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RCS(1)			    General Commands Manual			RCS(1)

       rcs - change RCS	file attributes

       rcs options file	...

       rcs  creates  new RCS files or changes attributes of existing ones.  An
       RCS file	contains multiple revisions of text, an	access list, a	change
       log,  descriptive  text,	and some control attributes.  For rcs to work,
       the caller's login name must be on the access list, except if  the  ac-
       cess  list  is  empty, the caller is the	owner of the file or the supe-
       ruser, or the -i	option is present.

       Pathnames matching an RCS suffix	denote RCS files;  all	others	denote
       working	files.	Names are paired as explained in ci(1).	 Revision num-
       bers use	the syntax described in	ci(1).

       -i     Create and initialize a new RCS file, but	do not deposit any re-
	      vision.	If  the	 RCS  file has no path prefix, try to place it
	      first into the subdirectory ./RCS, and then into the current di-
	      rectory.	 If  the  RCS file already exists, print an error mes-

	      Append the login names appearing in the comma-separated list lo-
	      gins to the access list of the RCS file.

	      Append  the access list of oldfile to the	access list of the RCS

	      Erase the	login names appearing in the comma-separated list  lo-
	      gins  from  the access list of the RCS file.  If logins is omit-
	      ted, erase the entire access list.

	      Set the default branch to	rev.  If rev is	omitted,  the  default
	      branch  is  reset	 to  the  (dynamically)	 highest branch	on the

	      Set the comment leader to	string.	 An initial ci,	or  an	rcs -i
	      without  -c,  guesses  the comment leader	from the suffix	of the
	      working filename.

	      This option is obsolescent, since	RCS normally uses the  preced-
	      ing $Log$	line's prefix when inserting log lines during checkout
	      (see co(1)).  However, older versions of	RCS  use  the  comment
	      leader instead of	the $Log$ line's prefix, so if you plan	to ac-
	      cess a file with both old	and new	versions of RCS, make sure its
	      comment leader matches its $Log$ line prefix.

	      Set  the	default	 keyword substitution to subst.	 The effect of
	      keyword substitution is described	in co(1).  Giving an  explicit
	      -k  option  to co, rcsdiff, and rcsmerge overrides this default.
	      Beware rcs -kv, because -kv is  incompatible  with  co -l.   Use
	      rcs -kkv to restore the normal default keyword substitution.

	      Lock  the	 revision with number rev.  If a branch	is given, lock
	      the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the
	      latest  revision	on the default branch.	Locking	prevents over-
	      lapping changes.	If someone else	already	holds  the  lock,  the
	      lock is broken as	with rcs -u (see below).

	      Unlock  the revision with	number rev.  If	a branch is given, un-
	      lock the latest revision on that branch.	If rev is omitted, re-
	      move  the	 latest	 lock  held by the caller.  Normally, only the
	      locker of	a revision can unlock it.  Somebody else  unlocking  a
	      revision breaks the lock.	 This causes a mail message to be sent
	      to the original locker.  The message contains a  commentary  so-
	      licited  from the	breaker.  The commentary is terminated by end-
	      of-file or by a line containing .	by itself.

       -L     Set locking to strict.  Strict locking means that	the  owner  of
	      an RCS file is not exempt	from locking for checkin.  This	option
	      should be	used for files that are	shared.

       -U     Set locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking  means  that  the
	      owner  of	a file need not	lock a revision	for checkin.  This op-
	      tion should not be used for files	that are shared.  Whether  de-
	      fault locking is strict is determined by your system administra-
	      tor, but it is normally strict.

	      Replace revision rev's log message with msg.

       -M     Do not send mail when breaking somebody else's lock.   This  op-
	      tion  is not meant for casual use; it is meant for programs that
	      warn users by other means, and invoke rcs	-u only	as a low-level
	      lock-breaking operation.

	      Associate	 the  symbolic	name  name with	the branch or revision
	      rev.  Delete the symbolic	name if	both : and  rev	 are  omitted;
	      otherwise,  print	an error message if name is already associated
	      with another number.  If rev is symbolic,	it is expanded	before
	      association.   A rev consisting of a branch number followed by a
	      .	stands for the current latest revision in  the	branch.	  A  :
	      with  an empty rev stands	for the	current	latest revision	on the
	      default	branch,	  normally   the    trunk.     For    example,
	      rcs -nname: RCS/*	 associates name with the current latest revi-
	      sion  of	all  the  named	 RCS  files;   this   contrasts	  with
	      rcs -nname:$ RCS/*  which	associates name	with the revision num-
	      bers extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding working

	      Act like -n, except override any previous	assignment of name.

	      deletes ("outdates") the revisions given by range.  A range con-
	      sisting of a single revision  number  means  that	 revision.   A
	      range consisting of a branch number means	the latest revision on
	      that branch.  A range of the form	rev1:rev2 means	revisions rev1
	      to rev2 on the same branch, :rev means from the beginning	of the
	      branch containing	rev up to and including	rev,  and  rev:	 means
	      from revision rev	to the end of the branch containing rev.  None
	      of the outdated revisions	can have branches or locks.

       -q     Run quietly; do not print	diagnostics.

       -I     Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal.

	      Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state.  If	rev is
	      a	 branch	number,	assume the latest revision on that branch.  If
	      rev is omitted,  assume  the  latest  revision  on  the  default
	      branch.	Any  identifier	is acceptable for state.  A useful set
	      of states	is Exp (for experimental), Stab	(for stable), and  Rel
	      (for  released).	By default, ci(1) sets the state of a revision
	      to Exp.

	      Write descriptive	text from the contents of the named file  into
	      the  RCS	file,  deleting	 the existing text.  The file pathname
	      cannot begin with	-.  If file is omitted,	obtain the  text  from
	      standard	input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line contain-
	      ing . by itself.	Prompt for the text if interaction  is	possi-
	      ble;  see	 -I.  With -i, descriptive text	is obtained even if -t
	      is not given.

	      Write descriptive	text from the string into the RCS file,	delet-
	      ing the existing text.

       -T     Preserve the modification	time on	the RCS	file unless a revision
	      is removed.  This	option can  suppress  extensive	 recompilation
	      caused  by a make(1) dependency of some copy of the working file
	      on the RCS file.	Use this option	with care; it can suppress re-
	      compilation  even	 when  it is needed, i.e. when a change	to the
	      RCS file would mean a change to keyword strings in  the  working

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1)	for details.

	      Use suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.

       -zzone Use  zone	 as the	default	time zone.  This option	has no effect;
	      it is present for	compatibility with other RCS commands.

       At least	one explicit option must be  given,  to	 ensure	 compatibility
       with future planned extensions to the rcs command.

       The  -brev  option  generates  an RCS file that cannot be parsed	by RCS
       version 3 or earlier.

       The -ksubst options (except -kkv) generate an RCS file that  cannot  be
       parsed by RCS version 4 or earlier.

       Use rcs -Vn to make an RCS file acceptable to RCS version n by discard-
       ing information that would confuse version n.

       RCS version 5.5 and earlier does	not support the	 -x  option,  and  re-
       quires a	,v suffix on an	RCS pathname.

       rcs  accesses  files much as ci(1) does,	except that it uses the	effec-
       tive user for all accesses, it does not write the working file  or  its
       directory, and it does not even read the	working	file unless a revision
       number of $ is specified.

	      options prepended	to the argument	 list,	separated  by  spaces.
	      See ci(1)	for details.

       The RCS pathname	and the	revisions outdated are written to the diagnos-
       tic output.  The	exit status is zero if and only	if all operations were

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision:; Release Date: 2012/03/03.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F.	Tichy.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995	Paul Eggert.

       rcsintro(1),  co(1),  ci(1),  ident(1),	rcsclean(1),  rcsdiff(1),  rc-
       smerge(1), rlog(1), rcsfile(5)
       Walter F. Tichy,	RCS--A System for Version Control,  Software--Practice
       _ Experience 15,	7 (July	1985), 637-654.

       A  catastrophe  (e.g.  a	 system	crash) can cause RCS to	leave behind a
       semaphore file that causes later	invocations of RCS to claim  that  the
       RCS  file  is in	use.  To fix this, remove the semaphore	file.  A sema-
       phore file's name typically begins with , or ends with _.

       The separator for revision ranges in the	-o option used to be - instead
       of  :,  but this	leads to confusion when	symbolic names contain -.  For
       backwards compatibility rcs -o still supports the old - separator,  but
       it warns	about this obsolete use.

       Symbolic	 names	need not refer to existing revisions or	branches.  For
       example,	the -o option does not remove symbolic names for the  outdated
       revisions; you must use -n to remove the	names.

GNU				  2012/03/03				RCS(1)


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