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RELEASE(7)	     BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	    RELEASE(7)

     release --	release	building infrastructure

     FreeBSD provides a	complete build environment suitable for	users to make
     full releases of the FreeBSD operating system.  All of the	tools neces-
     sary to build a release are available from	the CVS	repository in
     src/release.  A complete release can actually be built with only a	single
     command, including	the creation of	ISO images suitable for	burning	to CD-
     ROM, installation floppies, and an	FTP install directory.	This command
     is	aptly named "make release".

     Before attempting to build	a release, the user is expected	to be familiar
     with the contents of build(7), and	should have experience upgrading sys-
     tems from source with "make world".  The release build process requires
     that /usr/obj be populated	with the output	of "make buildworld".  This is
     necessary so that the object files	for a complete system can be installed
     into a clean chroot(8) environment.  The release procedure	also requires
     that the vn(4) (vnode disk) device	driver be present in the kernel	(ei-
     ther by being compiled in or loaded as a module).

     This document does	not cover source code management, quality assurance,
     or	other aspects of the release engineering process.

     The release makefile (src/release/Makefile) is fairly abstruse.  Most de-
     velopers will only	be concerned with the release target.

     release	Uses "make installworld" to install a clean system into	a
		chroot(8) environment on the filesystem.  Checks out the spec-
		ified version of the source code and then rebuilds the entire
		system in the clean environment	with "make world".  The	de-
		tailed steps that follow are then executed to package up the
		different distributions, build the installation	floppy disks,
		build release documentation, and so on.

     rerelease	Assumes	that the output	of a release build has been manually
		modified, and performs the minimal number of steps to rebuild
		the release using the intermediate output of the previous
		"make release".

     floppies	Generate a new set of boot floppies.  This will	call the
		release.5, release.9, and release.10 targets to	re-generate
		the floppy images of a previous	"make release".	 This is most
		often used to build custom boot	floppies.

     Targets called by "make release":

     release.1	 Cleans	out the	${CHROOTDIR}/R directory and uses mtree(8) to
		 build the directory hierarchy for the system.

     release.2	 Installs the system into the distribution directories.

     release.3	 Builds	and installs "crypto", "krb4" and "krb5" distribu-

     release.4	 Makes and installs the	GENERIC	kernel.

     release.5	 Uses crunchgen(1) to build "crunched" binaries	to live	on the
		 installation floppies.

     release.6	 Builds	synthetic distributions, and cleans up the previously
		 built distribution trees.

     release.7	 Creates tarballs of the assembled distribution	trees.

     release.8	 Makes source distributions.

     release.9	 Creates the boot and MFS root floppies.

     release.10	 Creates the fixit floppy.

     ftp.1	 Sets up a suitable area for FTP installations in

     cdrom.1	 Sets up a suitable area to build CD-ROM images	in

     iso.1	 Builds	two ISO	images (installation and "live"	filesystem)
		 from the CD-ROM release area (disabled	by default, see
		 MAKE_ISOS below).

     doc.1	 Builds	all of the necessary tools to turn the FreeBSD Docu-
		 mentation Project source documents (SGML, XML)	into HTML and
		 text documents	that will accompany the	release.  Also,	builds
		 and installs the actual user documentation.  This includes
		 the Handbook, FAQ, articles, and so on.

     doc.2	 Builds	the release documentation.  This includes the release
		 notes,	hardware guide,	and installation instructions.

     Variables that must be specified:

     CHROOTDIR	 The directory to be used as the chroot(8) environment for the
		 entire	release	build.	This filesystem	should have at least
		 2.3 gigabytes of free space on	the i386 architecture.

     BUILDNAME	 The name of the release to be built.  This is used to set the
		 RELEASE value in sys/conf/, which affects the out-
		 put of	uname(1).

     CVSROOT	 The location of the FreeBSD CVS repository.  This path	name
		 is referenced to the real system root,	not the	root of	the
		 chroot(8) directory tree.

     RELEASETAG	 The CVS tag corresponding to the release that is to be	built.
		 If undefined, the release will	be built from the HEAD of the
		 CVS tree (a "-CURRENT snapshot").

     Optional variables:

     CVSCMDARGS	       Additional arguments for	cvs(1) checkout	and update
		       commands.  For example, setting this variable to	"-D
		       '01/01/2002 00:00:00 GMT'" for "make release" or	"make
		       rerelease" will ask cvs(1) to check out or update
		       sources as of 00:00:00 GMT, January 1 2002, respec-

     LOCAL_PATCHES     A patch file against /usr/src that will be applied in
		       the chroot(8) environment before	the release build be-

     PATCH_FLAGS       Arguments for the patch(1) command used to apply
		       LOCAL_PATCHES patch file.

     LOCAL_SCRIPT      A script	that will be run in the	chroot(8) environment
		       immediately after any local patches are applied.

     MAKE_ISOS	       If defined, bootable ISO	CD-ROM images will be created
		       from the	contents of the	CD-ROM stage directory.

     NODOC	       If set to "YES",	the SGML-based documentation from the
		       FreeBSD Documentation Project will not be built.	 How-
		       ever, the "doc" distribution will still be created with
		       the minimal documentation set provided in

     NOPORTS	       If set to "YES" then the	Ports Collection will be omit-
		       ted from	the release.

     NOPORTREADMES     If defined, readme files	will not be created for	each
		       individual port in the Ports Collection.	 The default
		       behavior	is for "make release" to run "make readmes"
		       from ${CHROOTDIR}/usr/ports, which can be a very	time
		       consuming operation.

     RELEASEDISTFILES  The directory where the distribution files for ports
		       required	by the release build can be found.  This may
		       save a significant amount of time over downloading the
		       distfiles through a slow	link.

     RELEASENOUPDATE   If this variable	is defined for "make rerelease", the
		       source code will	not be updated with "cvs update".

     TARGET_ARCH       The target machine processor architecture.  This	is
		       analogous to the	"uname -p" output.  Set	this to	cross-
		       build for a different architecture.

     TARGET	       The target hardware platform.  This is analogous	to the
		       "uname -m" output.  This	is necessary to	cross-build
		       some target architectures.  For example,	cross-building
		       for PC98	machines requires TARGET_ARCH=i386 and


     The following sequence of commands	was used to build the FreeBSD 4.5 re-

	   cd /usr
	   cvs co -rRELENG_4_5_0_RELEASE src
	   cd src
	   make	buildworld
	   cd release
	   make	release	CHROOTDIR=/local3/release BUILDNAME=4.5-RELEASE	\
	     CVSROOT=/host/cvs/usr/home/ncvs RELEASETAG=RELENG_4_5_0_RELEASE

     After running these commands, a complete system suitable for FTP or CD-
     ROM distribution is available in the /local3/release/R directory.

     The following sequence of commands	can be used to build a "-CURRENT
     snapshot" of a locally modified source tree:

	   cd /usr/src
	   cvs diff -u > /path/to/local.patch
	   make	buildworld
	   cd release
	   make	release	CHROOTDIR=/local3/release BUILDNAME=5.0-CURRENT	\
	     CVSROOT=/host/cvs/usr/home/ncvs LOCAL_PATCHES=/path/to/local.patch

     cc(1), crunchgen(1), cvs(1), install(1), make(1), patch(1), uname(1),
     vn(4), drivers.conf(5), make.conf(5), build(7), ports(7), chroot(8),

     FreeBSD Release Engineering,

     FreeBSD Release Engineering of Third Party	Packages,

     FreeBSD Developers' Handbook,

     FreeBSD 1.x used a	manual checklist, compiled by Rod Grimes, to produce a
     release.  Apart from being	incomplete, the	list put a lot of specific de-
     mands on available	filesystems and	was quite torturous to execute.

     As	part of	the FreeBSD 2.0	release	engineering effort, significant	effort
     was spent getting src/release/Makefile into a shape where it could	at
     least automate most of the	tediousness of building	a release in a sterile

     With its almost 1000 revisions spread over	multiple branches, the cvs(1)
     log of src/release/Makefile contains a vivid historical record of some of
     the hardships release engineers go	through.

     src/release/Makefile was originally written by Rod	Grimes,	Jordan
     Hubbard, and Poul-Henning Kamp.  This manual page was written by Murray
     Stokely <>.

BSD				March 12, 2002				   BSD


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