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NEWSYSLOG(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		  NEWSYSLOG(8)

     newsyslog -- maintain system log files to manageable sizes

     newsyslog [-Fnrv] [-f config_file]	[-a directory] [file ...]

     The newsyslog utility should be scheduled to run periodically by cron(8).
     When it is	executed it archives log files if necessary.  If a log file is
     determined	to require archiving, newsyslog	rearranges the files so	that
     "logfile" is empty, "logfile.0" has the last period's logs	in it,
     "logfile.1" has the next to last period's logs in it, and so on, up to a
     user-specified number of archived logs.  Optionally the archived logs can
     be	compressed to save space.

     A log can be archived for three reasons:

	   1.	It is larger than the configured size (in kilobytes).

	   2.	A configured number of hours have elapsed since	the log	was
		last archived.

	   3.	This is	the specific configured	hour for rotation of the log.

     The granularity of	newsyslog is dependent on how often it is scheduled to
     run by cron(8).  Since the	program	is quite fast, it may be scheduled to
     run every hour without any	ill effects, and mode three (above) assumes
     that this is so.

     When starting up, newsyslog reads in a configuration file to determine
     which logs	may potentially	be archived.  By default, this configuration
     file is /etc/newsyslog.conf.  Each	line of	the file contains information
     about a particular	log file that should be	handled	by newsyslog.  Each
     line has five mandatory fields and	four optional fields, with whitespace
     separating	each field.  Blank lines or lines beginning with ``#'' are ig-
     nored.  If	``#'' is placed	in the middle of the line, ``#'' character and
     the rest of the line after	it is ignored.	To prevent special meaning,
     the ``#'' may be escaped with ``\'', in this case preceding ``\'' is re-
     moved and ``#'' treated as	ordinary character.  The fields	of the config-
     uration file are as follows:

	     Name of the system	log file to be archived.

	     This optional field specifies the owner and group for the archive
	     file.  The	":" is essential, even if the owner or group field is
	     left blank.  The field may	be numeric, or a name which is present
	     in	/etc/passwd or /etc/group.

     mode    Specify the mode of the log file and archives.

     count   Specify the number	of archive files to be kept besides the	log
	     file itself.

     size    When the size of the log file reaches size	in kilobytes, the log
	     file will be trimmed as described above.  If this field is	re-
	     placed by an asterisk (`*'), then the size	of the log file	is not
	     taken into	account	when determining when to trim the log file.

     when    The when field can	consist	of an interval,	a specific time, or
	     both.  If the when	field is an asterisk (`*') log rotation	will
	     depend only on the	contents of the	size field.  Otherwise,	the
	     when field	consists of an optional	interval in hours, optionally
	     followed by an `@'-sign and a time	in a restricted	ISO 8601 for-
	     mat or by an `$'-sign and a time specification for	logfile	rota-
	     tion at a fixed time once per day,	per week or per	month.

	     If	a time is specified, the log file will only be trimmed if
	     newsyslog is run within one hour of the specified time.  If an
	     interval is specified, the	log file will be trimmed if that many
	     hours have	passed since the last rotation.	 When both a time and
	     an	interval are specified,	both conditions	must be	satisfied for
	     the rotation to take place.

	     There is no provision for specification of	a timezone.  There is
	     little point in specifying	an explicit minutes or seconds compo-
	     nent in the current implementation, since the only	comparison is
	     `within the hour'.

	     ISO 8601 restricted time format

	     The lead-in character for a restricted ISO	8601 time is an
	     `@'-sign.	The particular format of the time in restricted	ISO
	     8601 is: [[[[[cc]yy]mm]dd][T[hh[mm[ss]]]]].  Optional date	fields
	     default to	the appropriate	component of the current date; op-
	     tional time fields	default	to midnight; hence if today is January
	     22, 1999, the following date specifications are all equivalent:


	     Day, week and month time format

	     The lead-in character for day, week and month specification is a
	     `$'-sign.	The particular format of day, week and month specifi-
	     cation is:	[Dhh], [Ww[Dhh]] and [Mdd[Dhh]]	respectively.  Op-
	     tional time fields	default	to midnight.  The ranges for day and
	     hour specifications are:

		   hh	   hours, range	0 ... 23
		   w	   day of week,	range 0	... 6, 0 = Sunday
		   dd	   day of month, range 1 ... 31, or the	letter L or l
			   to specify the last day of the month.

	     Some examples:

		   $D0	   rotate every	night at midnight
		   $D23	   rotate every	day at 23:00 hr
		   $W0D23  rotate every	week on	Sunday at 23:00	hr
		   $W5D16  rotate every	week on	Friday at 16:00	hr
		   $MLD0   rotate at the last day of every month at midnight
		   $M5D6   rotate on every 5th day of month at 6:00 hr

     flags   This optional field specifies if the archive should have any spe-
	     cial processing done to the archived log files.  The Z flag will
	     make the archive files compress to	save space by using gzip(1).
	     The J flag	will make the archive files compress to	save space by
	     using bzip2(1).  The B flag means that the	file is	a binary file,
	     and so the	ASCII message which newsyslog inserts to indicate the
	     fact that the logs	have been turned over should not be included.
	     The - flag	means nothing, but can be used as a placeholder	when
	     the path_to_pid_file field	is specified.  The G flag means	that
	     the specified logfile_name	is a shell pattern, which instructs
	     the newsyslog to archive all filenames matching this pattern us-
	     ing the same options.  See	glob(3)	for details on syntax and
	     matching rules.  The W flag in conjunction	with the Z flag	or the
	     J flag means that newsyslog should	wait for previously started
	     compression jobs to complete before starting a new	one for	this
	     entry.  When it is	used along with	the G flag, in the case	when
	     several logfiles match the	pattern	and should be compressed, the
	     newsyslog will compress logs one by one, ensuring that only one
	     compression job is	running	at a time.

	     This optional field specifies the file name to read to find the
	     daemon process id.	 If this field is present, a signal_number is
	     sent the process id contained in this file.  This field must
	     start with	"/" in order to	be recognized properly.

	     This optional field specifies the signal number will be sent to
	     the daemon	process.  By default a SIGHUP will be sent.

     The following options can be used with newsyslog:

     -f	config_file
	     Instruct newsyslog	to use config_file instead of
	     /etc/newsyslog.conf for its configuration file.

     -a	directory
	     Specify a directory into which archived log files will be writ-
	     ten.  If a	relative path is given,	it is appended to the path of
	     each log file and the resulting path is used as the directory
	     into which	the archived log for that log file will	be written.
	     If	an absolute path is given, all archived	logs are written into
	     the given directory.  If any component of the path	directory does
	     not exist,	it will	be created when	newsyslog is run.

     -v	     Place newsyslog in	verbose	mode.  In this mode it will print out
	     each log and its reasons for either trimming that log or skipping

     -n	     Cause newsyslog not to trim the logs, but to print	out what it
	     would do if this option were not specified.

     -r	     Remove the	restriction that newsyslog must	be running as root.
	     Of	course,	newsyslog will not be able to send a HUP signal	to
	     syslogd(8)	so this	option should only be used in debugging.

     -F	     Force newsyslog to	trim the logs, even if the trim	conditions
	     have not been met.	 This option is	useful for diagnosing system
	     problems by providing you with fresh logs that contain only the

     If	additional command line	arguments are given, newsyslog will only exam-
     ine log files that	match those arguments; otherwise, it will examine all
     files listed in the configuration file.

     /etc/newsyslog.conf      newsyslog	configuration file

     Doesn't yet automatically read the	logs to	find security breaches.

     Theodore Ts'o, MIT	Project	Athena

     Copyright 1987, Massachusetts Institute of	Technology

     Previous versions of the newsyslog	utility	used the dot (``.'') character
     to	distinguish the	group name.  Beginning with FreeBSD 3.3, this has been
     changed to	a colon	(``:'')	character so that user and group names may
     contain the dot character.	 The dot (``.'') character is still accepted
     for backwards compatibility.

     gzip(1), syslog(3), chown(8), syslogd(8)

BSD				 April 4, 2000				   BSD


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