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passwd(4)			 File Formats			     passwd(4)

       passwd -	password file


       The  file /etc/passwd is	a local	source of information about users' ac-
       counts. The password file can be	used in	conjunction with  other	 pass-
       word  sources,  such as the NIS maps passwd.byname and passwd.bygid and
       the NIS+	table passwd. Programs use the getpwnam(3C) routines to	access
       this information.

       Each passwd entry is a single line of the form:



	     is	 the user's login name.	It is recommended that this field con-
	     form to the checks	performed by pwck(1M).

	     is	an empty field.	The encrypted password for the user is in  the
	     corresponding entry in the	/etc/shadow file. pwconv(1M) relies on
	     a special value of	'x' in the password field of  /etc/passwd.  If
	     this  value  of  'x' exists in the	password field of /etc/passwd,
	     this indicates that the password  for  the	 user  is  already  in
	     /etc/shadow and should not	be modified.

       uid   is	the user's unique numerical ID for the system.

       gid   is	the unique numerical ID	of the group that the user belongs to.

	     is	 the user's real name, along with information to pass along in
	     a mail-message heading. (It is called the gcos-field for histori-
	     cal  reasons.)  An	``&'' (ampersand) in this field	stands for the
	     login name	(in cases where	the login name	appears	 in  a	user's
	     real name).

	     is	 the  pathname to the directory	in which the user is initially
	     positioned	upon logging in.

	     is	the user's initial shell program. If this field	is empty,  the
	     default shell is /usr/bin/sh.

       The  maximum value of the uid and gid fields is 2147483647. To maximize
       interoperability	and compatibility, administrators are  recommended  to
       assign users a range of UIDs and	GIDs below 60000 where possible.

       The password file is an ASCII file. Because the encrypted passwords are
       always kept in the shadow file, /etc/passwd has general read permission
       on  all	systems	and can	be used	by routines that map between numerical
       user IDs	and user names.

       Blank lines are treated as malformed entries in	the  passwd  file  and
       cause consumers of the file , such as getpwnam(3C), to fail.

       Previous	 releases  used	 a  password  entry beginning with a `+' (plus
       sign) or	`-' (minus sign) to selectively	incorporate entries  from  NIS
       maps  for  password. If still required, this is supported by specifying
       ``passwd	: compat'' in nsswitch.conf(4).	The "compat" source might  not
       be  supported  in future	releases. The preferred	sources	are files fol-
       lowed by	the identifier of a name service, such as nis  or  ldap.  This
       has  the	 effect	 of incorporating the entire contents of the name ser-
       vice's passwd database after the	passwd file.

       Example 1: Sample passwd	file

       Here is a sample	passwd file:

       fred:6k/7KCFRPNVXg:508:10:& Fredericks:/usr2/fred:/bin/csh

       and the sample password entry from nsswitch.conf:

       passwd: files nisplus

       In this example,	there are specific entries for users root and fred  to
       assure that they	can login even when the	system is running single-user.
       In addition, anyone in the NIS+ table passwd will be able to login with
       their usual password, shell, and	home directory.

       If the password file is:

       fred:6k/7KCFRPNVXg:508:10:& Fredericks:/usr2/fred:/bin/csh

       and the password	entry from nsswitch.conf is:

       passwd: compat

       then  all  the entries listed in	the NIS	passwd.byuid and passwd.byname
       maps will be effectively	incorporated after the entries	for  root  and




       chgrp(1),  chown(1),  finger(1),	 groups(1),  login(1), newgrp(1), nis-
       passwd(1),  passwd(1),  sh(1),  sort(1),	  chown(1M),   domainname(1M),
       getent(1M),  in.ftpd(1M),  passmgmt(1M),	 pwck(1M), pwconv(1M), su(1M),
       useradd(1M), userdel(1M), usermod(1M), a64l(3C),	crypt(3C),  getpw(3C),
       getpwnam(3C),  getspnam(3C),  putpwent(3C),  group(4),  hosts.equiv(4),
       nsswitch.conf(4), shadow(4), environ(5),	unistd(3HEAD)

       System Administration Guide: Basic Administration

SunOS 5.9			  3 Oct	2001			     passwd(4)


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