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PKG_ADD(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		    PKG_ADD(1)

     pkg_add --	a utility for installing software package distributions

     pkg_add [-vInfrRMS] [-t template] [-p prefix] [-C chrootdir] pkg-name
	     [pkg-name ...]

     The pkg_add command is used to extract packages that have been previously
     created with the pkg_create(1) command.

     Since the pkg_add command may execute scripts or programs contained
     within a package file, your system	may be susceptible to "trojan horses"
     or	other subtle attacks from miscreants who create	dangerous package

     You are advised to	verify the competence and identity of those who	pro-
     vide installable package files.  For extra	protection, use	the -M flag to
     extract the package file, and inspect its contents	and scripts to ensure
     it	poses no danger	to your	system's integrity.  Pay particular attention
     +MTREE_DIRS files,	and inspect the	+CONTENTS file for @cwd, @mode (check
     for setuid), @dirrm, @exec, and @unexec directives, and/or	use the
     pkg_info(1) command to examine the	package	file.

     The following command line	arguments are supported:

     pkg-name [pkg-name	...]
	     The named packages	are installed.	A package name of - will cause
	     pkg_add to	read from stdin.  If the packages are not found	in the
	     current working directory,	pkg_add	will search them in each di-
	     rectory named by PKG_PATH.

     -v	     Turn on verbose output.

     -I	     If	any installation scripts (pre-install or post-install) exist
	     for a given package, do not execute them.

     -n	     Don't actually install a package, just report the steps that
	     would be taken if it was.

     -R	     Do	not record the installation of a package.  This	means that you
	     cannot deinstall it later,	so only	use this option	if you know
	     what you are doing!

     -r	     Use the remote fetching feature.  This will determine the appro-
	     priate objformat and release and then fetch and install the pack-

     -f	     Force installation	to proceed even	if prerequisite	packages are
	     not installed or the requirements script fails.  Although pkg_add
	     will still	try to find and	auto-install missing prerequisite
	     packages, a failure to find one will not be fatal.

     -p	prefix
	     Set prefix	as the directory in which to extract files from	a
	     package.  If a package has	set its	default	directory, it will be
	     overridden	by this	flag.  Note that only the first	@cwd directive
	     will be replaced, since pkg_add has no way	of knowing which di-
	     rectory settings are relative and which are absolute.  It is rare
	     in	any case to see	more than one directory	transition made, but
	     when such does happen and you wish	to have	control	over *all* di-
	     rectory transitions, then you may then wish to look into the use
	     of	MASTER and SLAVE modes (see the	-M and -S options).

     -t	template
	     Use template as the input to mktemp(3) when creating a "staging
	     area".  By	default, this is the string /var/tmp/instmp.XXXXXX,
	     but it may	be necessary to	override it in the situation where
	     space in your /var/tmp directory is limited.  Be sure to leave
	     some number of `X'	characters for mktemp(3) to fill in with a
	     unique ID.

	     You can get a performance boost by	setting	the staging area
	     template to reside	on the same disk partition as target directo-
	     ries for package file installation; often this is /usr.

     -M	     Run in MASTER mode.  This is a very specialized mode for running
	     pkg_add and is meant to be	run in conjunction with	SLAVE mode.
	     When run in this mode, pkg_add does no work beyond	extracting the
	     package into a temporary staging area (see	the -t option),	read-
	     ing in the	packing	list, and then dumping it (prefaced by the
	     current staging area) to stdout where it may be filtered by a
	     program such as sed(1).  When used	in conjunction with SLAVE
	     mode, it allows you to make radical changes to the	package	struc-
	     ture before acting	on its contents.

     -S	     Run in SLAVE mode.	 This is a very	specialized mode for running
	     pkg_add and is meant to be	run in conjunction with	MASTER mode.
	     When run in this mode, pkg_add expects the	release	contents to be
	     already extracted and waiting in the staging area,	the location
	     of	which is read as a string from stdin.  The complete packing
	     list is also read from stdin, and the contents then acted on as

     -C	chrootdir
	     Before doing any operations, chroot(2) to the chrootdir directory
	     so	that all package files,	and the	package	database, are in-
	     stalled to	chrootdir.  Note that chrootdir	needs to be a fairly
	     complete file system, including everything	normally needed	by
	     pkg_add to	run.  This flag	was added to help support operations
	     done by sysinstall(8) and is not expected to be useful for	much
	     else.  Be careful that chrootdir is properly configured and can-
	     not be modified by	normal users, versions of commands like
	     fetch(1) may be run inside	chrootdir as a side effect.

     One or more pkg-name arguments may	be specified, each being either	a file
     containing	the package (these usually end with a ".tbz" suffix) or	a URL
     pointing at a file	available on an	ftp site.  Thus	you may	extract	files
     directly from their anonymous ftp locations (e.g. pkg_add
     Note: If you wish to use passive mode ftp in such transfers, set the
     variable FTP_PASSIVE_MODE to some value in	your environment.  Otherwise,
     the more standard ACTIVE mode may be used.	 If pkg_add consistently fails
     to	fetch a	package	from a site known to work, it may be because you have
     a firewall	that demands the usage of passive mode ftp.

     The pkg_add utility extracts each package's "packing list"	into a special
     staging directory in /tmp (or $PKG_TMPDIR if set),	parses it, and then
     runs through the following	sequence to fully extract the contents of the

     1.	  A check is made to determine if the package is already recorded as
	  installed.  If it is,	installation is	terminated.

     2.	  A check is made to determine if the package conflicts	(from
	  @conflicts directives, see pkg_create(1)) with an already-installed
	  package.  If it is, installation is terminated.

     3.	  Scan all the package dependencies (from @pkgdep directives, see
	  pkg_create(1)) are read from the packing list.  If any of these re-
	  quired packages is not currently installed, an attempt is made to
	  find and install it; if the missing package cannot be	found or in-
	  stalled, the installation is terminated.

     4.	  Search for any @option directives which control how the package is
	  added	to the system.	At the time of this writing, the only cur-
	  rently implemented option is @option extract-in-place	which will
	  cause	the package to be extracted directly into its prefix directory
	  without moving through a staging area	in /tmp.

     5.	  If @option extract-in-place is enabled, the package is now extracted
	  directly into	its final location, otherwise it is extracted into the
	  staging area.

     6.	  If the package contains a require file (see pkg_create(1)), then ex-
	  ecute	it with	the following arguments:
		pkg-name INSTALL
	  where	pkg-name is the	name of	the package in question	and the
	  INSTALL keyword denotes this as an installation requirements check
	  (useful if you want to have one script serving multiple functions).

     7.	  If a pre-install script exists for the package, it is	then executed
	  with the following arguments:
		script pkg-name	PRE-INSTALL

	  where	pkg-name is the	name of	the package in question	and
	  PRE-INSTALL is a keyword denoting this as the	preinstallation	phase.

	  Note:	The PRE-INSTALL	keyword	will not appear	if separate scripts
	  for pre-install and post-install are given during package creation
	  time (using the -i and -I flags to pkg_create(1)).

     8.	  If @option extract-in-place is not used, then	the packing list (this
	  is the +CONTENTS file) is now	used as	a guide	for moving (or copy-
	  ing, as necessary) files from	the staging area into their final lo-

     9.	  If the package contains an mtreefile file (see pkg_create(1)), then
	  mtree	is invoked as:
		mtree -u -f mtreefile -d -e -p prefix
	  where	prefix is either the prefix specified with the -p flag or, if
	  no -p	flag was specified, the	name of	the first directory named by a
	  @cwd directive within	this package.

     10.  If a post-install script exists for the package, it is then executed
		script pkg-name	POST-INSTALL
	  where	pkg-name is the	name of	the package in question	and
	  POST-INSTALL is a keyword denoting this as the post-installation

	  Note:	The POST-INSTALL keyword will not appear if separate scripts
	  for pre-install and post-install are given during package creation
	  time (using the -i and -I flags to pkg_create(1)).

	  Reasoning behind passing keywords such as POST-INSTALL and
	  PRE-INSTALL is that this allows you to write a single	install	script
	  that does both "before and after" actions.  But, separating the
	  functionality	is more	advantageous and easier	from a maintenance

     11.  After	installation is	complete, a copy of the	packing	list,
	  deinstall script, description, and display files are copied into
	  /var/db/pkg/_pkg-name_ for subsequent	possible use by	pkg_delete(1).
	  Any package dependencies are recorded	in the other packages'
	  /var/db/pkg/_other-pkg_/+REQUIRED_BY file (if	the environment	vari-
	  able PKG_DBDIR is set, this overrides	the /var/db/pkg/ path shown

     12.  Finally, the staging area is deleted and the program terminates.

     All the scripts are called	with the environment variable PKG_PREFIX set
     to	the installation prefix	(see the -p option above).  This allows	a
     package author to write a script that reliably performs some action on
     the directory where the package is	installed, even	if the user might
     change it with the	-p flag	to pkg_add.

     The value of the PKG_PATH is used if a given package can't	be found.  The
     environment variable should be a series of	entries	separated by colons.
     Each entry	consists of a directory	name.  The current directory may be
     indicated implicitly by an	empty directory	name, or explicitly by a sin-
     gle period.

     The environment variable PKG_DBDIR	specifies an alternative location for
     the installed package database, default location is /var/db/pkg.

     The environment variables PKG_TMPDIR and TMPDIR, in that order, are taken
     to	name temporary directories where pkg_add will attempt to create	its
     staging area in.  If these	variables are not present or if	the directo-
     ries named	lack sufficient	space, then pkg_add will use the first of
     /var/tmp, /tmp or /usr/tmp	with sufficient	space.

     The environment variable PACKAGEROOT specifies an alternate location for
     pkg_add to	fetch from.  The fetch URL is built using this environment
     variable and the automatic	directory logic	that pkg_add uses when the -r
     option is invoked.	 An example setting would be "".

     The environment variable PACKAGESITE specifies an alternate location for
     pkg_add to	fetch from.  This variable subverts the	automatic directory
     logic that	pkg_add	uses when the -r option	is invoked.  Thus it should be
     a complete	URL to the remote package file(s).

     /var/tmp	  Temporary directory for creating the staging area, if	envi-
		  ronmental variables PKG_TMPDIR or TMPDIR do not point	to a
		  suitable directory.
     /tmp	  Next choice if /var/tmp does not exist or has	insufficient
     /usr/tmp	  Last choice if /var/tmp and /tmp are not suitable for	creat-
		  ing the staging area.
     /var/db/pkg  Default location of the installed package database.

     pkg_create(1), pkg_delete(1), pkg_info(1),	pkg_version(1),	mktemp(3),
     sysconf(3), mtree(8)

     Jordan Hubbard

     John Kohl <>

     Hard links	between	files in a distribution	are only preserved if either
     (1) the staging area is on	the same file system as	the target directory
     of	all the	links to the file, or (2) all the links	to the file are	brack-
     eted by @cwd directives in	the contents file, and the link	names are ex-
     tracted with a single tar command (not split between invocations due to
     exec argument-space limitations--this depends on the value	returned by

     Sure to be	others.

BSD				 March 1, 2004				   BSD


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