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RL(4)			 BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			 RL(4)

     rl	-- RealTek 8129/8139 fast ethernet device driver

     device rl

     The rl driver provides support for	PCI ethernet adapters and embedded
     controllers based on the RealTek 8129 and 8139 fast ethernet controller
     chips.  This includes the Allied Telesyn AT2550, Farallon NetLINE 10/100
     PCI, Genius GF100TXR, NDC Communications NE100TX-E, OvisLink LEF-8129TX,
     OvisLink LEF-8139TX, Netronix Inc.	EA-1210	NetEther 10/100, KTX-9130TX
     10/100 Fast Ethernet, Encore ENL832-TX 10/100 M PCI, Longshine
     LCS-8038TX-R, the SMC EZ Card 10/100 PCI 1211-TX, and various other cheap
     adapters.	It also	supports the Accton EN1207D which has a	chip labeled
     MPX5030 (or MPX5038) which	appears	to be a	RealTek	workalike.

     The RealTek controllers use bus master DMA	but do not use a descriptor-
     based data	transfer mechanism.  The receiver uses a single	fixed size
     ring buffer from which packets must be copied into	mbufs.	For transmis-
     sion, there are only four outbound	packet address registers which require
     all outgoing packets to be	stored as contiguous buffers.  Furthermore,
     outbound packet buffers must be longword aligned or else transmission
     will fail.

     The 8129 differs from the 8139 in that the	8139 has an internal PHY which
     is	controlled through special direct access registers whereas the 8129
     uses an external PHY via an MII bus.  The 8139 supports both 10 and
     100Mbps speeds in either full or half duplex.  The	8129 can support the
     same speeds and modes given an appropriate	PHY chip.

     The rl driver supports the	following media	types:

     autoselect		   Enable autoselection	of the media type and options.
			   This	is only	supported if the PHY chip attached to
			   the RealTek controller supports NWAY	autonegotia-
			   tion.  The user can manually	override the autose-
			   lected mode by adding media options to the
			   /etc/rc.conf	file.

     10baseT/UTP	   Set 10Mbps operation.  The mediaopt option can also
			   be used to select either full-duplex	or half-duplex

     100baseTX		   Set 100Mbps (fast ethernet) operation.  The
			   mediaopt option can also be used to select either
			   full-duplex or half-duplex modes.

     The rl driver supports the	following media	options:

     full-duplex	   Force full duplex operation

     half-duplex	   Force half duplex operation.

     Note that the 100baseTX media type	is only	available if supported by the
     adapter.  For more	information on configuring this	device,	see

     rl%d: couldn't map	memory	A fatal	initialization error has occurred.

     rl%d: couldn't map	interrupt  A fatal initialization error	has occurred.

     rl%d: watchdog timeout  The device	has stopped responding to the network,
     or	there is a problem with	the network connection (cable).

     rl%d: no memory for rx list  The driver failed to allocate	an mbuf	for
     the receiver ring.

     rl%d: no memory for tx list  The driver failed to allocate	an mbuf	for
     the transmitter ring when allocating a pad	buffer or collapsing an	mbuf
     chain into	a cluster.

     rl%d: chip	is in D3 power state --	setting	to D0  This message applies
     only to adapters which support power management.  Some operating systems
     place the controller in low power mode when shutting down,	and some PCI
     BIOSes fail to bring the chip out of this state before configuring	it.
     The controller loses all of its PCI configuration in the D3 state,	so if
     the BIOS does not set it back to full power mode in time, it won't	be
     able to configure it correctly.  The driver tries to detect this condi-
     tion and bring the	adapter	back to	the D0 (full power) state, but this
     may not be	enough to return the driver to a fully operational condition.
     If	you see	this message at	boot time and the driver fails to attach the
     device as a network interface, you	will have to perform second warm boot
     to	have the device	properly configured.

     Note that this condition only occurs when warm booting from another oper-
     ating system.  If you power down your system prior	to booting FreeBSD,
     the card should be	configured correctly.

     arp(4), netintro(4), ng_ether(4), ifconfig(8)

     The RealTek 8129 and 8139 datasheets,

     The rl device driver first	appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.

     The rl driver was written by Bill Paul <>.

     Since outbound packets must be longword aligned, the transmit routine has
     to	copy an	unaligned packet into an mbuf cluster buffer before transmis-
     sion.  The	driver abuses the fact that the	cluster	buffer pool is allo-
     cated at system startup time in a contiguous region starting at a page
     boundary.	Since cluster buffers are 2048 bytes, they are longword
     aligned by	definition.  The driver	probably should	not be depending on
     this characteristic.

     The RealTek data sheets are of especially poor quality: the grammar and
     spelling are awful	and there is a lot of information missing, particu-
     larly concerning the receiver operation.  One particularly	important fact
     that the data sheets fail to mention relates to the way in	which the chip
     fills in the receive buffer.  When	an interrupt is	posted to signal that
     a frame has been received,	it is possible that another frame might	be in
     the process of being copied into the receive buffer while the driver is
     busy handling the first one.  If the driver manages to finish processing
     the first frame before the	chip is	done DMAing the	rest of	the next
     frame, the	driver may attempt to process the next frame in	the buffer be-
     fore the chip has had a chance to finish DMAing all of it.

     The driver	can check for an incomplete frame by inspecting	the frame
     length in the header preceding the	actual packet data: an incomplete
     frame will	have the magic length of 0xFFF0.  When the driver encounters
     this value, it knows that it has finished processing all currently	avail-
     able packets.  Neither this magic value nor its significance are docu-
     mented anywhere in	the RealTek data sheets.

BSD			       November	4, 1998				   BSD


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