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PS(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual			 PS(1)

     ps	-- process status

     ps	[-aCcefHhjlmrSTuvwXxZ] [-O fmt | -o fmt] [-G gid[,gid...]] [-M core]
	[-N system] [-p	pid[,pid...]] [-t tty[,tty...]]	[-U user[,user...]]
     ps	[-L]

     The ps utility displays a header line, followed by	lines containing in-
     formation about all of your processes that	have controlling terminals.

     A different set of	processes can be selected for display by using any
     combination of the	-a, -G,	-p, -T,	-t, and	-U options.  If	more than one
     of	these options are given, then ps will select all processes which are
     matched by	at least one of	the given options.

     For the processes which have been selected	for display, ps	will usually
     display one line per process.  The	-H option may result in	multiple out-
     put lines (one line per thread) for some processes.  By default all of
     these output lines	are sorted first by controlling	terminal, then by
     process ID.  The -m, -r, -u, and -v options will change the sort order.
     If	more than one sorting option was given,	then the selected processes
     will be sorted by the last	sorting	option which was specified.

     For the processes which have been selected	for display, the information
     to	display	is selected based on a set of keywords (see the	-L, -O,	and -o
     options).	The default output format includes, for	each process, the
     process' ID, controlling terminal,	CPU time (including both user and sys-
     tem time),	state, and associated command.

     The process file system (see procfs(5)) should be mounted when ps is exe-
     cuted, otherwise not all information will be available.

     The options are as	follows:

     -a	     Display information about other users' processes as well as your
	     own.  This	will skip any processes	which do not have a control-
	     ling terminal, unless the -x option is also specified.  This can
	     be	disabled by setting the	security.bsd.see_other_uids sysctl to

     -c	     Change the	"command" column output	to just	contain	the executable
	     name, rather than the full	command	line.

     -C	     Change the	way the	CPU percentage is calculated by	using a	"raw"
	     CPU calculation that ignores "resident" time (this	normally has
	     no	effect).

     -e	     Display the environment as	well.

     -f	     Show commandline and environment information about	swapped	out
	     processes.	 This option is	honored	only if	the UID	of the user is

     -G	     Display information about processes which are running with	the
	     specified real group IDs.

     -H	     Show all of the kernel visible threads associated with each
	     process.  Depending on the	threading package that is in use, this
	     may show only the process,	only the kernel	scheduled entities, or
	     all of the	process	threads.

     -h	     Repeat the	information header as often as necessary to guarantee
	     one header	per page of information.

     -j	     Print information associated with the following keywords: user,
	     pid, ppid,	pgid, sid, jobc, state,	tt, time, and command.

     -L	     List the set of keywords available	for the	-O and -o options.

     -l	     Display information associated with the following keywords: uid,
	     pid, ppid,	cpu, pri, nice,	vsz, rss, mwchan, state, tt, time, and

     -M	     Extract values associated with the	name list from the specified
	     core instead of the currently running system.

     -m	     Sort by memory usage, instead of the combination of controlling
	     terminal and process ID.

     -N	     Extract the name list from	the specified system instead of	the
	     default, which is the kernel image	the system has booted from.

     -O	     Add the information associated with the space or comma separated
	     list of keywords specified, after the process ID, in the default
	     information display.  Keywords may	be appended with an equals
	     (`=') sign	and a string.  This causes the printed header to use
	     the specified string instead of the standard header.

     -o	     Display information associated with the space or comma separated
	     list of keywords specified.  Multiple keywords may	also be	given
	     in	the form of more than one -o option.  Keywords may be appended
	     with an equals (`=') sign and a string.  This causes the printed
	     header to use the specified string	instead	of the standard
	     header.  If all keywords have empty header	texts, no header line
	     is	written.

     -p	     Display information about processes which match the specified
	     process IDs.

     -r	     Sort by current CPU usage,	instead	of the combination of control-
	     ling terminal and process ID.

     -S	     Change the	way the	process	time is	calculated by summing all ex-
	     ited children to their parent process.

     -T	     Display information about processes attached to the device	asso-
	     ciated with the standard input.

     -t	     Display information about processes attached to the specified
	     terminal devices.

     -U	     Display the processes belonging to	the specified usernames.

     -u	     Display information associated with the following keywords: user,
	     pid, %cpu,	%mem, vsz, rss,	tt, state, start, time,	and command.
	     The -u option implies the -r option.

     -v	     Display information associated with the following keywords: pid,
	     state, time, sl, re, pagein, vsz, rss, lim, tsiz, %cpu, %mem, and
	     command.  The -v option implies the -m option.

     -w	     Use 132 columns to	display	information, instead of	the default
	     which is your window size.	 If the	-w option is specified more
	     than once,	ps will	use as many columns as necessary without re-
	     gard for your window size.

     -X	     When displaying processes matched by other	options, skip any pro-
	     cesses which do not have a	controlling terminal.

     -x	     When displaying processes matched by other	options, include pro-
	     cesses which do not have a	controlling terminal.  This is the op-
	     posite of the -X option.  If both -X and -x are specified in the
	     same command, then	ps will	use the	one which was specified	last.

     -Z	     Add mac(4)	label to the list of keywords for which	ps will	dis-
	     play information.

     A complete	list of	the available keywords are listed below.  Some of
     these keywords are	further	specified as follows:

     %cpu      The CPU utilization of the process; this	is a decaying average
	       over up to a minute of previous (real) time.  Since the time
	       base over which this is computed	varies (since processes	may be
	       very young) it is possible for the sum of all %cpu fields to
	       exceed 100%.

     %mem      The percentage of real memory used by this process.

     flags     The flags associated with the process as	in the include file

	       P_ADVLOCK	   0x00001	Process	may hold a POSIX
						advisory lock
	       P_CONTROLT	   0x00002	Has a controlling terminal
	       P_KTHREAD	   0x00004	Kernel thread
	       P_NOLOAD		   0x00008	Ignore during load avg
	       P_PPWAIT		   0x00010	Parent is waiting for child to
	       P_PROFIL		   0x00020	Has started profiling
	       P_STOPPROF	   0x00040	Has thread in requesting to
						stop prof
	       P_SUGID		   0x00100	Had set	id privileges since
						last exec
	       P_SYSTEM		   0x00200	System proc: no	sigs, stats or
	       P_SINGLE_EXIT	   0x00400	Threads	suspending should
						exit, not wait
	       P_TRACED		   0x00800	Debugged process being traced
	       P_WAITED		   0x01000	Someone	is waiting for us
	       P_WEXIT		   0x02000	Working	on exiting
	       P_EXEC		   0x04000	Process	called exec
	       P_SA		   0x08000	Using scheduler	activations
	       P_CONTINUED	   0x10000	Proc has continued from	a
						stopped	state
	       P_STOPPED_SIG	   0x20000	Stopped	due to SIGSTOP/SIGTSTP
	       P_STOPPED_TRACE	   0x40000	Stopped	because	of tracing
	       P_STOPPED_SINGLE	   0x80000	Only one thread	can continue
	       P_PROTECTED	   0x100000	Do not kill on memory
	       P_SIGEVENT	   0x200000	Process	pending	signals
	       P_JAILED		   0x1000000	Process	is in jail
	       P_INEXEC		   0x4000000	Process	is in execve()

     label     The MAC label of	the process.

     lim       The soft	limit on memory	used, specified	via a call to

     lstart    The exact time the command started, using the `%c' format de-
	       scribed in strftime(3).

     lockname  The name	of the lock that the process is	currently blocked on.
	       If the name is invalid or unknown, then "???" is	displayed.

     logname   The login name associated with the session the process is in
	       (see getlogin(2)).

     mwchan    The event name if the process is	blocked	normally, or the lock
	       name if the process is blocked on a lock.  See the wchan	and
	       lockname	keywords for details.

     nice      The process scheduling increment	(see setpriority(2)).

     rss       the real	memory (resident set) size of the process (in 1024
	       byte units).

     start     The time	the command started.  If the command started less than
	       24 hours	ago, the start time is displayed using the "%l:ps.1p"
	       format described	in strftime(3).	 If the	command	started	less
	       than 7 days ago,	the start time is displayed using the
	       "%a6.15p" format.  Otherwise, the start time is displayed using
	       the "%e%b%y" format.

     state     The state is given by a sequence	of characters, for example,
	       "RWNA".	The first character indicates the run state of the

	       D       Marks a process in disk (or other short term, uninter-
		       ruptible) wait.
	       I       Marks a process that is idle (sleeping for longer than
		       about 20	seconds).
	       L       Marks a process that is waiting to acquire a lock.
	       R       Marks a runnable	process.
	       S       Marks a process that is sleeping	for less than about 20
	       T       Marks a stopped process.
	       W       Marks an	idle interrupt thread.
	       Z       Marks a dead process (a "zombie").

	       Additional characters after these, if any, indicate additional
	       state information:

	       +       The process is in the foreground	process	group of its
		       control terminal.
	       <       The process has raised CPU scheduling priority.
	       E       The process is trying to	exit.
	       J       Marks a process which is	in jail(2).  The hostname of
		       the prison can be found in /proc/<pid>/status.
	       L       The process has pages locked in core (for example, for
		       raw I/O).
	       N       The process has reduced CPU scheduling priority (see
	       s       The process is a	session	leader.
	       V       The process is suspended	during a vfork(2).
	       W       The process is swapped out.
	       X       The process is being traced or debugged.

     tt	       An abbreviation for the pathname	of the controlling terminal,
	       if any.	The abbreviation consists of the three letters follow-
	       ing /dev/tty, or, for the console, "con".  This is followed by
	       a `-' if	the process can	no longer reach	that controlling ter-
	       minal (i.e., it has been	revoked).

     wchan     The event (an address in	the system) on which a process waits.
	       When printed numerically, the initial part of the address is
	       trimmed off and the result is printed in	hex, for example,
	       0x80324000 prints as 324000.

     When printing using the command keyword, a	process	that has exited	and
     has a parent that has not yet waited for the process (in other words, a
     zombie) is	listed as "<defunct>", and a process which is blocked while
     trying to exit is listed as "<exiting>".  If the arguments	cannot be lo-
     cated (usually because it has not been set, as is the case	of system pro-
     cesses and/or kernel threads) the command name is printed within square
     brackets.	The ps utility first tries to obtain the arguments cached by
     the kernel	(if they were shorter than the value of	the
     kern.ps_arg_cache_limit sysctl).  The process can change the arguments
     shown with	setproctitle(3).  Otherwise, ps	makes an educated guess	as to
     the file name and arguments given when the	process	was created by examin-
     ing memory	or the swap area.  The method is inherently somewhat unreli-
     able and in any event a process is	entitled to destroy this information.
     The ucomm (accounting) keyword can, however, be depended on.  If the ar-
     guments are unavailable or	do not agree with the ucomm keyword, the value
     for the ucomm keyword is appended to the arguments	in parentheses.

     The following is a	complete list of the available keywords	and their
     meanings.	Several	of them	have aliases (keywords which are synonyms).

     %cpu	percentage CPU usage (alias pcpu)
     %mem	percentage memory usage	(alias pmem)
     acflag	accounting flag	(alias acflg)
     args	command	and arguments
     comm	command
     command	command	and arguments
     cpu	short-term CPU usage factor (for scheduling)
     etime	elapsed	running	time
     flags	the process flags, in hexadecimal (alias f)
     inblk	total blocks read (alias inblock)
     jid	jail ID
     jobc	job control count
     ktrace	tracing	flags
     label	MAC label
     lim	memoryuse limit
     lockname	lock currently blocked on (as a	symbolic name)
     logname	login name of user who started the session
     lstart	time started
     majflt	total page faults
     minflt	total page reclaims
     msgrcv	total messages received	(reads from pipes/sockets)
     msgsnd	total messages sent (writes on pipes/sockets)
     mwchan	wait channel or	lock currently blocked on
     nice	nice value (alias ni)
     nivcsw	total involuntary context switches
     nsigs	total signals taken (alias nsignals)
     nswap	total swaps in/out
     nvcsw	total voluntary	context	switches
     nwchan	wait channel (as an address)
     oublk	total blocks written (alias oublock)
     paddr	swap address
     pagein	pageins	(same as majflt)
     pgid	process	group number
     pid	process	ID
     poip	pageouts in progress
     ppid	parent process ID
     pri	scheduling priority
     re		core residency time (in	seconds; 127 = infinity)
     rgid	real group ID
     rgroup	group name (from rgid)
     rlink	reverse	link on	run queue, or 0
     rss	resident set size
     rtprio	realtime priority (101 = not a realtime	process)
     ruid	real user ID
     ruser	user name (from	ruid)
     sid	session	ID
     sig	pending	signals	(alias pending)
     sigcatch	caught signals (alias caught)
     sigignore	ignored	signals	(alias ignored)
     sigmask	blocked	signals	(alias blocked)
     sl		sleep time (in seconds;	127 = infinity)
     start	time started
     state	symbolic process state (alias stat)
     svgid	saved gid from a setgid	executable
     svuid	saved UID from a setuid	executable
     tdev	control	terminal device	number
     time	accumulated CPU	time, user + system (alias cputime)
     tpgid	control	terminal process group ID
     tsid	control	terminal session ID
     tsiz	text size (in Kbytes)
     tt		control	terminal name (two letter abbreviation)
     tty	full name of control terminal
     uprocp	process	pointer
     ucomm	name to	be used	for accounting
     uid	effective user ID
     upr	scheduling priority on return from system call (alias usrpri)
     user	user name (from	UID)
     vsz	virtual	size in	Kbytes (alias vsize)
     wchan	wait channel (as a symbolic name)
     xstat	exit or	stop status (valid only	for stopped or zombie process)

     The following environment variables affect	the execution of ps:

     COLUMNS  If set, specifies	the user's preferred output width in column
	      positions.  By default, ps attempts to automatically determine
	      the terminal width.

     /boot/kernel/kernel  default system namelist
     /proc		  the mount point of procfs(5)

     kill(1), pgrep(1),	pkill(1), w(1),	kvm(3),	strftime(3), mac(4),
     procfs(5),	pstat(8), sysctl(8), mutex(9)

     For historical reasons, the ps utility under FreeBSD supports a different
     set of options from what is described by IEEE Std 1003.2 ("POSIX.2"), and
     what is supported on non-BSD operating systems.

     The ps command appeared in	Version	4 AT&T UNIX.

     Since ps cannot run faster	than the system	and is run as any other	sched-
     uled process, the information it displays can never be exact.

     The ps utility does not correctly display argument	lists containing
     multibyte characters.

BSD				March 20, 2005				   BSD


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