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PROJ(1)				     PROJ			       PROJ(1)

       proj - Cartographic projection filter

	  proj [-beEfiIlmorsStTvVwW] [args]] [+opt[=arg] ...] file ...

	  invproj [-beEfiIlmorsStTvVwW]	[args]]	[+opt[=arg] ...] file ...

       proj  and  invproj perform respective forward and inverse conversion of
       cartographic data to or from cartesian data with	a wide	range  of  se-
       lectable	projection functions.

       invproj may not be available on all platforms; in this case use proj -I

       The following control parameters	can appear in any order

       -b     Special option for  binary  coordinate  data  input  and	output
	      through  standard	 input and standard output. Data is assumed to
	      be in system type	double floating	point words. This option is to
	      be  used	when proj is a child process and allows	bypassing for-
	      matting operations.

       -d <n>

       New in version 5.2.0: Specify the number	of decimals in the output.

       -i     Selects binary input only	(see -b).

       -I     Alternate	method to specify inverse projection.  Redundant  when
	      used with	invproj.

       -o     Selects binary output only (see -b).

       -t<a>  Where a specifies	a character employed as	the first character to
	      denote a control line to be passed through  without  processing.
	      This  option  applicable	to ASCII input only. (#	is the default

       -e <string>
	      Where string is an arbitrary string to be	output if an error  is
	      detected	during	data  transformations.	The default value is a
	      three character string: *\t*.  Note that if the -b, -i or	-o op-
	      tions  are  employed, an error is	returned as HUGE_VAL value for
	      both return values.

       -E     Causes the input coordinates to be copied	 to  the  output  line
	      prior to printing	the converted values.

	      List  projection	identifiers  that  can be selected with	+proj.
	      proj -l=id gives expanded	description  of	 projection  id,  e.g.
	      proj -l=merc.

       -lp    List of all projection id	that can be used with the +proj	param-
	      eter.  Equivalent	to proj	-l.

       -lP    Expanded description of all projections that can	be  used  with
	      the +proj	parameter.

       -le    List  of all ellipsoids that can be selected with	the +ellps pa-

       -lu    List of all distance units that can be selected with the	+units

       -r     This  options reverses the order of the expected input from lon-
	      gitude-latitude or x-y to	latitude-longitude or y-x.

       -s     This options reverses the	order of the output from x-y or	longi-
	      tude-latitude to y-x or latitude-longitude.

       -S     Causes estimation	of meridional and parallel scale factors, area
	      scale factor and angular distortion,  and	 maximum  and  minimum
	      scale  factors to	be listed between <> for each input point. For
	      conformal	projections meridional	and  parallel  scales  factors
	      will  be	equal  and angular distortion zero. Equal area projec-
	      tions will have an area factor of	1.

       -m <mult>
	      The cartesian data may be	scaled by  the	mult  parameter.  When
	      processing  data in a forward projection mode the	cartesian out-
	      put values are multiplied	by mult	otherwise the input  cartesian
	      values  are  divided  by	mult before inverse projection.	If the
	      first two	characters of mult are 1/ or 1:	 then  the  reciprocal
	      value of mult is employed.

       -f <format>
	      Where  format  is	 a printf format string	to control the form of
	      the output values.  For inverse projections, the output will  be
	      in  degrees  when	this option is employed. The default format is
	      "%.2f" for forward projection and	DMS for	inverse.

       -w<n>  Where n is the number of significant fractional digits to	employ
	      for seconds output (when the option is not specified, -w3	is as-

       -W<n>  Where n is the number of significant fractional digits to	employ
	      for  seconds output. When	-W is employed the fields will be con-
	      stant width with leading zeroes.

       -v     Causes a listing of cartographic control parameters  tested  for
	      and used by the program to be printed prior to input data.

       -V     This  option causes an expanded annotated	listing	of the charac-
	      teristics	of the projected point.	-v is implied  with  this  op-

       The  +opt  run-line  arguments are associated with cartographic parame-
       ters.  Additional projection control parameters may be contained	in two
       auxiliary  control  files:  the first is	optionally referenced with the
       +init=file:id and the second is always processed	after the name of  the
       projection  has	been  established from either the run-line or the con-
       tents of	+init file. The	environment parameter PROJ_LIB establishes the
       default	directory  for a file reference	without	an absolute path. This
       is also used for	supporting files like datum shift files.

       One or more files (processed in left to right order) specify the	source
       of  data	 to  be	converted. A - will specify the	location of processing
       standard	input. If no files are specified, the input is assumed	to  be
       from  stdin.   For  ASCII input data the	two data values	must be	in the
       first two white space separated fields and when both input  and	output
       are  ASCII  all trailing	portions of the	input line are appended	to the
       output line.

       Input geographic	data (longitude	and latitude) must be in DMS or	 deci-
       mal degrees format and input cartesian data must	be in units consistent
       with the	ellipsoid major	axis or	sphere radius units. Output geographic
       coordinates  will be in DMS (if the -w switch is	not employed) and pre-
       cise to 0.001" with trailing, zero-valued minute-second fields deleted.

       The following script

	  proj +proj=utm +lon_0=112w +ellps=clrk66 -r <<EOF
	  45d15'33.1" 111.5W
	  45d15.551666667N -111d30
	  +45.25919444444 111d30'000w

       will perform UTM	forward	projection with	a standard UTM central	merid-
       ian  nearest  longitude 112W. The geographic values of this example are
       equivalent and meant as examples	of various forms of DMS	input. The x-y
       output data will	appear as three	lines of:

	  460769.27	5011648.45

       The  proj  program is limited to	converting between geographic and pro-
       jected coordinates within one datum.

       The cs2cs program operates similarly, but  allows  translation  between
       any  pair  of definable coordinate reference systems, including support
       for datum translation.

       cs2cs(1), cct(1), geod(1), gie(1), projinfo(1), projsync(1)

       A     list     of     know     bugs	can	 be	 found	    at  where new bug reports can be sub-
       mitted to.


       Gerald I. Evenden


7.2.0				 Nov 01, 2020			       PROJ(1)


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