Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
NDPROXY(4)	       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual		    NDPROXY(4)

NAME
     ndproxy --	Neighbor Discovery Proxy

SYNOPSIS
     ndproxy is	a kernel module	that implements	IPv6 Neighbor Discovery	proxy-
     ing over Ethernet-like access networks, with many options to handle sev-
     eral use-cases.

     ndproxy replies to	a neighbor solicitation	with a specific	neighbor ad-
     vertisement, in order to let the PE uplink	router send further packets to
     a CPE downlink router, that may or	may not	be the same node that run nd-
     proxy.

     The hook-based pfil(9) framework is used to let ndproxy be	invoked	for
     every IPv6	incoming packet, in order to specifically handle and filter
     neighbor solicitations and	reply with appropriate neighbor	advertise-
     ments.

     ND	(Neighbor Discovery) packets are mainly	targeted at solicited-node
     multicast addresses, but ndproxy has no information about the hosts to
     proxy, then it can	not join the corresponding groups. Thus, the interface
     on	which ndproxy listen to	solicitations must be put into permanently
     promiscuous mode: add "promisc" to	the ifconfig_<interface> variable in
     rc.conf(5).

     For the same reason, MLD snooping must be disabled	on the switches	that
     share the PE/CPE interconnect (the	layer-2	link the listening interface
     is	attached to). Note that	MLD snooping must not be disabled entirely on
     each switch, but only on the corresponding	vlan.

     The interface on which ndproxy listen to solicitations only need to be
     assigned a	link-local address. No information about the delegated prefix
     and no global address are needed on this interface. It is sufficient to
     add "inet6	-ifdisabled -accept_rtadv auto_linklocal" to the ifconfig_<in-
     terface>_ipv6 variable in rc.conf(5).

DIFFERENCES WITH NDP
     The target	address	to proxy must be given when using the ndp(8) command-
     line tool with the	proxy option. On the contrary, ndproxy does not	rely
     on	a list of target addresses to proxy. Thus, RFC-4941 temporary ad-
     dresses can be proxyfied. For security reasons, many operating systems
     use a temporary address when establishing outbound	connections.

     When using	ndp(8) command-line tool with the proxy	option,	the proxyfied
     packets are redirected to the node	that run ndp. With ndproxy, the	host
     that run ndp can be used only to redirect packets to another IPv6 inter-
     nal router, for instance a	dedicated router with hardware support of IPv6
     routing process.

PREFIX SUBNETTING
     Connecting	a flat IPv6 network to the Internet is easily done with	the
     RFC-4861 ND protocol. But connecting a subnetted IPv6 prefix is more com-
     plicated, depending on the	ISP network design choices.  ndproxy can help
     subscribers to achieve this goal.

     Here are some protocols or	mechanisms the ISP need	to support, when the
     delegated prefix must be subnetted	and assigned to	multiple links within
     the subscriber's network.	For instance, the ISP could learn routes from
     the subscriber router using an IGP	routing	protocol, but the ISP and the
     subscriber	must agree with	a common routing protocol.  The	ISP could also
     feed the PE with a	static route to	the CPE	router,	but the	ISP must be
     informed about the	subscriber router address.  Finally, the ISP could use
     the RFC-3633 IPv6 Prefix Options with DHCPv6 to delegate the prefix from
     its PE router to a	requesting subscriber's	router:	in such	a case,	the
     ISP must support the DHCPv6 option.

     ndproxy has been written for subscribers to ISP that do not support any
     of	those mechanisms or protocols, thus not	being able to natively subnet
     their IPv6	delegated prefix.

NETWORK	DESIGN
     Here is a generic network design using ndproxy to solve such situations:
	______________________		       \
       /		      \			\
       |   ISP core network   |			 \
       \__________ ___________/			  |
		  |				  | ISP	network
		  | dsl	to subscriber premises	  |
		  |				 /
	      +---+---------------------+	/
	      |	 PE or triple-play box	|      /
	      +-----------+-------------+
			  |
      PE/CPE interconnect | /48	prefix	       \
	      --+---------+---------+--		\
		|  no mld snooping  |		 \
		|		    |		  |
	   +----+--------+     +----+-----+	  |
	   |	 CPE	 |     | ndproxy  |	  |
	   | IPv6 router |     | BSD host |	  |
	   +----+---+----+     +----------+	  |
       subnet1	|   |  subnet2			  | Subscriber
      ----+-----+- -+-----+------		  | network
	  | /60		  | /60			  |
      +---+------+   +----+-----+		  |
      |Subscriber|   |Subscriber|		 /
      |	 host	 |   |	host	|		/
      +----------+   +----------+	       /

     Note that many other use-cases can	be handled with	ndproxy: the BSD host
     and the CPE router	can be the same	node, the delegated-prefix length can
     be	/64, the PE router can have several interfaces on the ISP/Subscriber
     layer-2 boundary, there can be multiple PE	routers, etc.

PREFIX LENGTH
     Even if the IESG and the IAB first	recommended the	allocations of /48
     prefixes in the general case, for the boundary between the	public and the
     private topology (see RFC-3177), and that some Regional Internet Reg-
     istries (APNIC, ARIN and RIPE) have subsequently revised the end site as-
     signment policy to	encourage the assignment of /56	blocks to end sites,
     and that RFC-6177 finally recommended giving home sites significantly
     more than a single	/64, in	order for home sites to	be given multiple sub-
     nets, some	ISP currently only delegate /64	prefixes.

     In	such a case, the subscriber should subnet a RFC-4193 Unique Local IPv6
     Unicast Addresses prefix to the internal subnetworks, for internal-to-in-
     ternal communications. The	/64 global prefix should be routed to the only
     internal subnet in	which RFC-4941 temporary addresses are used by hosts
     when establishing outbound	connections. Static routes on the CPE router
     should be set to let hosts	on other internal subnets be able to communi-
     cate with the Internet. Using temporary addresses for outbound connec-
     tions to the Internet must	be disabled on hosts on	those other internal
     subnets.

IPv6 EXTENSION HEADERS
     For security reasons, ndproxy explicitely rejects neighbor	solicitation
     packets containing	any extension header.  Such a packet is	mainly unat-
     tended:

     Fragmentation:

		   According to	RFC-6980, IPv6 fragmentation header is forbid-
		   den in all neighbor discovery messages.

     Hop-by-hop	header:

		   commonly used for jumbograms	or for MLD. Should not involve
		   neighbor solicitation packets.

     Destination mobility headers:

		   commonly used for mobility, ndproxy does not	support	these
		   headers.

     Routing header:

		   commonly used for mobility or source	routing, ndproxy does
		   not support these headers.

     AH	& ESP headers:

		   securing the	neighbor discovery process is not done with
		   IPsec but with the SEcure Neighbor Discovery	protocol
		   (RFC-3971). ndproxy can not support RFC-3971, since proxi-
		   fying ND packets is some kind of a spoofing process.

EXCEPTION ADDRESSES
     Some neigbhor solicitations sent on the PE/CPE interconnect must not be
     proxyfied:

     1.	  solicitations	sent by	other nodes than the PE;

     2.	  solicitations	sent by	the PE to reach	any on-link address (the ad-
	  dress	filled in the target address option) owned by nodes attached
	  to the PE/CPE	interconnect, for instance to reach the	CPE, the nd-
	  proxy	host or	other hosts attached to	this layer-2 interconnect.

     The target	addresses filled in those solicitations	that ndproxy must ig-
     nore have to be declared via sysctl (net.inet6.ndproxyconf_excep-
     tion_ipv6_addresses). This	list must contain the link-local and global-
     scoped unicast and	anycast	addresses of the CPE, of the ndproxy host and
     of	any other host than the	PE attached to the PE/CPE interconnect.

     Failing to	maintain this list correctly could lead	to badly redirect some
     packets to	the CPE, but with a simple network design, this	list can be
     let empty.

UPLINK ROUTER ADDRESSES
     ndproxy only handles packets originating from one of the PE addresses.
     During its	address	resolution process, different source addresses can be
     choosen by	the PE,	depending on the packet	that triggered the process or
     depending on other	external constraints.

     Here are some cases when it can occur:

     1.	  The PE may have multiple interfaces;

     2.	  There	may be multiple	PE;

     3.	  Many routers choose to use a link-local address when sending neigh-
	  bor solicitations, but when an administrator of such a router, also
	  having a global address assigned on the same link, tries to send
	  packets (echo	request, for instance) to an on-link destination
	  global address, the source address of	the echo request packet
	  prompting the	solicitation may be global-scoped according to the se-
	  lection algorithm described in RFC-6724. Therefore, the source ad-
	  dress	of the Neighbor	Solicitation packet should also	be selected in
	  the same global scope, according to RFC-4861;

     4.	  When the uplink router does not yet know its own address, it must
	  use the unspecified address, according to RFC-4861.

     So, it can	not be assumed that an uplink router will always use the same
     IPv6 address to send neighbor solicitations. Each assigned	address	that
     can be used as a source address by	the PE on its downlink interface must
     then be declared to ndproxy via sysctl (net.inet6.ndproxyconf_up-
     link_ipv6_addresses).

     ndproxy will only handle packets that come	from one of these addresses.

     A special care must be taken about	the unsolicited	address. It may	be
     used by the PE, then it is	part of	the list of PE addresses and should
     therefore be added	to the list of PE addresses. Since this	address	can
     also be used by other nodes during	some initialization steps (for in-
     stance when hot-swapping an Ethernet board), another node could use this
     address to	send neighbor solicitations that ndproxy should	not handle,
     because they are not sent by the PE. In fact, this	is not a problem be-
     cause the target address option contained in a solicitation from this
     other node	should be in the exception list. So, adding the	unsolicited
     address in	the PE addresses list should be	safe.

     Failing to	maintain this list correctly could lead	the PE not to be able
     to	establish outbound connections to nodes	on the PE/CPE interconnect,
     but if this list contains at least	the PE link-local address, IPv6	con-
     nectivity should be correctly established between the Internet and	the
     internal subscriber's subnets.

CONFIGURATION
     An	IPv6 address can be any	valid textual representation according to
     RFC-4291 and RFC-5952 (this means that transitional textual representa-
     tion is fully supported).	Other representations will trigger an error
     event. IPv6 address lists must be formated	as series of IPv6 adresses
     separated by semi-colons.

     The sysctl	utility	or rc.conf(5) are used to set ndproxy configuration
     parameters.

     If	you have installed ndproxy as a	port or	as a package, set the follow-
     ing variables in rc.conf(5) and load the module at	boot time by placing
     the following line	in rc.conf(5):

	   ndproxy_enable="YES"

     On	the contrary, if you have NOT installed	ndproxy	as a port or as	a
     package but as a standalone distribution, place the sysctl	entries	in
     sysctl.conf(5) and	load the module	at boot	time by	placing	the following
     line in loader.conf(5):

	   ndproxy_load="YES"

     net.inet6.ndproxyconf_uplink_interface sysctl entry or
		   ndproxy_uplink_interface rc.conf variable:

		   Name	of the interface talking to the	broadcast multi-access
		   network connecting the PE and CPE routers.

		   Example: "vlan2".

     net.inet6.ndproxyconf_downlink_mac_address	sysctl entry or
		   ndproxy_downlink_mac_address	rc.conf	variable:

		   MAC address of the CPE router. Neighbor advertisements sent
		   by ndproxy will be filled with this address in the target
		   link-layer address option. The format of this parameter is
		   the hexadecimal representation made of 6 groups of 2	hexa-
		   decimal numbers separated by	colons.

		   Example: "00:0C:29:B6:43:D5".

     net.inet6.ndproxyconf_exception_ipv6_addresses sysctl entry or
		   ndproxy_exception_ipv6_addresses rc.conf variable:

		   Target addresses not	to proxy. In a simple network design,
		   this	list can be let	empty. See section "EXCEPTION AD-
		   DRESSES".

		   Example:
		   "fe80::20d:edff:fe7b:68b7;fe80::222:15ff:fe3b:59a".

     net.inet6.ndproxyconf_uplink_ipv6_addresses sysctl	entry or
		   ndproxy_uplink_ipv6_addresses rc.conf variable:

		   Addresses of	the PE.	This list should at least contain the
		   PE link-local address. See section "UPLINK ROUTER AD-
		   DRESSES".

		   Example:
		   "fe80::207:cbff:fe4b:2d20;2a01:e35:8aae:bc60::1;::".

     net.inet6.ndproxycount sysctl entry:

		   Number of advertisements sent.

SEE ALSO
     inet6(4), rc.conf(5), loader.conf(5), sysctl.conf(5), sysctl(8),
     loader(8),	pfil(9)

AUTHOR
     Alexandre Fenyo <alex@fenyo.net> -	www.fenyo.net

FreeBSD	13.0			 May 27, 2017			  FreeBSD 13.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DIFFERENCES WITH NDP | PREFIX SUBNETTING | NETWORK DESIGN | PREFIX LENGTH | IPv6 EXTENSION HEADERS | EXCEPTION ADDRESSES | UPLINK ROUTER ADDRESSES | CONFIGURATION | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://man.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ndproxy&sektion=4&manpath=FreeBSD+13.1-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help