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PING(8)			  BSD System Manager's Manual		       PING(8)

     ping -- send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

     ping [-AaDdfnoQqRrv] [-c count] [-G sweepmaxsize] [-g sweepminsize]
	  [-h sweepincrsize] [-i wait] [-l preload] [-M	mask | time] [-m ttl]
	  [-P policy] [-p pattern] [-S src_addr] [-s packetsize] [-t timeout]
	  [-W waittime]	[-z tos] host
     ping [-AaDdfLnoQqRrv] [-c count] [-I iface] [-i wait] [-l preload]
	  [-M mask | time] [-m ttl] [-P	policy]	[-p pattern] [-S src_addr]
	  [-s packetsize] [-T ttl] [-t timeout]	[-W waittime] [-z tos]

     The ping utility uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST datagram
     to	elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.  ECHO_REQUEST
     datagrams ("pings") have an IP and	ICMP header, followed by a "struct
     timeval" and then an arbitrary number of "pad" bytes used to fill out the
     packet.  The options are as follows:

     -A	     Audible.  Output a	bell (ASCII 0x07) character when no packet is
	     received before the next packet is	transmitted.  To cater for
	     round-trip	times that are longer than the interval	between	trans-
	     missions, further missing packets cause a bell only if the	maxi-
	     mum number	of unreceived packets has increased.

     -a	     Audible.  Include a bell (ASCII 0x07) character in	the output
	     when any packet is	received.  This	option is ignored if other
	     format options are	present.

     -c	count
	     Stop after	sending	(and receiving)	count ECHO_RESPONSE packets.
	     If	this option is not specified, ping will	operate	until inter-
	     rupted.  If this option is	specified in conjunction with ping
	     sweeps, each sweep	will consist of	count packets.

     -D	     Set the Don't Fragment bit.

     -d	     Set the SO_DEBUG option on	the socket being used.

     -f	     Flood ping.  Outputs packets as fast as they come back or one
	     hundred times per second, whichever is more.  For every
	     ECHO_REQUEST sent a period	"." is printed,	while for every
	     ECHO_REPLY	received a backspace is	printed.  This provides	a
	     rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.  Only	the
	     super-user	may use	this option.  This can be very hard on a net-
	     work and should be	used with caution.

     -G	sweepmaxsize
	     Specify the maximum size of ICMP payload when sending sweeping
	     pings.  This option is required for ping sweeps.

     -g	sweepminsize
	     Specify the size of ICMP payload to start with when sending
	     sweeping pings.  The default value	is 0.

     -h	sweepincrsize
	     Specify the number	of bytes to increment the size of ICMP payload
	     after each	sweep when sending sweeping pings.  The	default	value
	     is	1.

     -I	iface
	     Source multicast packets with the given interface address.	 This
	     flag only applies if the ping destination is a multicast address.

     -i	wait
	     Wait wait seconds between sending each packet.  The default is to
	     wait for one second between each packet.  The wait	time may be
	     fractional, but only the super-user may specify values less than
	     1 second.	This option is incompatible with the -f	option.

     -L	     Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag	only applies
	     if	the ping destination is	a multicast address.

     -l	preload
	     If	preload	is specified, ping sends that many packets as fast as
	     possible before falling into its normal mode of behavior.	Only
	     the super-user may	use this option.

     -M	mask | time
	     Use ICMP_MASKREQ or ICMP_TSTAMP instead of	ICMP_ECHO.  For	mask,
	     print the netmask of the remote machine.  Set the
	     net.inet.icmp.maskrepl MIB	variable to enable ICMP_MASKREPLY and
	     net.inet.icmp.maskfake if you want	to override the	netmask	in the
	     response.	For time, print	the origination, reception and trans-
	     mission timestamps.  Set the net.inet.icmp.tstamprepl MIB vari-
	     able to enable or disable ICMP_TSTAMPREPLY.

     -m	ttl  Set the IP	Time To	Live for outgoing packets.  If not specified,
	     the kernel	uses the value of the net.inet.ip.ttl MIB variable.

     -n	     Numeric output only.  No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic
	     names for host addresses.

     -o	     Exit successfully after receiving one reply packet.

     -P	policy
	     policy specifies IPsec policy for the ping	session.  For details
	     please refer to ipsec(4) and ipsec_set_policy(3).

     -p	pattern
	     You may specify up	to 16 "pad" bytes to fill out the packet you
	     send.  This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a
	     network.  For example, "-p	ff" will cause the sent	packet to be
	     filled with all ones.

     -Q	     Somewhat quiet output.  Don't display ICMP	error messages that
	     are in response to	our query messages.  Originally, the -v	flag
	     was required to display such errors, but -v displays all ICMP er-
	     ror messages.  On a busy machine, this output can be overbearing.
	     Without the -Q flag, ping prints out any ICMP error messages
	     caused by its own ECHO_REQUEST messages.

     -q	     Quiet output.  Nothing is displayed except	the summary lines at
	     startup time and when finished.

     -R	     Record route.  Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in	the
	     ECHO_REQUEST packet and displays the route	buffer on returned
	     packets.  Note that the IP	header is only large enough for	nine
	     such routes; the traceroute(8) command is usually better at de-
	     termining the route packets take to a particular destination.  If
	     more routes come back than	should,	such as	due to an illegal
	     spoofed packet, ping will print the route list and	then truncate
	     it	at the correct spot.  Many hosts ignore	or discard the
	     RECORD_ROUTE option.

     -r	     Bypass the	normal routing tables and send directly	to a host on
	     an	attached network.  If the host is not on a directly-attached
	     network, an error is returned.  This option can be	used to	ping a
	     local host	through	an interface that has no route through it
	     (e.g., after the interface	was dropped by routed(8)).

     -S	src_addr
	     Use the following IP address as the source	address	in outgoing
	     packets.  On hosts	with more than one IP address, this option can
	     be	used to	force the source address to be something other than
	     the IP address of the interface the probe packet is sent on.  If
	     the IP address is not one of this machine's interface addresses,
	     an	error is returned and nothing is sent.

     -s	packetsize
	     Specify the number	of data	bytes to be sent.  The default is 56,
	     which translates into 64 ICMP data	bytes when combined with the 8
	     bytes of ICMP header data.	 Only the super-user may specify val-
	     ues more than default.  This option cannot	be used	with ping

     -T	ttl  Set the IP	Time To	Live for multicasted packets.  This flag only
	     applies if	the ping destination is	a multicast address.

     -t	timeout
	     Specify a timeout,	in seconds, before ping	exits regardless of
	     how many packets have been	received.

     -v	     Verbose output.  ICMP packets other than ECHO_RESPONSE that are
	     received are listed.

     -W	waittime
	     Time in milliseconds to wait for a	reply for each packet sent.
	     If	a reply	arrives	later, the packet is not printed as replied,
	     but considered as replied when calculating	statistics.

     -z	tos  Use the specified type of service.

     When using	ping for fault isolation, it should first be run on the	local
     host, to verify that the local network interface is up and	running.
     Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be "pinged".
     Round-trip	times and packet loss statistics are computed.	If duplicate
     packets are received, they	are not	included in the	packet loss calcula-
     tion, although the	round trip time	of these packets is used in calculat-
     ing the round-trip	time statistics.  When the specified number of packets
     have been sent (and received) or if the program is	terminated with	a
     SIGINT, a brief summary is	displayed, showing the number of packets sent
     and received, and the minimum, mean, maximum, and standard	deviation of
     the round-trip times.

     If	ping receives a	SIGINFO	(see the status	argument for stty(1)) signal,
     the current number	of packets sent	and received, and the minimum, mean,
     and maximum of the	round-trip times will be written to the	standard error

     This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and man-
     agement.  Because of the load it can impose on the	network, it is unwise
     to	use ping during	normal operations or from automated scripts.

     An	IP header without options is 20	bytes.	An ICMP	ECHO_REQUEST packet
     contains an additional 8 bytes worth of ICMP header followed by an	arbi-
     trary amount of data.  When a packetsize is given,	this indicated the
     size of this extra	piece of data (the default is 56).  Thus the amount of
     data received inside of an	IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always
     be	8 bytes	more than the requested	data space (the	ICMP header).

     If	the data space is at least eight bytes large, ping uses	the first
     eight bytes of this space to include a timestamp which it uses in the
     computation of round trip times.  If less than eight bytes	of pad are
     specified,	no round trip times are	given.

     The ping utility will report duplicate and	damaged	packets.  Duplicate
     packets should never occur	when pinging a unicast address,	and seem to be
     caused by inappropriate link-level	retransmissions.  Duplicates may occur
     in	many situations	and are	rarely (if ever) a good	sign, although the
     presence of low levels of duplicates may not always be cause for alarm.
     Duplicates	are expected when pinging a broadcast or multicast address,
     since they	are not	really duplicates but replies from different hosts to
     the same request.

     Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often indicate
     broken hardware somewhere in the ping packet's path (in the network or in
     the hosts).

     The (inter)network	layer should never treat packets differently depending
     on	the data contained in the data portion.	 Unfortunately,	data-dependent
     problems have been	known to sneak into networks and remain	undetected for
     long periods of time.  In many cases the particular pattern that will
     have problems is something	that does not have sufficient "transitions",
     such as all ones or all zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as
     almost all	zeros.	It is not necessarily enough to	specify	a data pattern
     of	all zeros (for example)	on the command line because the	pattern	that
     is	of interest is at the data link	level, and the relationship between
     what you type and what the	controllers transmit can be complicated.

     This means	that if	you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
     have to do	a lot of testing to find it.  If you are lucky,	you may	manage
     to	find a file that either	cannot be sent across your network or that
     takes much	longer to transfer than	other similar length files.  You can
     then examine this file for	repeated patterns that you can test using the
     -p	option of ping.

     The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers
     that the packet can go through before being thrown	away.  In current
     practice you can expect each router in the	Internet to decrement the TTL
     field by exactly one.

     The TCP/IP	specification recommends setting the TTL field for IP packets
     to	64, but	many systems use smaller values	(4.3BSD	uses 30, 4.2BSD	used

     The maximum possible value	of this	field is 255, and most UNIX systems
     set the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255.  This is why you
     will find you can "ping" some hosts, but not reach	them with telnet(1) or

     In	normal operation ping prints the ttl value from	the packet it re-
     ceives.  When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of
     three things with the TTL field in	its response:

     o	 Not change it;	this is	what BSD systems did before the	4.3BSD-Tahoe
	 release.  In this case	the TTL	value in the received packet will be
	 255 minus the number of routers in the	round-trip path.

     o	 Set it	to 255;	this is	what current BSD systems do.  In this case the
	 TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the	number of
	 routers in the	path from the remote system to the pinging host.

     o	 Set it	to some	other value.  Some machines use	the same value for
	 ICMP packets that they	use for	TCP packets, for example either	30 or
	 60.  Others may use completely	wild values.

     The ping utility exits with one of	the following values:

     0	     At	least one response was heard from the specified	host.

     2	     The transmission was successful but no responses were received.

     any other value
	     An	error occurred.	 These values are defined in <sysexits.h>.

     netstat(1), icmp(4), ifconfig(8), routed(8), traceroute(8)

     The ping utility appeared in 4.3BSD.

     The original ping utility was written by Mike Muuss while at the US Army
     Ballistics	Research Laboratory.

     Many Hosts	and Gateways ignore the	RECORD_ROUTE option.

     The maximum IP header length is too small for options like	RECORD_ROUTE
     to	be completely useful.  There's not much	that can be done about this,

     Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the	broad-
     cast address should only be done under very controlled conditions.

     The -v option is not worth	much on	busy hosts.

BSD				March 11, 2016				   BSD


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