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RESCUE(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		     RESCUE(8)

     rescue -- rescue utilities	in /rescue

     The /rescue directory contains a collection of common utilities intended
     for use in	recovering a badly damaged system.  With the transition	to a
     dynamically-linked	root beginning with FreeBSD 5.2, there is a real pos-
     sibility that the standard	tools in /bin and /sbin	may become non-func-
     tional due	to a failed upgrade or a disk error.  The tools	in /rescue are
     statically	linked and should therefore be more resistant to damage.  How-
     ever, being statically linked, the	tools in /rescue are also less func-
     tional than the standard utilities.  In particular, they do not have full
     use of the	locale,	pam(3),	and nsswitch libraries.

     If	your system fails to boot, and it shows	a prompt similar to:

	   Enter full pathname of shell	or RETURN for /bin/sh:

     the first thing to	try running is the standard shell, /bin/sh.  If	that
     fails, try	running	/rescue/sh, which is the rescue	shell.	To repair the
     system, the root partition	must first be remounted	read-write.  This can
     be	done with the following	mount(8) command:

	   /rescue/mount -uw /

     The next step is to double-check the contents of /bin, /sbin, and
     /usr/lib, possibly	mounting a FreeBSD rescue or "live file	system"	CD-ROM
     (e.g., disc2 of the officially released FreeBSD ISO images) and copying
     files from	there.	Once it	is possible to successfully run	/bin/sh,
     /bin/ls, and other	standard utilities, try	rebooting back into the	stan-
     dard system.

     The /rescue tools are compiled using crunchgen(1),	which makes them con-
     siderably more compact than the standard utilities.  To build a FreeBSD
     system where space	is critical, /rescue can be used as a replacement for
     the standard /bin and /sbin directories; simply change /bin and /sbin to
     be	symbolic links pointing	to /rescue.  Since /rescue is statically
     linked, it	should also be possible	to dispense with much of /usr/lib in
     such an environment.

     In	contrast to its	predecessor /stand, /rescue is updated during normal
     FreeBSD source and	binary upgrades.

     /rescue  Root of the rescue hierarchy.

     crunchgen(1), crash(8)

     The rescue	utilities first	appeared in FreeBSD 5.2.

     The rescue	system was written by Tim Kientzle <>.	This
     manual page was written by	Simon L. Nielsen <>, based on
     text by Tim Kientzle <>.

     Most of the rescue	tools work even	in a fairly crippled system.  The most
     egregious exception is the	rescue version of vi(1), which currently re-
     quires that /usr be mounted so that it can	access the termcap(5) files.
     Hopefully,	a failsafe termcap(3) entry will eventually be added into the
     ncurses(3)	library, so that /rescue/vi can	be used	even in	a system where
     /usr cannot immediately be	mounted.  In the meantime, the rescue version
     of	the ed(1) editor can be	used from /rescue/ed if	you need to edit
     files, but	cannot mount /usr.

BSD				 July 23, 2003				   BSD


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