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pulseaudio(1)		    General Commands Manual		 pulseaudio(1)

       pulseaudio - The	PulseAudio Sound System

       pulseaudio [options]

       pulseaudio --help

       pulseaudio --version

       pulseaudio --dump-conf

       pulseaudio --dump-modules

       pulseaudio --dump-resample-methods

       pulseaudio --cleanup-shm

       pulseaudio --start

       pulseaudio --kill

       pulseaudio --check

       PulseAudio is a networked low-latency sound server for Linux, POSIX and
       Windows systems.

       -h | --help
	      Show help.

	      Show version information.

	      Load the daemon  configuration  file  daemon.conf	 (see  below),
	      parse  remaining	configuration  options on the command line and
	      dump the resulting daemon	configuration, in  a  format  that  is
	      compatible with daemon.conf.

	      List  available  loadable	 modules.  Combine  with -v for	a more
	      elaborate	listing.

	      List available audio resamplers.

	      Identify	stale  PulseAudio  POSIX  shared  memory  segments  in
	      /dev/shm	and  remove  them if possible. This is done implicitly
	      whenever a new daemon starts up or a client tries	to connect  to
	      a	daemon.	It should normally not be necessary to issue this com-
	      mand by hand. Only available on systems with POSIX shared	memory
	      segments	implemented  via  a  virtual  file  system  mounted to
	      /dev/shm (e.g. Linux).

	      Start PulseAudio if it is	not running  yet.  This	 is  different
	      from  starting PulseAudio	without	--start	which would fail if PA
	      is already running. PulseAudio is	guaranteed to  be  fully  ini-
	      tialized when this call returns. Implies --daemonize.

       -k | --kill
	      Kill  an	already	 running PulseAudio daemon of the calling user
	      (Equivalent to sending a SIGTERM).

	      Return 0 as return code when the PulseAudio  daemon  is  already
	      running for the calling user, or non-zero	otherwise. Produces no
	      output on	the console except for errors to stderr.

	      Run as system-wide instance instead  of  per-user.  Please  note
	      that  this disables certain features of PulseAudio and is	gener-
	      ally not recommended unless the  system  knows  no  local	 users
	      (e.g.  is	 a thin	client). This feature needs special configura-
	      tion and a dedicated UNIX	user set up. It	is highly  recommended
	      to combine this with --disallow-module-loading (see below).

       -D | --daemonize[=BOOL]
	      Daemonize	 after	startup,  i.e.	detach from the	terminal. Note
	      that when	running	as a systemd service you should	 use  --daemo-
	      nize=no for systemd notification to work.

	      Fail  startup  when any of the commands specified	in the startup
	      script	(see below) fails.

	      Try to acquire a high Unix nice level. This will only succeed if
	      the  calling  user has a non-zero	RLIMIT_NICE resource limit set
	      (on systems that support this), or we're called SUID  root  (see
	      below),  or  we  are  configure  to be run as system daemon (see
	      --system above). It is recommended to enable this, since	it  is
	      only a negligible	security risk (see below).

	      Try  to  acquire	a  real-time  scheduling  for PulseAudio's I/O
	      threads. This will only succeed if the calling user has  a  non-
	      zero  RLIMIT_RTPRIO  resource limit set (on systems that support
	      this), or	we're called SUID root (see below), or we are  config-
	      ure  to be run as	system daemon (see --system above). It is rec-
	      ommended to enable this only for trusted users, since  it	 is  a
	      major security risk (see below).

	      Disallow	module	loading	after startup. This is a security fea-
	      ture since it disallows additional module	loading	during runtime
	      and  on  user request. It	is highly recommended when --system is
	      used (see	above).	Note however, that this	 breaks	 certain  fea-
	      tures like automatic module loading on hot plug.

	      Disallow user requested exit

	      Terminate	the daemon after the last client quit and this time in
	      seconds passed. Use a negative value to  disable	this  feature.
	      Defaults to 20.

	      When  PulseAudio	runs  in the per-user mode and detects a login
	      session, then any	positive value will be	reset  to  0  so  that
	      PulseAudio  will	terminate  immediately	on  logout. A positive
	      value therefore has effect only in environments where there's no
	      support  for  login session tracking. A negative value can still
	      be used to disable any automatic exit.

	      When PulseAudio runs in the system mode, automatic exit  is  al-
	      ways disabled, so	this option does nothing.

	      Unload  autoloaded samples from the cache	when they haven't been
	      used for the specified number of seconds.

	      If an argument is	passed,	set the	log  level  to	the  specified
	      value, otherwise increase	the configured verbosity level by one.
	      The log levels are numerical from	0 to 4,	corresponding  to  er-
	      ror,  warn,  notice,  info,  debug. Default log level is notice,
	      i.e. all log messages with lower log levels are printed:	error,
	      warn, notice.

       -v | --verbose
	      Increase	the configured verbosity level by one (see --log-level
	      above). Specify multiple times to	increase  log  level  multiple

	      Specify  the  log	target.	If set to auto (which is the default),
	      then logging is directed to syslog when --daemonize  is  passed,
	      otherwise	 to  STDERR.  If set to	journal	logging	is directed to
	      the systemd journal. If set to file:PATH,	logging	is directed to
	      the  file	 indicated by PATH. newfile:PATH is otherwise the same
	      as file:PATH, but	existing files are never overwritten.  If  the
	      specified	 file  already	exists,	 a suffix is added to the file
	      name to avoid overwriting.

	      Show source code location	in log messages.

	      Show timestamps in log messages.

	      When FRAMES is greater than 0, log  for  each  message  a	 stack
	      trace up to the number of	specified stack	frames.

       -p | --dl-search-path=PATH
	      Set the search path for dynamic shared objects (plugins).

	      Use  the	specified  resampler  by default (See --dump-resample-
	      methods above for	possible values).

	      Create a PID file. If this options is disabled it	is possible to
	      run multiple sound servers per user.

	      Do not install CPU load limiter on platforms that	support	it. By
	      default, PulseAudio will terminate itself	when it	 notices  that
	      it  takes	 up  too much CPU time.	This is	useful as a protection
	      against system lockups when real-time scheduling	is  used  (see
	      below).  Disabling  this	mechanism  is  useful  when  debugging
	      PulseAudio with tools like valgrind(1) which  slow  down	execu-

	      PulseAudio  clients  and	the server can exchange	audio data via
	      POSIX or memfd shared memory segments (on	systems	 that  support
	      this).  If disabled PulseAudio will communicate exclusively over
	      sockets. Please note that	data transfer via shared  memory  seg-
	      ments  is	always disabled	when PulseAudio	is running with	--sys-
	      tem enabled (see above).

	      PulseAudio clients and the server	can exchange  audio  data  via
	      memfds  -	the anonymous Linux Kernel shared memory mechanism (on
	      kernels that support this). If disabled PulseAudio will communi-
	      cate via POSIX shared memory.

       -L | --load="MODULE ARGUMENTS"
	      Load the specified plugin	module with the	specified arguments.

       -F | --file=FILENAME
	      Run  the	specified script on startup. May be specified multiple
	      times to specify multiple	scripts	to be run  in  order.  Combine
	      with -n to disable loading of the	default	script (see

       -C     Open a command interpreter on STDIN/STDOUT after	startup.  This
	      may  be used to configure	PulseAudio dynamically during runtime.
	      Equivalent to --load=module-cli.

       -n     Don't  load  default  script  file  (see  below)  on
	      startup. Useful in conjunction with -C or	--file.

       ~/.config/pulse/daemon.conf, /usr/local/etc/pulse/daemon.conf: configu-
       ration settings for the PulseAudio daemon. If the version in the	user's
       home  directory does not	exist the global configuration file is loaded.
       See pulse-daemon.conf(5)	for more information.

       ~/.config/pulse/,  /usr/local/etc/pulse/  the  de-
       fault  configuration  script  to	 execute when the PulseAudio daemon is
       started.	If the version in the user's home directory does not exist the
       global  configuration  script is	loaded.	See for more in-

       ~/.config/pulse/client.conf, /usr/local/etc/pulse/client.conf: configu-
       ration  settings	 for PulseAudio	client applications. If	the version in
       the user's home directory does not exist	the global configuration  file
       is loaded. See pulse-client.conf(5) for more information.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM:	the PulseAudio daemon will shut	down (Same as --kill).

       SIGHUP: dump a long status report to STDOUT or syslog, depending	on the

       SIGUSR1:	 load  module-cli,  allowing   runtime	 reconfiguration   via

       SIGUSR2:	 load  module-cli-protocol-unix, allowing runtime reconfigura-
       tion via	a AF_UNIX socket. See pacmd(1) for more	information.

       Group pulse-rt: if the PulseAudio binary	is marked SUID root, then mem-
       bership	of  the	 calling  user in this group decides whether real-time
       and/or high-priority scheduling is enabled. Please note	that  enabling
       real-time scheduling is a security risk (see below).

       Group  pulse-access:  if	 PulseAudio is running as a system daemon (see
       --system	above) access is granted to members of this  group  when  they
       connect	via AF_UNIX sockets. If	PulseAudio is running as a user	daemon
       this group has no meaning.

       User pulse, group pulse:	if PulseAudio is running as  a	system	daemon
       (see --system above) and	is started as root the daemon will drop	privi-
       leges and become	a normal user process using this user  and  group.  If
       PulseAudio is running as	a user daemon this user	and group has no mean-

       To minimize the risk of drop-outs during	playback it is recommended  to
       run  PulseAudio	with  real-time	 scheduling if the underlying platform
       supports	it. This decouples the scheduling latency  of  the  PulseAudio
       daemon  from the	system load and	is thus	the best way to	make sure that
       PulseAudio always gets CPU time when it needs it	to refill the hardware
       playback	 buffers.  Unfortunately  this is a security risk on most sys-
       tems, since PulseAudio runs as user process, and	giving realtime	sched-
       uling  privileges to a user process always comes	with the risk that the
       user misuses it to lock up the system --	which is possible since	making
       a process real-time effectively disables	preemption.

       To  minimize  the  risk PulseAudio by default does not enable real-time
       scheduling. It is however recommended to	enable it on trusted  systems.
       To  do that start PulseAudio with --realtime (see above)	or enabled the
       appropriate option in daemon.conf. Since	acquiring realtime  scheduling
       is  a privileged	operation on most systems, some	special	changes	to the
       system configuration need to be made to allow them to the calling user.
       Two options are available:

       On  newer  Linux	 systems  the system resource limit RLIMIT_RTPRIO (see
       setrlimit(2) for	more information) can be used to allow specific	 users
       to  acquire  real-time scheduling. This can be configured in /etc/secu-
       rity/limits.conf, a resource limit of 9 is recommended.

       Alternatively, the SUID root bit	can be set for the PulseAudio  binary.
       Then, the daemon	will drop root privileges immediately on startup, how-
       ever retain the CAP_NICE	capability (on systems that support  it),  but
       only if the calling user	is a member of the pulse-rt group (see above).
       For all other users all capabilities are	dropped	immediately.  The  ad-
       vantage	of  this  solution  is	that the real-time privileges are only
       granted to the PulseAudio daemon	-- not to all the user's processes.

       Alternatively, if the risk of locking up	the machine is considered  too
       big to enable real-time scheduling, high-priority scheduling can	be en-
       abled instead (i.e. negative nice level). This can be enabled by	 pass-
       ing  --high-priority  (see above) when starting PulseAudio and may also
       be enabled with the appropriate option in  daemon.conf.	Negative  nice
       levels  can  only  be  enabled  when  the  appropriate  resource	 limit
       RLIMIT_NICE is set (see setrlimit(2) for	 more  information),  possibly
       configured in /etc/security/limits.conf.	A resource limit of 31 (corre-
       sponding	with nice level	-11) is	recommended.

       The PulseAudio client libraries check for the existence of the  follow-
       ing  environment	variables and change their local configuration accord-

       $PULSE_SERVER: the server string	specifying the server  to  connect  to
       when a client asks for a	sound server connection	and doesn't explicitly
       ask for a specific server. The server string is a list  of  server  ad-
       dresses	separated  by whitespace which are tried in turn. A server ad-
       dress consists of an optional  address  type  specifier	(unix:,	 tcp:,
       tcp4:,  tcp6:),	followed by a path or host address. A host address may
       include an optional port	number.	A server address may be	prefixed by  a
       string enclosed in {}. In this case the following server	address	is ig-
       nored unless the	prefix string equals the local hostname	or the machine
       id (/etc/machine-id).

       $PULSE_SINK:  the symbolic name of the sink to connect to when a	client
       creates a playback stream and doesn't explicitly	 ask  for  a  specific

       $PULSE_SOURCE:  the  symbolic  name  of the source to connect to	when a
       client creates a	record stream and doesn't explicitly ask  for  a  spe-
       cific source.

       $PULSE_BINARY:  path  of	PulseAudio executable to run when server auto-
       spawning	is used.

       $PULSE_CLIENTCONFIG: path  of  file  that  shall	 be  read  instead  of
       client.conf (see	above) for client configuration.

       $PULSE_COOKIE: path of file that	contains the PulseAudio	authentication
       cookie. Defaults	to ~/.config/pulse/cookie.

       These environment settings take precedence -- if	set -- over  the  con-
       figuration settings from	client.conf (see above).

       The   PulseAudio	  Developers   <pulseaudio-discuss  (at)  lists	 (dot)
       freedesktop (dot) org>; PulseAudio is  available	 from  http://pulseau-

       pulse-daemon.conf(5),, pulse-client.conf(5), pacmd(1)

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