurses is
	    not	the main implementation	of curses of the computer.  If ncurses
	    is	installed disabling overwrite, it puts its headers in a	subdi-
	    rectory, e.g.,

	    #include <ncurses/curses.h>

	    It also omits a  symbolic  link  which  would  allow  you  to  use
	    -lcurses to	build executables.

	    The	 configure  script  renames  the  library  and	(if the	--dis-
	    able-overwrite option is used) puts	the header files in a  differ-
	    ent	subdirectory.  All of the library names	have a "w" appended to
	    them, i.e.,	instead	of


	    you	link with


	    You	must also define _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED	when compiling for the
	    wide-character  library to use the extended	(wide-character) func-
	    tions.  The	curses.h file which is installed for the  wide-charac-
	    ter	library	is designed to be compatible with the normal library's
	    header.  Only the size of the WINDOW structure differs,  and  very
	    few	 applications  require more than a pointer to WINDOWs.	If the
	    headers are	installed allowing overwrite, the  wide-character  li-
	    brary's headers should be installed	last, to allow applications to
	    be built using either library from the same	set of headers.




	    The	shared and normal (static) library names differ	by their  suf-
	    fixes,  e.g., and libncurses.a.  The	debug and pro-
	    filing libraries add a "_g"	and a "_p" to the root	names  respec-
	    tively, e.g., libncurses_g.a and libncurses_p.a.

	    The	 trace	function normally resides in the debug library,	but it
	    is sometimes useful	to configure this in the shared	library.  Con-
	    figure  scripts  should  check for the function's existence	rather
	    than assuming it is	always in the debug library.

	    directory containing initialization	files for the  terminal	 capa-
	    bility database /usr/share/misc/terminfo terminal capability data-

       terminfo(5) and related pages whose names begin	"curs_"	 for  detailed
       routine descriptions.

       The  ncurses library can	be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP) that
       falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap	file  if  the  terminal	 setup
       code  cannot  find a terminfo entry corresponding to TERM.  Use of this
       feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire	 term-
       cap  compiler  in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost in core
       and startup cycles.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for capturing mouse  events  on
       certain	terminals  (including  xterm).	 See the curs_mouse(3X)	manual
       page for	details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window	resiz-
       ing events, e.g., when running in an xterm.  See	the resizeterm(3X) and
       wresize(3X) manual pages	for details.  In addition, the library may  be
       configured with a SIGWINCH handler.

       The  ncurses library extends the	fixed set of function key capabilities
       of terminals by allowing	the application	designer to define  additional
       key  sequences at runtime.  See the define_key(3X) key_defined(3X), and
       keyok(3X) manual	pages for details.

       The ncurses library can exploit the capabilities	of terminals which im-
       plement	the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and	SGR 49 controls, which allow an	appli-
       cation to reset the terminal to its original foreground and  background
       colors.	 From  the users' perspective, the application is able to draw
       colored text on a background whose color	is set independently,  provid-
       ing  better  control  over color	contrasts.  See	the default_colors(3X)
       manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes a function for directing application  out-
       put   to	  a   printer  attached	 to  the  terminal  device.   See  the
       curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level	 conformant  with  XSI
       Curses.	 The  EXTENDED	XSI Curses functionality (including color sup-
       port) is	supported.

       A small number of local differences (that  is,  individual  differences
       between	the XSI	Curses and ncurses calls) are described	in PORTABILITY
       sections	of the library man pages.

       Unlike other implementations, this one checks parameters	such as	point-
       ers  to WINDOW structures to ensure they	are not	null.  The main	reason
       for providing this behavior is to guard against programmer error.   The
       standard	 interface  does  not provide a	way for	the library to tell an
       application which of several possible errors were detected.  Relying on
       this (or	some other) extension will adversely affect the	portability of
       curses applications.

       This implementation also	contains several extensions:

       o   The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor	is it present in SVr4.
	   See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The	routine	 slk_attr  is  not  part of XPG4, nor is it present in
	   SVr4.  See the curs_slk(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The routines	getmouse, mousemask,  ungetmouse,  mouseinterval,  and
	   wenclose  relating  to  mouse interfacing are not part of XPG4, nor
	   are they present in SVr4.  See the curs_mouse(3X) manual  page  for

       o   The	routine	 mcprint was not present in any	previous curses	imple-
	   mentation.  See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor	is it present in SVr4.
	   See the wresize(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from applica-
	   tion	programs.  See curs_opaque(3X) for the discussion of is_scrol-
	   lok,	etc.

       o   This	 implementation	 can be	configured to provide rudimentary sup-
	   port	for multi-threaded applications.  See curs_threads(3X) for de-

       o   This	 implementation	 can  also  be	configured to provide a	set of
	   functions which improve the ability	to  manage  multiple  screens.
	   See curs_sp_funcs(3X) for details.

       In  historic  curses  versions, delays embedded in the capabilities cr,
       ind, cub1, ff and tab activated corresponding delay bits	 in  the  UNIX
       tty driver.  In this implementation, all	padding	is done	by sending NUL
       bytes.  This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the	inter-
       face  to	 the  UNIX  kernel  significantly  and increases the package's
       portability correspondingly.

       The header file <curses.h>  automatically  includes  the	 header	 files
       <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If  standard  output from a ncurses program is re-directed to something
       which is	not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard	error.
       This was	an undocumented	feature	of AT&T	System V Release 3 curses.

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel	Curtis.



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