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PS(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual			 PS(1)

     ps	-- process status

     ps	[-aCcefhjlmrSTuvwxZ] [-M core] [-N system] [-O fmt] [-o	fmt] [-p pid]
	[-t tty] [-U username[,username...]]
     ps	[-L]

     The ps utility displays a header line followed by lines containing	infor-
     mation about your processes that have controlling terminals.  This	infor-
     mation is sorted by controlling terminal, then by process ID.

     The information displayed is selected based on a set of keywords (see the
     -L	-O and -o options).  The default output	format includes, for each
     process, the process' ID, controlling terminal, cpu time (including both
     user and system time), state, and associated command.

     The process file system (see procfs(5)) should be mounted when ps is exe-
     cuted, otherwise not all information will be available.

     The options are as	follows:

     -a	     Display information about other users' processes as well as your
	     own.  This	can be disabled	by setting the
	     security.bsd.see_other_uids sysctl	to zero.

     -c	     Change the	``command'' column output to just contain the exe-
	     cutable name, rather than the full	command	line.

     -C	     Change the	way the	cpu percentage is calculated by	using a
	     ``raw'' cpu calculation that ignores ``resident'' time (this nor-
	     mally has no effect).

     -e	     Display the environment as	well.

     -f	     Show commandline and environment information about	swapped	out
	     processes.	 This option is	honored	only if	the uid	of the user is

     -h	     Repeat the	information header as often as necessary to guarantee
	     one header	per page of information.

     -j	     Print information associated with the following keywords: user,
	     pid, ppid,	pgid, jobc, state, tt, time and	command.

     -L	     List the set of available keywords.

     -l	     Display information associated with the following keywords: uid,
	     pid, ppid,	cpu, pri, nice,	vsz, rss, mwchan, state, tt, time and

     -M	     Extract values associated with the	name list from the specified
	     core instead of the default /dev/kmem.

     -m	     Sort by memory usage, instead of by process ID.

     -N	     Extract the name list from	the specified system instead of	the
	     default /boot/kernel/kernel.

     -O	     Add the information associated with the space or comma separated
	     list of keywords specified, after the process ID, in the default
	     information display.  Keywords may	be appended with an equals
	     (``='') sign and a	string.	 This causes the printed header	to use
	     the specified string instead of the standard header.

     -o	     Display information associated with the space or comma separated
	     list of keywords specified.  Multiple keywords may	also be	given
	     in	the form of more than one -o option.  Keywords may be appended
	     with an equals (``='') sign and a string.	This causes the
	     printed header to use the specified string	instead	of the stan-
	     dard header.

     -p	     Display information associated with the specified process ID.

     -r	     Sort by current cpu usage,	instead	of by process ID.

     -S	     Change the	way the	process	time is	calculated by summing all ex-
	     ited children to their parent process.

     -T	     Display information about processes attached to the device	asso-
	     ciated with the standard input.

     -t	     Display information about processes attached to the specified
	     terminal device.

     -U	     Display the processes belonging to	the specified username(s).

     -u	     Display information associated with the following keywords: user,
	     pid, %cpu,	%mem, vsz, rss,	tt, state, start, time and command.
	     The -u option implies the -r option.

     -v	     Display information associated with the following keywords: pid,
	     state, time, sl, re, pagein, vsz, rss, lim, tsiz, %cpu, %mem and
	     command.  The -v option implies the -m option.

     -w	     Use 132 columns to	display	information, instead of	the default
	     which is your window size.	 If the	-w option is specified more
	     than once,	ps will	use as many columns as necessary without re-
	     gard for your window size.

     -x	     Display information about processes without controlling termi-

     -Z	     Add label to the list of keywords for which ps will display in-

     A complete	list of	the available keywords are listed below.  Some of
     these keywords are	further	specified as follows:

     %cpu      The cpu utilization of the process; this	is a decaying average
	       over up to a minute of previous (real) time.  Since the time
	       base over which this is computed	varies (since processes	may be
	       very young) it is possible for the sum of all %CPU fields to
	       exceed 100%.

     %mem      The percentage of real memory used by this process.

     flags     The flags associated with the process as	in the include file

	       P_ADVLOCK      0x00001	     Process may hold a	POSIX advisory
	       P_CONTROLT     0x00002	     Has a controlling terminal
	       P_INMEM	      0x00004	     Loaded into memory
	       P_NOCLDSTOP    0x00008	     No	SIGCHLD	when children stop
	       P_PPWAIT	      0x00010	     Parent is waiting for child to
	       P_PROFIL	      0x00020	     Has started profiling
	       P_SELECT	      0x00040	     Selecting;	wakeup/waiting danger
	       P_SINTR	      0x00080	     Sleep is interruptible
	       P_SUGID	      0x00100	     Had set id	privileges since last
	       P_SYSTEM	      0x00200	     System proc: no sigs, stats or
	       P_TIMEOUT      0x00400	     Timing out	during sleep
	       P_TRACED	      0x00800	     Debugged process being traced
	       P_WAITED	      0x01000	     Debugging process has waited for
	       P_WEXIT	      0x02000	     Working on	exiting
	       P_EXEC	      0x04000	     Process called exec
	       P_OWEUPC	      0x20000	     Owe process an addupc() call at
					     next ast
	       P_SWAPPING     0x40000	     Process is	being swapped

     label     The MAC label of	the process.

     lim       The soft	limit on memory	used, specified	via a call to

     lstart    The exact time the command started, using the ``%c'' format de-
	       scribed in strftime(3).

     lockname  The name	of the lock that the process is	currently blocked on.
	       If the name is invalid or unknown, then "???" is	displayed.

     mwchan    The event name if the process is	blocked	normally, or the lock
	       name if the process is blocked on a lock.  See the wchan	and
	       lockname	keywords for details.

     nice      The process scheduling increment	(see setpriority(2)).

     rss       the real	memory (resident set) size of the process (in 1024
	       byte units).

     start     The time	the command started.  If the command started less than
	       24 hours	ago, the start time is displayed using the
	       ``%l:ps.1p'' format described in	strftime(3).  If the command
	       started less than 7 days	ago, the start time is displayed using
	       the ``%a6.15p'' format.	Otherwise, the start time is displayed
	       using the ``%e%b%y'' format.

     state     The state is given by a sequence	of letters, for	example,
	       "RWNA".	The first letter indicates the run state of the

	       D       Marks a process in disk (or other short term, uninter-
		       ruptible) wait.
	       I       Marks a process that is idle (sleeping for longer than
		       about 20	seconds).
	       J       Marks a process which is	in jail(2).  The hostname of
		       the prison can be found in `/proc/<pid>/status'.
	       L       Marks a process that is waiting to acquire a lock.
	       R       Marks a runnable	process.
	       S       Marks a process that is sleeping	for less than about 20
	       T       Marks a stopped process.
	       Z       Marks a dead process (a ``zombie'').

	       Additional characters after these, if any, indicate additional
	       state information:

	       +       The process is in the foreground	process	group of its
		       control terminal.
	       <       The process has raised CPU scheduling priority.
	       >       The process has specified a soft	limit on memory	re-
		       quirements and is currently exceeding that limit; such
		       a process is (necessarily) not swapped.
	       A       the process has asked for random	page replacement
		       (MADV_RANDOM, from madvise(2), for example, lisp	in a
		       garbage collect).
	       E       The process is trying to	exit.
	       L       The process has pages locked in core (for example, for
		       raw I/O).
	       N       The process has reduced CPU scheduling priority (see
	       S       The process has asked for FIFO page replacement
		       (MADV_SEQUENTIAL, from madvise(2), for example, a large
		       image processing	program	using virtual memory to	se-
		       quentially address voluminous data).
	       s       The process is a	session	leader.
	       V       The process is suspended	during a vfork.
	       W       The process is swapped out.
	       X       The process is being traced or debugged.

     tt	       An abbreviation for the pathname	of the controlling terminal,
	       if any.	The abbreviation consists of the three letters follow-
	       ing /dev/tty, or, for the console, ``con''.  This is followed
	       by a ``-'' if the process can no	longer reach that controlling
	       terminal	(i.e., it has been revoked).

     wchan     The event (an address in	the system) on which a process waits.
	       When printed numerically, the initial part of the address is
	       trimmed off and the result is printed in	hex, for example,
	       0x80324000 prints as 324000.

     When printing using the command keyword, a	process	that has exited	and
     has a parent that has not yet waited for the process (in other words, a
     zombie) is	listed as ``<defunct>'', and a process which is	blocked	while
     trying to exit is listed as ``<exiting>''.	 The ps	utility	makes an edu-
     cated guess as to the file	name and arguments given when the process was
     created by	examining memory or the	swap area.  The	method is inherently
     somewhat unreliable and in	any event a process is entitled	to destroy
     this information, so the names cannot be depended on too much.  The ucomm
     (accounting) keyword can, however,	be depended on.

     The following is a	complete list of the available keywords	and their
     meanings.	Several	of them	have aliases (keywords which are synonyms).

     %cpu	percentage cpu usage (alias pcpu)
     %mem	percentage memory usage	(alias pmem)
     acflag	accounting flag	(alias acflg)
     args	command	and arguments
     comm	command
     command	command	and arguments
     cpu	short-term cpu usage factor (for scheduling)
     etime	elapsed	running	time
     flags	the process flags, in hexadecimal (alias f)
     inblk	total blocks read (alias inblock)
     jobc	job control count
     ktrace	tracing	flags
     label	MAC label
     lim	memoryuse limit
     logname	login name of user who started the process
     lstart	time started
     majflt	total page faults
     minflt	total page reclaims
     msgrcv	total messages received	(reads from pipes/sockets)
     msgsnd	total messages sent (writes on pipes/sockets)
     lockname	lock currently blocked on (as a	symbolic name)
     mwchan	wait channel or	lock currently blocked on
     nice	nice value (alias ni)
     nivcsw	total involuntary context switches
     nsigs	total signals taken (alias nsignals)
     nswap	total swaps in/out
     nvcsw	total voluntary	context	switches
     nwchan	wait channel (as an address)
     oublk	total blocks written (alias oublock)
     paddr	swap address
     pagein	pageins	(same as majflt)
     pgid	process	group number
     pid	process	ID
     poip	pageouts in progress
     ppid	parent process ID
     pri	scheduling priority
     re		core residency time (in	seconds; 127 = infinity)
     rgid	real group ID
     rgroup	group name (from rgid)
     rlink	reverse	link on	run queue, or 0
     rss	resident set size
     rtprio	realtime priority (101 = not a realtime	process)
     ruid	real user ID
     ruser	user name (from	ruid)
     sid	session	ID
     sig	pending	signals	(alias pending)
     sigcatch	caught signals (alias caught)
     sigignore	ignored	signals	(alias ignored)
     sigmask	blocked	signals	(alias blocked)
     sl		sleep time (in seconds;	127 = infinity)
     start	time started
     state	symbolic process state (alias stat)
     svgid	saved gid from a setgid	executable
     svuid	saved uid from a setuid	executable
     tdev	control	terminal device	number
     time	accumulated cpu	time, user + system (alias cputime)
     tpgid	control	terminal process group ID
     tsid	control	terminal session ID
     tsiz	text size (in Kbytes)
     tt		control	terminal name (two letter abbreviation)
     tty	full name of control terminal
     uprocp	process	pointer
     ucomm	name to	be used	for accounting
     uid	effective user ID
     upr	scheduling priority on return from system call (alias usrpri)
     user	user name (from	uid)
     vsz	virtual	size in	Kbytes (alias vsize)
     wchan	wait channel (as a symbolic name)
     xstat	exit or	stop status (valid only	for stopped or zombie process)

     The following environment variables affect	the execution of ps:

     COLUMNS  If set, specifies	the user's preferred output width in column
	      positions.  By default, ps attempts to automatically determine
	      the terminal width.

     /dev/kmem		    default kernel memory
     /dev/lomac		    interface used to query the	lomac(4) KLD
     /var/run/dev.db	    /dev name database
     /var/db/kvm_kernel.db  system namelist database
     /boot/kernel/kernel    default system namelist
     /proc		    the	mount point of procfs(5)

     kill(1), w(1), kvm(3), strftime(3), lomac(4), procfs(5), pstat(8),
     sysctl(8),	mutex(9)

     The ps command appeared in	Version	4 AT&T UNIX.

     Since ps cannot run faster	than the system	and is run as any other	sched-
     uled process, the information it displays can never be exact.

BSD				April 18, 1994				   BSD


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