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rsync(1)			 User Commands			      rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

	   rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	       rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync	daemon:
	       rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

       Usages with just	one SRC	arg and	no DEST	arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is	a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote	rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of	 its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of	the set	of files to be copied.	It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of	data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the	 source	 files
       and  the	 existing  files in the	destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved	copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" al-
       gorithm	(by default) that looks	for files that have changed in size or
       in last-modified	time.  Any changes in the other	 preserved  attributes
       (as  requested  by  options)  are made on the destination file directly
       when the	quick check indicates that the file's data does	not need to be

       Some of the additional features of rsync	are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS	 would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or	authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current	host  (it  does	 not  support copying files between two	remote

       There are two different ways for	rsync to contact a remote system:  us-
       ing  a  remote-shell  program  as the transport (such as	ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell	trans-
       port  is	used whenever the source or destination	path contains a	single
       colon (:) separator after a host	specification.	 Contacting  an	 rsync
       daemon  directly	happens	when the source	or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://	 URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this	latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a	desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format	similar	to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a	remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the client and	the remote side	as the
       server.	Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is	always
       a server, but a server can be either a daemon or	a remote-shell spawned

       See the file for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any	machine	that  you  can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that	you can	access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its	 communications, but it	may have been configured to use	a dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any	remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH	environment variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the	source and destination

       You use rsync in	the same way you use rcp.  You must specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best	way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	   rsync -t *.c	foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the	directory src on the machine foo.  If any of the files
       already	exist on the remote system then	the rsync remote-update	proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences  in  the
       data.   Note  that the expansion	of wildcards on	the command-line (*.c)
       into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs  rsync  and
       not  by	rsync  itself  (exactly	the same as all	other Posix-style pro-

	   rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the  machine foo	into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the	local machine.
       The files are transferred in archive mode, which	ensures	that  symbolic
       links, devices, attributes, permissions,	ownerships, etc. are preserved
       in the transfer.	 Additionally, compression will	be used	to reduce  the
       size of data portions of	the transfer.

	   rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing slash on the	source changes this behavior to	avoid creating
       an additional directory level at	the destination.  You can think	 of  a
       trailing	/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases  the  at-
       tributes	 of the	containing directory are transferred to	the containing
       directory on the	destination.  In other words, each  of	the  following
       commands	 copies	 the files in the same way, including their setting of
       the attributes of /dest/foo:

	   rsync -av /src/foo /dest
	   rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module  references  don't  require  a  trailing
       slash to	copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these	copy the remote	directory's contents into "/dest":

	   rsync -av host: /dest
	   rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use	rsync in local-only mode, where	both  the  source  and
       destination don't have a	':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy	command.

       Finally,	you can	list all the (listable)	modules	available from a  par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a	remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style	as the	first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all	these work:

	   rsync -av host:file1	:file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
	   rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
	   rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older  versions	of rsync required using	quoted spaces in the SRC, like
       these examples:

	   rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
	   rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest  rsync,  but
       is not as easy to use as	the first method.

       If  you	need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll	need to	escape
       the whitespace in a way that the	remote shell will understand.  For in-

	   rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

       It is also possible to use rsync	without	a remote shell as  the	trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to	a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port	873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be
       running	on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC	DAEMON
       TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell ex-
       cept that:

       o      you  either  use	a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first	word of	the "path" is actually a module	name.

       o      the remote daemon	may print a message of the day when  you  con-

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon	will be	shown.

       o      if you specify no	local destination then a listing of the	speci-
	      fied files on the	remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option (since	that overrides
	      the daemon connection to use ssh -- see USING RSYNC-DAEMON  FEA-

       An example that copies all the files in a remote	module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on the remote daemon may require authentication.	If so,
       you will	receive	a password prompt when you connect.  You can avoid the
       password	 prompt	 by setting the	environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you	want to	use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	 On  some  systems  environment	 variables  are	visible	to all
       users.  On those	systems	using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection	via a web proxy	by setting  the	 envi-
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note	that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may	 also establish	a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a	direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the	rsync  command	(so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).	 For example:

	   export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
	   rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	   rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses	ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which  forwards all data	to port	873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
       ost (%H).

       Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment  variable	is  set,  that
       program	will  be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of
       using the default shell of the system() call.

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as  named modules) without actually allowing any	new socket connections
       into a system (other than what is already  required  to	allow  remote-
       shell  access).	 Rsync	supports  connecting  to a host	using a	remote
       shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server  that  expects  to
       read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This	can be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the  daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
       to use features such as chroot or change	the uid	used  by  the  daemon.
       (For  another  way  to encrypt a	daemon transfer, consider using	ssh to
       tunnel a	local port to a	remote machine and configure  a	 normal	 rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow	connections from "localhost".)

       From  the user's	perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax	as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon  transfer,  with  the only exception	being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line	with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option. (Setting	the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
       functionality.) For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a	different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying	the rsync-user
       value (for a module that	 requires  user-based  authentication).	  This
       means  that  you	 must give the '-l user' option	to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short	version	of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e	"ssh -l	ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order	to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon	already	running	(or it needs to	have configured	something like
       inetd to	spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).	For  full  information on how to start a daemon	that will han-
       dling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5)  man  page --
       that  is	 the  config file for the daemon, and it contains the full de-
       tails for how to	run the	daemon (including stand-alone and  inetd  con-

       If  you're  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is	no need	to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Rsync always sorts the specified	filenames into its  internal  transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together	of the contents	of identically
       named directories, makes	it easy	to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse	someone	 when  the  files are transferred in a different order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular	file to	be transferred prior to	 another,  ei-
       ther  separate  the files into different	rsync calls, or	consider using
       --delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted	 transfer  order,  but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more	rapidly).

       Here are	some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job	that runs

	   rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection	to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To  synchronize my samba	source trees I use the following Makefile tar-

	       rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/	.
	       rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       This allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection.   I	then  do  CVS  operations on the remote	machine, which
       saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror	a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-

	   rsync -az -e	ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched	from cron every	few hours.

       Here  is	a short	summary	of the options available in rsync.  Please re-
       fer to the detailed description below for a complete description.

       --verbose, -v		increase verbosity
       --info=FLAGS		fine-grained informational verbosity
       --debug=FLAGS		fine-grained debug verbosity
       --stderr=e|a|c		change stderr output mode (default: errors)
       --quiet,	-q		suppress non-error messages
       --no-motd		suppress daemon-mode MOTD
       --checksum, -c		skip based on checksum,	not mod-time & size
       --archive, -a		archive	mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
       --no-OPTION		turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
       --recursive, -r		recurse	into directories
       --relative, -R		use relative path names
       --no-implied-dirs	don't send implied dirs	with --relative
       --backup, -b		make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
       --backup-dir=DIR		make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
       --suffix=SUFFIX		backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
       --update, -u		skip files that	are newer on the receiver
       --inplace		update destination files in-place
       --append			append data onto shorter files
       --append-verify		--append w/old data in file checksum
       --dirs, -d		transfer directories without recursing
       --mkpath			create the destination's path component
       --links,	-l		copy symlinks as symlinks
       --copy-links, -L		transform symlink into referent	file/dir
       --copy-unsafe-links	only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
       --safe-links		ignore symlinks	that point outside the tree
       --munge-links		munge symlinks to make them safe & unusable
       --copy-dirlinks,	-k	transform symlink to dir into referent dir
       --keep-dirlinks,	-K	treat symlinked	dir on receiver	as dir
       --hard-links, -H		preserve hard links
       --perms,	-p		preserve permissions
       --fileflags		preserve file-flags (aka chflags)
       --executability,	-E	preserve executability
       --chmod=CHMOD		affect file and/or directory permissions
       --acls, -A		preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
       --xattrs, -X		preserve extended attributes
       --owner,	-o		preserve owner (super-user only)
       --group,	-g		preserve group
       --devices		preserve device	files (super-user only)
       --specials		preserve special files
       -D			same as	--devices --specials
       --times,	-t		preserve modification times
       --atimes, -U		preserve access	(use) times
       --open-noatime		avoid changing the atime on opened files
       --crtimes, -N		preserve create	times (newness)
       --omit-dir-times, -O	omit directories from --times
       --omit-link-times, -J	omit symlinks from --times
       --super			receiver attempts super-user activities
       --fake-super		store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
       --sparse, -S		turn sequences of nulls	into sparse blocks
       --preallocate		allocate dest files before writing them
       --write-devices		write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
       --dry-run, -n		perform	a trial	run with no changes made
       --whole-file, -W		copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
       --checksum-choice=STR	choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
       --one-file-system, -x	don't cross filesystem boundaries
       --block-size=SIZE, -B	force a	fixed checksum block-size
       --rsh=COMMAND, -e	specify	the remote shell to use
       --rsync-path=PROGRAM	specify	the rsync to run on remote machine
       --existing		skip creating new files	on receiver
       --ignore-existing	skip updating files that exist on receiver
       --remove-source-files	sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
       --del			an alias for --delete-during
       --delete			delete extraneous files	from dest dirs
       --delete-before		receiver deletes before	xfer, not during
       --delete-during		receiver deletes during	the transfer
       --delete-delay		find deletions during, delete after
       --delete-after		receiver deletes after transfer, not during
       --delete-excluded	also delete excluded files from	dest dirs
       --ignore-missing-args	ignore missing source args without error
       --delete-missing-args	delete missing source args from	destination
       --ignore-errors		delete even if there are I/O errors
       --force-delete		force deletion of directories even if not empty
       --force-change		affect user-/system-immutable files/dirs
       --force-uchange		affect user-immutable files/dirs
       --force-schange		affect system-immutable	files/dirs
       --max-delete=NUM		don't delete more than NUM files
       --max-size=SIZE		don't transfer any file	larger than SIZE
       --min-size=SIZE		don't transfer any file	smaller	than SIZE
       --max-alloc=SIZE		change a limit relating	to memory alloc
       --partial		keep partially transferred files
       --partial-dir=DIR	put a partially	transferred file into DIR
       --delay-updates		put all	updated	files into place at end
       --prune-empty-dirs, -m	prune empty directory chains from file-list
       --numeric-ids		don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
       --usermap=STRING		custom username	mapping
       --groupmap=STRING	custom groupname mapping
       --chown=USER:GROUP	simple username/groupname mapping
       --timeout=SECONDS	set I/O	timeout	in seconds
       --contimeout=SECONDS	set daemon connection timeout in seconds
       --ignore-times, -I	don't skip files that match size and time
       --size-only		skip files that	match in size
       --modify-window=NUM, -@	set the	accuracy for mod-time comparisons
       --temp-dir=DIR, -T	create temporary files in directory DIR
       --fuzzy,	-y		find similar file for basis if no dest file
       --compare-dest=DIR	also compare destination files relative	to DIR
       --copy-dest=DIR		... and	include	copies of unchanged files
       --link-dest=DIR		hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
       --compress, -z		compress file data during the transfer
       --compress-choice=STR	choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
       --compress-level=NUM	explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
       --skip-compress=LIST	skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
       --cvs-exclude, -C	auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
       --filter=RULE, -f	add a file-filtering RULE
       -F			same as	--filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
				repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
       --exclude=PATTERN	exclude	files matching PATTERN
       --exclude-from=FILE	read exclude patterns from FILE
       --include=PATTERN	don't exclude files matching PATTERN
       --include-from=FILE	read include patterns from FILE
       --files-from=FILE	read list of source-file names from FILE
       --from0,	-0		all *-from/filter files	are delimited by 0s
       --protect-args, -s	no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
       --copy-as=USER[:GROUP]	specify	user & optional	group for the copy
       --address=ADDRESS	bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
       --port=PORT		specify	double-colon alternate port number
       --sockopts=OPTIONS	specify	custom TCP options
       --blocking-io		use blocking I/O for the remote	shell
       --outbuf=N|L|B		set out	buffering to None, Line, or Block
       --stats			give some file-transfer	stats
       --8-bit-output, -8	leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
       --human-readable, -h	output numbers in a human-readable format
       --progress		show progress during transfer
       -P			same as	--partial --progress
       --itemize-changes, -i	output a change-summary	for all	updates
       --remote-option=OPT, -M	send OPTION to the remote side only
       --out-format=FORMAT	output updates using the specified FORMAT
       --log-file=FILE		log what we're doing to	the specified FILE
       --log-file-format=FMT	log updates using the specified	FMT
       --password-file=FILE	read daemon-access password from FILE
       --early-input=FILE	use FILE for daemon's early exec input
       --list-only		list the files instead of copying them
       --bwlimit=RATE		limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --stop-after=MINS	Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m	Stop rsync at the specified point in time
       --write-batch=FILE	write a	batched	update to FILE
       --only-write-batch=FILE	like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
       --read-batch=FILE	read a batched update from FILE
       --protocol=NUM		force an older protocol	version	to be used
       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC	request	charset	conversion of filenames
       --checksum-seed=NUM	set block/file checksum	seed (advanced)
       --ipv4, -4		prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6		prefer IPv6
       --version, -V		print the version + other info and exit
       --help, -h (*)		show this help (* -h is	help only on its own)

       Rsync can also be run as	a daemon, in which case	the following  options
       are accepted:

       --daemon			run as an rsync	daemon
       --address=ADDRESS	bind to	the specified address
       --bwlimit=RATE		limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --config=FILE		specify	alternate rsyncd.conf file
       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M	override global	daemon config parameter
       --no-detach		do not detach from the parent
       --port=PORT		listen on alternate port number
       --log-file=FILE		override the "log file"	setting
       --log-file-format=FMT	override the "log format" setting
       --sockopts=OPTIONS	specify	custom TCP options
       --verbose, -v		increase verbosity
       --ipv4, -4		prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6		prefer IPv6
       --help, -h		show this help (when used with --daemon)

       Rsync  accepts  both long (double-dash +	word) and short	(single-dash +
       letter) options.	 The full list of the available	options	are  described
       below.  If an option can	be specified in	more than one way, the choices
       are comma-separated.  Some options only have  a	long  variant,	not  a
       short.	If  the	option takes a parameter, the parameter	is only	listed
       after the long variant, even though it must also	be specified  for  the
       short.	When specifying	a parameter, you can either use	the form --op-
       tion=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may  need
       to  be quoted in	some manner for	it to survive the shell's command-line
       parsing.	 Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename  is  sub-
       stituted	 by  your  shell,  so --option=~/foo will not change the tilde
       into your home directory	(remove	the '='	for that).

       --help, -h (*)
	      Print a short help page  describing  the	options	 available  in
	      rsync and	exit.  (*) The -h short	option will only invoke	--help
	      when used	without	other options since it normally	means --human-

       --version, -V
	      Print the	rsync version plus other info and exit.

	      The output includes the default list of checksum algorithms, the
	      default list of compression algorithms, a	 list  of  compiled-in
	      capabilities,  a	link  to  the  rsync  web  site,  and some li-
	      cense/copyright info.

       --verbose, -v
	      This option increases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the transfer.  By	default, rsync works silently.	A sin-
	      gle -v will give you information	about  what  files  are	 being
	      transferred and a	brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
	      give you	information  on	 what  files  are  being  skipped  and
	      slightly	more information at the	end.  More than	two -v options
	      should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

	      In a modern rsync, the -v	option is equivalent to	the setting of
	      groups  of  --info  and  --debug options.	 You can choose	to use
	      these newer options in addition to, or in	place of using	--ver-
	      bose, as any fine-grained	settings override the implied settings
	      of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask	for help  that
	      tells  you  exactly what flags are set for each increase in ver-

	      However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
	      will  limit how high of a	level the various individual flags can
	      be set on	the daemon side.  For instance,	if the max is 2,  then
	      any  info	 and/or	 debug flag that is set	to a higher value than
	      what would be set	by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level  in
	      the daemon's logging.

	      This option lets you have	fine-grained control over the informa-
	      tion output you want to see.  An individual  flag	 name  may  be
	      followed	by a level number, with	0 meaning to silence that out-
	      put, 1 being the default output level, and  higher  numbers  in-
	      creasing	the output of that flag	(for those that	support	higher
	      levels).	Use --info=help	to see all the available  flag	names,
	      what  they  output,  and	what flag names	are added for each in-
	      crease in	the verbose level.  Some examples:

		  rsync	-a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
		  rsync	-avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0	src/ dest/

	      Note that	--info=name's output is	affected by  the  --out-format
	      and  --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See	those options for more
	      information on what is output and	when.

	      This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync	on the	server
	      side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
	      or more flags needed to be send to the server and	the server was
	      too  old	to  understand	them).	 See  also the "max verbosity"
	      caveat above when	dealing	with a daemon.

	      This option lets you have	fine-grained control  over  the	 debug
	      output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
	      by a level number, with 0	meaning	to silence that	output,	1  be-
	      ing  the default output level, and higher	numbers	increasing the
	      output of	that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
	      --debug=help to see all the available flag names,	what they out-
	      put, and what flag names are added for each increase in the ver-
	      bose level.  Some	examples:

		  rsync	-avvv --debug=none src/	dest/
		  rsync	-avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

	      Note   that  some	 debug	messages  will	only  be  output  when
	      --stderr=all is specified, especially those  pertaining  to  I/O
	      and buffer debugging.

	      Beginning	 in  3.2.0, this option	is no longer auto-forwarded to
	      the server side in order to allow	you to specify different debug
	      values  for  each	 side of the transfer, as well as to specify a
	      new debug	option that is only present in one of the  rsync  ver-
	      sions.   If you want to duplicate	the same option	on both	sides,
	      using brace expansion is an easy way to save  you	 some  typing.
	      This works in zsh	and bash:

		  rsync	-aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

	      This  option  controls  which  processes output to stderr	and if
	      info messages are	also changed to	stderr.	 The mode strings  can
	      be  abbreviated, so feel free to use a single letter value.  The
	      3	possible choices are:

	      o	     errors - (the default) causes all the rsync processes  to
		     send  an error directly to	stderr,	even if	the process is
		     on	the remote side	of the transfer.   Info	 messages  are
		     sent  to  the  client  side  via the protocol stream.  If
		     stderr is not available (i.e.  when  directly  connecting
		     with  a  daemon  via  a socket) errors fall back to being
		     sent via the protocol stream.

	      o	     all - causes all rsync messages (info and error)  to  get
		     written directly to stderr	from all (possible) processes.
		     This causes stderr	to become  line-buffered  (instead  of
		     raw) and eliminates the ability to	divide up the info and
		     error messages by file handle.  For those doing debugging
		     or	 using	several	 levels	 of verbosity, this option can
		     help to avoid clogging  up	 the  transfer	stream	(which
		     should  prevent  any  chance  of  a  deadlock bug hanging
		     things up).  It also enables the outputting of  some  I/O
		     related debug messages.

	      o	     client  -	causes	all  rsync  messages to	be sent	to the
		     client side via the protocol stream.  One client  process
		     outputs all messages, with	errors on stderr and info mes-
		     sages on stdout.  This was	the  default  in  older	 rsync
		     versions, but can cause error delays when a lot of	trans-
		     fer data is ahead of the  messages.   If  you're  pushing
		     files to an older rsync, you may want to use --stderr=all
		     since that	idiom has been around for several releases.

	      This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version  also	 began
	      the  forwarding  of  a  non-default  setting to the remote side,
	      though rsync uses	the backward-compatible	options	 --msgs2stderr
	      and  --no-msgs2stderr  to	represent the all and client settings,
	      respectively.  A newer rsync will	continue to accept these older
	      option names to maintain compatibility.

       --quiet,	-q
	      This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer, notably  suppressing	 information  messages
	      from  the	 remote	 server.   This	option is useful when invoking
	      rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the	client
	      at the start of a	daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
	      of-the-day (MOTD)	text, but it also affects the list of  modules
	      that  the	daemon sends in	response to the	"rsync host::" request
	      (due to a	limitation in the rsync	protocol), so omit this	option
	      if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       --ignore-times, -I
	      Normally	rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
	      size and have the	 same  modification  timestamp.	  This	option
	      turns  off  this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be

	      This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for	finding	 files
	      that  need  to  be  transferred, changing	it from	the default of
	      transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
	      modified	time  to  just	looking	for files that have changed in
	      size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using an-
	      other  mirroring	system	which  may not preserve	timestamps ex-

       --modify-window=NUM, -@
	      When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats  the	timestamps  as
	      being  equal  if	they  differ by	no more	than the modify-window
	      value.  The default is 0,	which matches  just  integer  seconds.
	      If  you  specify	a negative value (and the receiver is at least
	      version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also	be taken into account.
	      Specifying  1  is	 useful	 for  copies  to/from  MS  Windows FAT
	      filesystems, because FAT represents times	with a 2-second	 reso-
	      lution  (allowing	 times	to differ from the original by up to 1

	      If you want all your transfers to	default	to comparing  nanosec-
	      onds, you	can create a ~/.popt file and put these	lines in it:

		  rsync	alias -a -a@-1
		  rsync	alias -t -t@-1

	      With  that  as  the default, you'd need to specify --modify-win-
	      dow=0 (aka -@0) to override it and ignore	nanoseconds,  e.g.  if
	      you're  copying between ext3 and ext4, or	if the receiving rsync
	      is older than 3.1.3.

       --checksum, -c
	      This changes the way rsync checks	if the files have been changed
	      and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
	      a	"quick check" that (by default)	checks if each file's size and
	      time of last modification	match between the sender and receiver.
	      This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
	      file  that  has a	matching size.	Generating the checksums means
	      that both	sides will expend a lot	of disk	I/O  reading  all  the
	      data  in the files in the	transfer, so this can slow things down
	      significantly (and this is prior to any  reading	that  will  be
	      done to transfer changed files)

	      The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
	      file-system scan that builds the list of	the  available	files.
	      The  receiver  generates	its  checksums when it is scanning for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file	that has the same size
	      as  the corresponding sender's file: files with either a changed
	      size or a	changed	checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that	rsync always verifies that each	transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	 receiving  side by checking a
	      whole-file checksum that is generated  as	 the  file  is	trans-
	      ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
	      nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
	      file need	to be updated?"	check.

	      The  checksum used is auto-negotiated between the	client and the
	      server, but can be overridden using either the --checksum-choice
	      (--cc)  option  or  an environment variable that is discussed in
	      that option's section.

       --archive, -a
	      This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you
	      want  recursion  and want	to preserve almost everything (with -H
	      being a notable omission).  The  only  exception	to  the	 above
	      equivalence  is when --files-from	is specified, in which case -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that	-a does	not preserve hardlinks,	because	finding	multi-
	      ply-linked  files	is expensive.  You must	separately specify -H.
	      Note also	that for backward compatibility, -a currently does not
	      imply the	--fileflags option.

	      You  may	turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the
	      option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with  a
	      "no-":  only  options  that  are	implied	by other options (e.g.
	      --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in	 various  cir-
	      cumstances  (e.g.	--no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).
	      You may specify either the short or the long option  name	 after
	      the "no-"	prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same	as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
	      (--owner), instead of converting	-a  into  -rlptgD,  you	 could
	      specify -a --no-o	(or -a --no-owner).

	      The order	of the options is important: if	you specify --no-r -a,
	      the -r option would end up being	turned	on,  the  opposite  of
	      -a --no-r.   Note	also that the side-effects of the --files-from
	      option are NOT positional, as it affects the  default  state  of
	      several  options and slightly changes the	meaning	of -a (see the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       --recursive, -r
	      This tells rsync to  copy	 directories  recursively.   See  also
	      --dirs (-d).

	      Beginning	 with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used	is now
	      an incremental scan that uses much less memory than  before  and
	      begins the transfer after	the scanning of	the first few directo-
	      ries have	been completed.	 This incremental  scan	 only  affects
	      our  recursion  algorithm,  and  does not	change a non-recursive
	      transfer.	 It is also only possible when both ends of the	trans-
	      fer are at least version 3.0.0.

	      Some  options require rsync to know the full file	list, so these
	      options disable the incremental recursion	mode.  These  include:
	      --delete-before,	--delete-after,	 --prune-empty-dirs, and --de-
	      lay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete	mode when  you
	      specify  --delete	 is  now --delete-during when both ends	of the
	      connection are at	least 3.0.0 (use --del or  --delete-during  to
	      request  this  improved deletion mode explicitly).  See also the
	      --delete-delay  option  that  is	a  better  choice  than	 using

	      Incremental  recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recur-
	      sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       --relative, -R
	      Use relative paths.  This	means that the full path names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent	to the server rather than just
	      the last parts of	the filenames.	This  is  particularly	useful
	      when  you	want to	send several different directories at the same
	      time.  For example, if you used this command:

		  rsync	-av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      would create a file named	baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote  machine.
	      If instead you used

		  rsync	-avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then a file named	/tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the re-
	      mote machine, preserving its full	path.  These extra  path  ele-
	      ments  are  called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the
	      "foo/bar"	directories in the above example).

	      Beginning	with rsync 3.0.0, rsync	always sends these implied di-
	      rectories	 as  real directories in the file list,	even if	a path
	      element is really	a symlink on the sending side.	This  prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the	full path of a
	      file that	you didn't realize had a symlink in its	path.  If  you
	      want  to	duplicate a server-side	symlink, include both the sym-
	      link via its path, and referent directory	via its	real path.  If
	      you're  dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs	option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is  sent as implied directories for each path you	specify.  With
	      a	modern rsync on	the sending side (beginning with  2.6.7),  you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into	the source path, like this:

		  rsync	-avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That  would  create  /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote	machine. (Note
	      that the dot must	be followed by a slash,	so "/foo/." would  not
	      be abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need	to use
	      a	chdir to limit the source path.	  For  example,	 when  pushing

		  (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
	      that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for  future  com-
	      mands.)  If  you're  pulling files from an older rsync, use this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		       remote:bar/baz.c	/tmp/

	      This option affects the default behavior of the  --relative  op-
	      tion.   When  it is specified, the attributes of the implied di-
	      rectories	from the source	names are not included in  the	trans-
	      fer.   This  means  that	the corresponding path elements	on the
	      destination system are left unchanged if	they  exist,  and  any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even	allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences,  such  as being a symlink to a directory on the receiving

	      For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from  entry  told
	      rsync  to	 transfer  the	file  "path/foo/file", the directories
	      "path" and "path/foo" are	implied	when --relative	is  used.   If
	      "path/foo"  is a symlink to "bar"	on the destination system, the
	      receiving	rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate  it
	      as  a  directory,	 and  receive the file into the	new directory.
	      With   --no-implied-dirs,	  the	 receiving    rsync    updates
	      "path/foo/file"  using  the  existing path elements, which means
	      that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another  way
	      to  accomplish  this  link  preservation	is  to use the --keep-
	      dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks to  directories
	      in the rest of the transfer).

	      When  pulling files from an rsync	older than 3.0.0, you may need
	      to use this option if the	sending	side has a symlink in the path
	      you  request  and	 you wish the implied directories to be	trans-
	      ferred as	normal directories.

       --backup, -b
	      With this	option,	preexisting destination	files are  renamed  as
	      each  file is transferred	or deleted.  You can control where the
	      backup file goes and what	(if any) suffix	 gets  appended	 using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note that	if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-
	      times option will	be forced on, and (2) if --delete is  also  in
	      effect  (without	--delete-excluded), rsync will add a "protect"
	      filter-rule for the backup suffix	to the end of all your	exist-
	      ing  excludes  (e.g.  -f "P *~").	  This will prevent previously
	      backed-up	files from being deleted.  Note	that if	you  are  sup-
	      plying  your  own	 filter	rules, you may need to manually	insert
	      your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up	in the list so
	      that  it	has  a	high enough priority to	be effective (e.g., if
	      your rules specify a  trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of  *,  the
	      auto-added rule would never be reached).

	      This  implies  the --backup option, and tells rsync to store all
	      backups in the specified directory on the	receiving side.	  This
	      can be used for incremental backups.  You	can additionally spec-
	      ify a backup suffix using	the  --suffix  option  (otherwise  the
	      files backed up in the specified directory will keep their orig-
	      inal filenames).

	      Note that	if you specify a relative path,	the  backup  directory
	      will  be	relative to the	destination directory, so you probably
	      want to specify either an	absolute path or a  path  that	starts
	      with  "../".  If an rsync	daemon is the receiver,	the backup dir
	      cannot go	outside	the module's path  hierarchy,  so  take	 extra
	      care not to delete it or copy into it.

	      This  option  allows  you	 to override the default backup	suffix
	      used with	the --backup (-b) option.  The default suffix is  a  ~
	      if  no  --backup-dir  was	 specified,  otherwise	it is an empty

       --update, -u
	      This forces rsync	to skip	any files which	exist on the  destina-
	      tion  and	 have  a  modified  time that is newer than the	source
	      file. (If	an existing destination	file has a  modification  time
	      equal  to	the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are

	      Note that	this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
	      other  special files.  Also, a difference	of file	format between
	      the sender and receiver is always	 considered  to	 be  important
	      enough for an update, no matter what date	is on the objects.  In
	      other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
	      has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

	      This  option  changes  how  rsync	transfers a file when its data
	      needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
	      new  copy	 of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
	      plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
	      destination file.

	      This has several effects:

	      o	     Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
		     be	visible	through	other hard links  to  the  destination
		     file.   Moreover, attempts	to copy	differing source files
		     onto a multiply-linked destination	file will result in  a
		     "tug  of war" with	the destination	data changing back and

	      o	     In-use binaries cannot be updated	(either	 the  OS  will
		     prevent  this from	happening, or binaries that attempt to
		     swap-in their data	will misbehave or crash).

	      o	     The file's	data will be in	an inconsistent	 state	during
		     the transfer and will be left that	way if the transfer is
		     interrupted or if an update fails.

	      o	     A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
		     While  a  super  user  can	update any file, a normal user
		     needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
		     file for writing to be successful.

	      o	     The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm	may be
		     reduced if	some data in the destination file is overwrit-
		     ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later	in the
		     file.  This does not apply	if  you	 use  --backup,	 since
		     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
		     file for the transfer.

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update	files that are
	      being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing	to use
	      this for a copy.

	      This option is useful for	transferring large files  with	block-
	      based  changes  or  appended  data, and also on systems that are
	      disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-on-
	      write  filesystem	snapshot from diverging	the entire contents of
	      a	file that only has minor changes.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the file), but	conflicts with --partial-dir and --de-
	      lay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incompati-
	      ble with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  special  copy  mode	only works to efficiently update files
	      that are known to	be growing larger where	any  existing  content
	      on  the  receiving side is also known to be the same as the con-
	      tent on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous	if you
	      aren't  100% sure	that all the files in the transfer are shared,
	      growing files.  You should thus use filter rules to ensure  that
	      you weed out any files that do not fit this criteria.

	      Rsync  updates these growing file	in-place without verifying any
	      of the existing content in the file (it only verifies  the  con-
	      tent that	it is appending).  Rsync skips any files that exist on
	      the receiving side that are not shorter than the associated file
	      on  the  sending	side  (which  means  that new files are	trasn-

	      This does	not interfere with the updating	of a  file's  non-con-
	      tent  attributes	(e.g.	permissions, ownership,	etc.) when the
	      file does	not need to be transferred, nor	does it	affect the up-
	      dating of	any directories	or non-regular files.

	      This  special  copy mode works like --append except that all the
	      data in the file is included in the checksum verification	 (mak-
	      ing  it  much  less efficient but	also potentially safer).  This
	      option can be dangerous if you aren't 100%  sure	that  all  the
	      files  in	the transfer are shared, growing files.	 See the --ap-
	      pend option for more details.

	      Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the	--append  option  worked  like
	      --append-verify,	so  if you are interacting with	an older rsync
	      (or the transfer is using	a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
	      either append option will	initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       --dirs, -d
	      Tell  the	 sending  side to include any directories that are en-
	      countered.  Unlike --recursive, a	directory's contents  are  not
	      copied unless the	directory name specified is "."	or ends	with a
	      trailing slash (e.g. ".",	"dir/.", "dir/", etc.).	 Without  this
	      option  or  the --recursive option, rsync	will skip all directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The --dirs option	is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
	      --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
	      --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories	 are  seen  in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

	      There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
	      (or  --old-d)  that  tells  rsync	 to  use  a  hack  of -r --ex-
	      clude='/*/*' to get an older rsync to list  a  single  directory
	      without recursing.

	      Create  a	 missing  path component of the	destination arg.  This
	      allows rsync to create multiple levels  of  missing  destination
	      dirs and to create a path	in which to put	a single renamed file.
	      Keep in mind that	you'll need to supply a	trailing slash if  you
	      want  the	 entire	 destination path to be	treated	as a directory
	      when copying a single arg	(making	rsync behave the same way that
	      it  would	 if  the path component	of the destination had already

	      For example, the following creates a copy	of file	foo as bar  in
	      the  sub/dir directory, creating dirs "sub" and "sub/dir"	if ei-
	      ther do not yet exist:

		  rsync	-ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

	      If you instead ran the following,	it would have created file foo
	      in the sub/dir/bar directory:

		  rsync	-ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

       --links,	-l
	      When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des-

       --copy-links, -L
	      When symlinks are	encountered, the item that they	point to  (the
	      referent)	is copied, rather than the symlink.  In	older versions
	      of rsync,	this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
	      receiving	 side to follow	symlinks, such as symlinks to directo-
	      ries.  In	a modern rsync such as this one, you'll	need to	 spec-
	      ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get	this extra behavior.  The only
	      exception	is when	sending	files to an rsync that is too  old  to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will	still have the
	      side-effect of -K	on that	older receiving	rsync.

	      This tells rsync to copy the referent  of	 symbolic  links  that
	      point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
	      treated like ordinary files, and so  are	any  symlinks  in  the
	      source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option	has no
	      additional effect	if --copy-links	was also specified.

	      Note that	the cut-off point is the top of	the transfer, which is
	      the  part	of the path that rsync isn't mentioning	in the verbose
	      output.  If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then the "subdir"
	      directory	is a name inside the transfer tree, not	the top	of the
	      transfer (which is /src) so it is	 legal	for  created  relative
	      symlinks	to  refer to other names inside	the /src and /dest di-
	      rectories.  If you instead copy "/src/subdir/" (with a  trailing
	      slash)  to  "/dest/subdir"  that would not allow symlinks	to any
	      files outside of "subdir".

	      This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out-
	      side  the	 copied	tree.  All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
	      Using this option	in conjunction with --relative may give	 unex-
	      pected results.

	      This  option  tells  rsync to (1)	modify all symlinks on the re-
	      ceiving side in a	way that makes them unusable  but  recoverable
	      (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
	      had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you	 don't
	      quite  trust the source of the data to not try to	slip in	a sym-
	      link to a	unexpected place.

	      The way rsync disables the use of	symlinks is to prefix each one
	      with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents	the links from
	      being used as long as that directory does	not exist.  When  this
	      option  is  enabled,  rsync will refuse to run if	that path is a
	      directory	or a symlink to	a directory.

	      The option only affects the client side of the transfer,	so  if
	      you  need	 it  to	affect the server, specify it via --remote-op-
	      tion. (Note that in a local transfer, the	 client	 side  is  the

	      This  option has no affect on a daemon, since the	daemon config-
	      ures whether it wants munged symlinks via	 its  "munge symlinks"
	      parameter.   See	also  the  "munge-symlinks" perl script	in the
	      support directory	of the source code.

       --copy-dirlinks,	-k
	      This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to	a  di-
	      rectory  as  though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you don't	want symlinks to non-directories to  be	 affected,  as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without  this  option, if	the sending side has replaced a	direc-
	      tory with	a symlink to a	directory,  the	 receiving  side  will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the	new symlink, including
	      a	directory hierarchy (as	long as	--force-delete or --delete  is
	      in effect).

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

	      --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to  directories  in  the
	      source.	If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
	      trick you	can use	is to pass them	as additional source args with
	      a	 trailing  slash,  using --relative to make the	paths match up
	      right.  For example:

		  rsync	-r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

	      This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on  the  source  arg  as
	      given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
	      giving rise to a directory in the	file-list which	overrides  the
	      symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       --keep-dirlinks,	-K
	      This  option  causes  the	receiving side to treat	a symlink to a
	      directory	as though it were a real directory,  but  only	if  it
	      matches  a real directory	from the sender.  Without this option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with	a real

	      For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
	      tains a file "file", but "foo" is	a symlink to  directory	 "bar"
	      on  the receiver.	 Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
	      symlink "foo", recreates it as a	directory,  and	 receives  the
	      file into	the new	directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the	symlink	and "file" ends	up in "bar".

	      One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must	 trust
	      all the symlinks in the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted
	      user to create their own symlink	to  any	 directory,  the  user
	      could  then  (on	a  subsequent copy) replace the	symlink	with a
	      real directory and affect	the content of whatever	directory  the
	      symlink references.  For backup copies, you are better off using
	      something	like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify  your
	      receiving	hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the sending

       --hard-links, -H
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in	the source and
	      link together the	corresponding files on the destination.	 With-
	      out this option, hard-linked files in the	source are treated  as
	      though they were separate	files.

	      This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
	      links on the destination exactly matches	that  on  the  source.
	      Cases  in	which the destination may end up with extra hard links
	      include the following:

	      o	     If	the destination	contains extraneous  hard-links	 (more
		     linking  than  what  is present in	the source file	list),
		     the copying algorithm will	 not  break  them  explicitly.
		     However, if one or	more of	the paths have content differ-
		     ences, the	normal file-update process  will  break	 those
		     extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

	      o	     If	you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
		     links, the	linking	of the destination files  against  the
		     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
		     to	become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

	      Note  that  rsync	 can only detect hard links between files that
	      are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file  that  has
	      extra  hard-link connections to files outside the	transfer, that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to	avoid this breakage, be	very careful that you know how
	      your files are being updated so that you are certain that	no un-
	      intended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see the
	      --inplace	option for more	caveats).

	      If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync  may
	      transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
	      link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.	  This
	      does  not	 affect	the accuracy of	the transfer (i.e. which files
	      are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
	      data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
	      been found later in the transfer in another member of the	 hard-
	      linked  set of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency is to
	      disable incremental recursion using the  --no-inc-recursive  op-

       --perms,	-p
	      This  option  causes  the	receiving rsync	to set the destination
	      permissions to be	the same as the	source permissions. (See  also
	      the  --chmod  option for a way to	modify what rsync considers to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this	option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing files (including updated files) retain their ex-
		     isting  permissions,  though  the	--executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New files get their "normal" permission bits set  to  the
		     source  file's  permissions masked	with the receiving di-
		     rectory's	default	 permissions  (either  the   receiving
		     process's	umask,	or  the	 permissions specified via the
		     destination directory's default ACL), and	their  special
		     permission	 bits  disabled	except in the case where a new
		     directory inherits	a setgid bit from  its	parent	direc-

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's behavior is the same as that of other  file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In  summary:  to	give  destination files	(both old and new) the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give	new files the destina-
	      tion-default  permissions	 (while	 leaving  existing  files  un-
	      changed),	make sure that the  --perms  option  is	 off  and  use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which ensures that all non-masked bits get en-
	      abled).  If you'd	care to	make this latter  behavior  easier  to
	      type, you	could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the  -Z  option,
	      and  includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination

		  rsync	alias -Z --no-p	--no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You could	then use this new option in a  command	such  as  this

		  rsync	-avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or	it will	re-en-
	      able the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

	      The preservation of the destination's setgid bit	on  newly-cre-
	      ated  directories	 when --perms is off was added in rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older rsync versions erroneously	preserved  the	three  special
	      permission  bits	for  newly-created files when --perms was off,
	      while overriding the  destination's  setgid  bit	setting	 on  a
	      newly-created  directory.	  Default  ACL observance was added to
	      the ACL patch for	rsync 2.6.7,  so  older	 (or  non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even	if default ACLs	are present.  (Keep in
	      mind that	it is the version of the receiving rsync that  affects
	      these behaviors.)

       --executability,	-E
	      This  option causes rsync	to preserve the	executability (or non-
	      executability) of	regular	files when --perms is not enabled.   A
	      regular  file is considered to be	executable if at least one 'x'
	      is turned	on in its permissions.	When an	 existing  destination
	      file's  executability  differs  from  that  of the corresponding
	      source file, rsync modifies the destination  file's  permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	 make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To	make a file executable,	rsync turns on each  'x'  per-
		     mission that has a	corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       --acls, -A
	      This  option  causes  rsync to update the	destination ACLs to be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The	option also implies --perms.

	      The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL  en-
	      tries  for  this	option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       --xattrs, -X
	      This  option causes rsync	to update the destination extended at-
	      tributes to be the same as the source ones.

	      For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces,  a  copy
	      being  done  by  a  super-user copies all	namespaces except sys-
	      tem.*.  A	normal user only copies	the user.* namespace.	To  be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as	a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

	      The above	name filtering can be overridden by using one or  more
	      filter  options with the x modifier.  When you specify an	xattr-
	      affecting	filter rule, rsync requires that you do	your own  sys-
	      tem/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for what
	      xattr names are copied and what names are	allowed	to be deleted.
	      For example, to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

		  --filter='-x system.*'

	      To  skip	all  namespaces	 except	 the user namespace, you could
	      specify a	negated-user match:

		  --filter='-x!	user.*'

	      To prevent any attributes	from being deleted, you	could  specify
	      a	receiver-only rule that	excludes all names:

		  --filter='-xr	*'

	      Note that	the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr val-
	      ues (e.g.	 those used by --fake-super) unless you	repeat the op-
	      tion  (e.g.  -XX).   This	 "copy all xattrs" mode	cannot be used
	      with --fake-super.

       --fileflags This	option causes rsync to update the file-flags to	be the
	      same as the source files and directories (if  your  OS  supports
	      the chflags(2) system call).   Some flags	can only be altered by
	      the super-user and some might only be unset below	a certain  se-
	      cure-level  (usually  single-user	 mode).	It will	not make files
	      alterable	that are set to	immutable  on  the  receiver.	To  do
	      that, see	--force-change,	--force-uchange, and --force-schange."

       --force-change This option causes rsync to disable both user-immutable
	      and system-immutable flags on files and directories that are be-
	      ing updated or deleted on	the receiving side.  This option over-
	      rides --force-uchange and	--force-schange."

       --force-uchange	This  option  causes  rsync  to	disable	user-immutable
	      on files and directories that are	being updated  or  deleted  on
	      the  receiving  side.   It  does not try to affect system	flags.
	      This option overrides --force-change and --force-schange."

       --force-schange This option causes rsync	to disable system-immutable
	      flags on files and directories that are being updated or deleted
	      on  the  receiving  side.	 It does not try to affect user	flags.
	      This option overrides --force-change and --force-uchange."

	      This option tells	rsync to apply	one  or	 more  comma-separated
	      "chmod"  modes  to  the permission of the	files in the transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as	though it were the permissions
	      that  the	 sending  side supplied	for the	file, which means that
	      this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In  addition  to	the  normal  parsing  rules  specified	in the
	      chmod(1) manpage,	you can	specify	an item	that should only apply
	      to  a  directory	by prefixing it	with a 'D', or specify an item
	      that should only apply to	a file by prefixing  it	 with  a  'F'.
	      For  example, the	following will ensure that all directories get
	      marked set-gid, that no files are	other-writable,	that both  are
	      user-writable  and group-writable, and that both have consistent
	      executability across all bits:


	      Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


	      It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
	      additional  option  is  just  appended to	the list of changes to

	      See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
	      ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the	trans-

       --owner,	-o
	      This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
	      file  to be the same as the source file, but only	if the receiv-
	      ing rsync	is being run as	the super-user (see also  the  --super
	      and  --fake-super	 options).   Without this option, the owner of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The  preservation	 of ownership will associate matching names by
	      default, but may fall back to using the ID number	in  some  cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full discus-

       --group,	-g
	      This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
	      file  to	be the same as the source file.	 If the	receiving pro-
	      gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
	      specified),  only	groups that the	invoking user on the receiving
	      side is a	member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group  is	 set  to the default group of the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The preservation of group	information  will  associate  matching
	      names  by	 default,  but may fall	back to	using the ID number in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full

	      This  option causes rsync	to transfer character and block	device
	      files to the remote system to recreate these devices.  This  op-
	      tion  has	no effect if the receiving rsync is not	run as the su-
	      per-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

	      This  tells  rsync  to treat a device on the receiving side as a
	      regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device.

	      This option implies the --inplace	option.

	      Be careful using this, as	 you  should  know  what  devices  are
	      present  on  the	receiving  side	of the transfer, especially if
	      running rsync as root.

	      This option is refused by	an rsync daemon.

       --times,	-t
	      This tells rsync to transfer modification	times along  with  the
	      files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
	      option is	not used, the optimization that	 excludes  files  that
	      have  not	 been  modified	cannot be effective; in	other words, a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used  -I,	causing	all files to be	updated	(though	rsync's	delta-
	      transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if  the
	      files  haven't  actually	changed,  you're much better off using

       --atimes, -U
	      This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of	 the  destina-
	      tion files to the	same value as the source files.

	      If  repeated,  it	also sets the --open-noatime option, which can
	      help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the same
	      access  times  on	 the  transferred files	without	needing	to run
	      rsync an extra time after	a file is transferred.

	      Note that	some older rsync versions (prior to  3.2.0)  may  have
	      been built with a	pre-release --atimes patch that	does not imply
	      --open-noatime when this option is repeated.

	      This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME	flag (on  sys-
	      tems  that  support it) to avoid changing	the access time	of the
	      files that are being transferred.	 If your OS does  not  support
	      the  O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option.
	      Note also	that some filesystems are mounted  to  avoid  updating
	      the  atime  on read access even without the O_NOATIME flag being

       --crtimes, -N,
	      This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the	desti-
	      nation files to the same value as	the source files.

       --omit-dir-times, -O
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when	it is preserving modi-
	      fication times (see --times).  If	NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it	is a good idea to use -O.  This	option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early  creation
	      of  directories  in  incremental	recursion copies.  The default
	      --inc-recursive copying normally does an	early-create  pass  of
	      all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to
	      be able to then set the modify  time  of	the  parent  directory
	      right away (without having to delay that until a bunch of	recur-
	      sive copying has finished).  This	early-create idiom is not nec-
	      essary  if directory modify times	are not	being preserved, so it
	      is skipped.  Since early-create directories don't	have  accurate
	      mode,  mtime, or ownership, the use of this option can help when
	      someone wants to avoid these partially-finished directories.

       --omit-link-times, -J
	      This tells rsync to omit symlinks	when it	is preserving  modifi-
	      cation times (see	--times).

	      This  tells  the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by	the super-user.	 These
	      activities  include:  preserving	users  via the --owner option,
	      preserving all groups (not just the current user's  groups)  via
	      the  --groups  option, and copying devices via the --devices op-
	      tion.  This is useful for	systems	 that  allow  such  activities
	      without  being  the  super-user,	and also for ensuring that you
	      will get errors if the receiving side isn't being	run as the su-
	      per-user.	 To turn off super-user	activities, the	super-user can
	      use --no-super.

	      When this	option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user  activi-
	      ties  by	saving/restoring the privileged	attributes via special
	      extended attributes that are attached to each file (as  needed).
	      This  includes  the file's owner and group (if it	is not the de-
	      fault), the file's device	info (device & special files are  cre-
	      ated as empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't
	      allow to be set on the real file (e.g. the real file gets	u-s,g-
	      s,o-t  for safety) or that would limit the owner's access	(since
	      the real super-user can always access/change a file,  the	 files
	      we  create can always be accessed/changed	by the creating	user).
	      This option also handles ACLs (if	--acls was specified) and non-
	      user extended attributes (if --xattrs was	specified).

	      This  is	a  good	way to backup data without using a super-user,
	      and to store ACLs	from incompatible systems.

	      The --fake-super option only affects the side where  the	option
	      is  used.	  To  affect the remote	side of	a remote-shell connec-
	      tion, use	the --remote-option (-M) option:

		  rsync	-av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

	      For a local copy,	this option affects both the  source  and  the
	      destination.   If	 you  wish  a local copy to enable this	option
	      just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If  you
	      wish  a  local  copy  to	enable this option just	for the	source
	      files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

	      This option is overridden	by both	--super	and --no-super.

	      See also the "fake super"	setting	in  the	 daemon's  rsyncd.conf

       --sparse, -S
	      Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
	      space on the destination.	 If combined with --inplace  the  file
	      created  might  not end up with sparse blocks with some combina-
	      tions of kernel version and/or filesystem	type.  If --whole-file
	      is  in  effect  (e.g. for	a local	copy) then it will always work
	      because rsync truncates the file prior to	writing	 out  the  up-
	      dated version.

	      Note  that  versions  of	rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the
	      combination of --sparse and --inplace.

	      This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file	to its
	      eventual	size before writing data to the	file.  Rsync will only
	      use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided  by
	      Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
	      not the slow glibc implementation	that writes a null  byte  into
	      each block.

	      Without this option, larger files	may not	be entirely contiguous
	      on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
	      more  slowly.   If  the  destination is not an extent-supporting
	      filesystem (such as ext4,	xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
	      no positive effect at all.

	      If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse	blocks
	      (as opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes)	if the	kernel
	      version  and filesystem type support creating holes in the allo-
	      cated data.

       --dry-run, -n
	      This makes rsync perform a  trial	 run  that  doesn't  make  any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a	real run).  It
	      is most commonly used in	combination  with  the	--verbose,  -v
	      and/or  --itemize-changes,  -i options to	see what an rsync com-
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
	      same on a	dry run	and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery and system call failures); if it	isn't, that's  a  bug.
	      Other  output should be mostly unchanged,	but may	differ in some
	      areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send	the  actual  data  for
	      file  transfers,	so --progress has no effect, the "bytes	sent",
	      "bytes received",	"literal data",	and "matched data"  statistics
	      are  too	small,	and the	"speedup" value	is equivalent to a run
	      where no file transfers were needed.

       --whole-file, -W
	      This option disables  rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm,	 which
	      causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer may
	      be faster	if this	option is used when the	bandwidth between  the
	      source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
	      tination are specified as	local paths, but  only	if  no	batch-
	      writing option is	in effect.

       --checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
	      This option overrides the	checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm
	      name is specified, it is used for	both  the  transfer  checksums
	      and  (assuming  --checksum is specified) the pre-transfer	check-
	      sums.  If	two comma-separated names are supplied,	the first name
	      affects  the transfer checksums, and the second name affects the
	      pre-transfer checksums (-c).

	      The checksum options that	you may	be able	to use are:

	      o	     auto (the default automatic choice)

	      o	     xxh128

	      o	     xxh3

	      o	     xxh64 (aka	xxhash)

	      o	     md5

	      o	     md4

	      o	     none

	      Run rsync	--version to see the default  checksum	list  compiled
	      into your	version	(which may differ from the list	above).

	      If  "none"  is  specified	 for  the  first  (or  only) name, the
	      --whole-file option is forced on and no checksum verification is
	      performed	 on  the transferred data.  If "none" is specified for
	      the second (or only) name, the --checksum	option cannot be used.

	      The "auto" option	is the default,	where rsync  bases  its	 algo-
	      rithm  choice on a negotiation between the client	and the	server
	      as follows:

	      When both	sides of  the  transfer	 are  at  least	 3.2.0,	 rsync
	      chooses the first	algorithm in the client's list of choices that
	      is also in the server's list of choices.	If no common  checksum
	      choice is	found, rsync exits with	an error.  If the remote rsync
	      is too old to support checksum negotiation, a  value  is	chosen
	      based  on	 the  protocol	version	(which chooses between MD5 and
	      various flavors of MD4 based on protocol age).

	      The default order	can be customized by setting  the  environment
	      variable	RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST  to	 a space-separated list	of ac-
	      ceptable checksum	names.	If the string contains a  "&"  charac-
	      ter,  it	is separated into the "client string & server string",
	      otherwise	the same string	applies	to both.  If  the  string  (or
	      string  portion)	contains no non-whitespace characters, the de-
	      fault checksum list is used.  This method	does not allow you  to
	      specify  the  transfer checksum separately from the pre-transfer
	      checksum,	and it discards	"auto" and all unknown checksum	names.
	      A	list with only invalid names results in	a failed negotiation.

	      The  use of the --checksum-choice	option overrides this environ-
	      ment list.

       --one-file-system, -x
	      This tells rsync to avoid	crossing a  filesystem	boundary  when
	      recursing.   This	 does  not limit the user's ability to specify
	      items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that	rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is	repeated, rsync	omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise,	it includes an empty directory
	      at each mount-point it encounters	(using the attributes  of  the
	      mounted  directory  because  those of the	underlying mount-point
	      directory	are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been	told to	collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on	another	device
	      is treated like a	mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This  tells rsync	to skip	creating files (including directories)
	      that do not exist	yet on the destination.	  If  this  option  is
	      combined with the	--ignore-existing option, no files will	be up-
	      dated (which can be useful if all	you want to do is  delete  ex-
	      traneous files).

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an	exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

	      This tells rsync to skip updating	files that  already  exist  on
	      the  destination	(this does not ignore existing directories, or
	      nothing would get	done).	See also --existing.

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

	      This  option  can	 be  useful  for those doing backups using the
	      --link-dest option when they need	to continue a backup run  that
	      got  interrupted.	  Since	a --link-dest run is copied into a new
	      directory	hierarchy (when	it is used properly), using  --ignore-
	      existing	will  ensure  that the already-handled files don't get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in	permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).	This does mean that this option	is only	looking	at the
	      existing files in	the destination	hierarchy itself.

	      This tells rsync to remove  from	the  sending  side  the	 files
	      (meaning	non-directories)  that	are a part of the transfer and
	      have been	successfully duplicated	on the receiving side.

	      Note that	you should only	use this option	on source  files  that
	      are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
	      in a particular directory	over to	another	host, make  sure  that
	      the  finished  files  get	renamed	into the source	directory, not
	      directly written into it,	so that	rsync can't possibly  transfer
	      a	 file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write
	      the files	into a different directory, you	should	use  a	naming
	      idiom  that lets rsync avoid transferring	files that are not yet
	      finished (e.g. name the file "" when it is	 written,  re-
	      name  it to "foo"	when it	is done, and then use the option --ex-
	      clude='*.new' for	the rsync transfer).

	      Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will  skip  the  sender-side  removal
	      (and  output an error) if	the file's size	or modify time has not
	      stayed unchanged.

	      This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from	the  receiving
	      side  (ones  that	 aren't	on the sending side), but only for the
	      directories that are being synchronized.	You  must  have	 asked
	      rsync to send the	whole directory	(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using a wildcard for the	directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
	      since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
	      a	request	to transfer individual files, not  the	files'	parent
	      directory.   Files  that are excluded from the transfer are also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option  or  mark	the rules as only matching on the sending side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the	FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option	would have  no	effect	unless
	      --recursive  was	enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,	deletions will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This  option  can	be dangerous if	used incorrectly! It is	a very
	      good idea	to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)  to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any files	at the destination  will  be  automatically  disabled.
	      This  is	to  prevent temporary filesystem failures (such	as NFS
	      errors) on the sending side from causing a massive  deletion  of
	      files  on	the destination.  You can override this	with the --ig-
	      nore-errors option.

	      The --delete option may be combined with one  of	the  --delete-
	      WHEN  options  without  conflict,	 as well as --delete-excluded.
	      However, if none of the  --delete-WHEN  options  are  specified,
	      rsync  will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking to
	      rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and	 the  --delete-before  algorithm  when
	      talking	to  an	older  rsync.	See  also  --delete-delay  and

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete	(which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting before the transfer is helpful  if  the	filesystem  is
	      tight for	space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a  delay  be-
	      fore  the	 start of the transfer,	and this delay might cause the
	      transfer to timeout  (if	--timeout  was	specified).   It  also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that requires rsync to scan all the files	in the	transfer  into
	      memory at	once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during,	--del
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory	delete
	      scan is done right before	each directory is checked for updates,
	      so it behaves like a more	efficient  --delete-before,  including
	      doing  the deletions prior to any	per-directory filter files be-
	      ing updated.  This option	 was  first  added  in	rsync  version
	      2.6.4.   See  --delete  (which  is  implied) for more details on

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  com-
	      puted  during  the transfer (like	--delete-during), and then re-
	      moved after the transfer completes.  This	is  useful  when  com-
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or	--fuzzy, and is	more efficient
	      than using --delete-after	(but  can  behave  differently,	 since
	      --delete-after  computes	the deletions in a separate pass after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an  internal buffer, a temporary file will be created on the re-
	      ceiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open,	so you
	      shouldn't	 see  it during	the transfer).	If the creation	of the
	      temporary	file fails, rsync will	try  to	 fall  back  to	 using
	      --delete-after  (which  it  cannot do if --recursive is doing an
	      incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied) for more de-
	      tails on file-deletion.

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      after the	transfer has completed.	 This is  useful  if  you  are
	      sending  new per-directory merge files as	a part of the transfer
	      and you want their exclusions to	take  effect  for  the	delete
	      phase  of	the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the
	      old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync  to
	      scan  all	 the  files  in	 the transfer into memory at once (see
	      --recursive). See	--delete (which	is implied) for	 more  details
	      on file-deletion.

	      In addition to deleting the files	on the receiving side that are
	      not on the sending side, this tells rsync	 to  also  delete  any
	      files  on	 the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to	make individual	exclu-
	      sions  behave this way on	the receiver, and for a	way to protect
	      files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which  is  implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

	      When  rsync  is first processing the explicitly requested	source
	      files (e.g.  command-line	arguments or --files-from entries), it
	      is  normally  an error if	the file cannot	be found.  This	option
	      suppresses that error, and does not try to  transfer  the	 file.
	      This  does  not affect subsequent	vanished-file errors if	a file
	      was initially found to be	present	and later is no	longer there.

	      This option takes	the behavior of	(the  implied)	--ignore-miss-
	      ing-args	option	a step farther:	each missing arg will become a
	      deletion request of the corresponding destination	 file  on  the
	      receiving	 side (should it exist).  If the destination file is a
	      non-empty	directory, it will only	 be  successfully  deleted  if
	      --force-delete or	--delete are in	effect.	 Other than that, this
	      option is	independent of any other type of delete	processing.

	      The missing source files are represented	by  special  file-list
	      entries  which  display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only

	      Tells --delete to	go ahead and delete files even when there  are
	      I/O errors.

	      This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
	      is to be replaced	by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
	      deletions	are not	active (see --delete for details).

	      This  option can be abbreviated --force for backward compatibil-
	      ity.  Note that some older rsync versions	used to	still  require
	      --force  when  using --delete-after, and it used to be non-func-
	      tional unless the	--recursive option was also enabled.

	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
	      ries.   If  that	limit  is  exceeded, all further deletions are
	      skipped through the end of the transfer.	At the end, rsync out-
	      puts  a warning (including a count of the	skipped	deletions) and
	      exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
	      condition	also occurred).

	      Beginning	 with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
	      be warned	about any extraneous files in the destination  without
	      removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
	      ited", so	if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
	      use  the	less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
	      way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
	      versions didn't warn when	the limit was exceeded).

	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file	that is	larger
	      than the specified SIZE.	A numeric value	can be suffixed	with a
	      string  to  indicate  the	 numeric  units	or left	unqualified to
	      specify bytes.  Feel free	to use a fractional value  along  with
	      the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an	exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

	      The first	letter of a units string can be	B (bytes), K (kilo), M
	      (mega),  G  (giga),  T  (tera), or P (peta).  If the string is a
	      single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g.	"G" or "GiB") then the
	      units  are  multiples  of	 1024.	If you use a two-letter	suffix
	      that ends	with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you	 get  units  that  are
	      multiples	of 1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper
	      and lower-case that you want to use.

	      Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is off-
	      set  by one byte in the indicated	direction.  The	largest	possi-
	      ble value	is usually 8192P-1.

	      Examples:	 --max-size=1.5mb-1  is	 1499999  bytes,  and	--max-
	      size=2g+1	is 2147483649 bytes.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 3.1.0 did not allow	--max-

	      This tells rsync to avoid	transferring any file that is  smaller
	      than  the	 specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
	      small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for	a  description
	      of SIZE and other	information.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 3.1.0 did not allow	--min-

	      By default rsync limits an individual  malloc/realloc  to	 about
	      1GB  in  size.   For  most people	this limit works just fine and
	      prevents a protocol  error  causing  rsync  to  request  massive
	      amounts  of memory.  However, if you have	many millions of files
	      in a transfer, a large amount of server memory,  and  you	 don't
	      want  to split up	your transfer into multiple parts, you can in-
	      crease the per-allocation	limit to something  larger  and	 rsync
	      will consume more	memory.

	      Keep in mind that	this is	not a limit on the total size of allo-
	      cated memory.  It	is a sanity-check value	 for  each  individual

	      See  the	--max-size option for a	description of how SIZE	can be
	      specified.  The default suffix if	none is	given is bytes.

	      Beginning	in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

	      You can set a  default  value  using  the	 environment  variable
	      RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC  using the same SIZE values as supported by this
	      option.  If the remote rsync doesn't understand the  --max-alloc
	      option,  you  can	 override an environmental value by specifying
	      --max-alloc=1g, which will make rsync avoid sending  the	option
	      to the remote side (because "1G" is the default).

       --block-size=SIZE, -B
	      This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
	      rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected	based  on  the
	      size  of	each file being	updated.  See the technical report for

	      Beginning	in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with	 a  suffix  as
	      detailed in the --max-size option.  Older	versions only accepted
	      a	byte count.

       --rsh=COMMAND, -e
	      This option allows you to	choose	an  alternative	 remote	 shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and	remote
	      copies of	rsync.	Typically, rsync is configured to use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on	a local	network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will	be used	to run an rsync	daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and all data will be transmitted through that re-
	      mote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket  con-
	      nection  to  a running rsync daemon on the remote	host.  See the
	      TION" above.

	      Beginning	 with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable
	      will be set when a daemon	connection is being made via a remote-
	      shell  connection.  It is	set to 0 if the	default	daemon port is
	      being assumed, or	it is set to the value of the rsync port  that
	      was  specified  via either the --port option or a	non-empty port
	      value in an rsync:// URL.	 This allows the script	to discern  if
	      a	 non-default port is being requested, allowing for things such
	      as an SSL	or stunnel helper script to connect to	a  default  or
	      alternate	port.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single	 argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not	tabs or	other whitespace) to separate the com-
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to	 preserve spaces in an argument	(but not back-
	      slashes).	 Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
	      quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
	      quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes	rsync is parsing).  Some exam-

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h	%p"'

	      (Note that ssh users  can	 alternately  customize	 site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

	      See  also	the --blocking-io option which is affected by this op-

	      Use this to specify what program is to be	run on the remote  ma-
	      chine  to	 start-up  rsync.  Often used when rsync is not	in the
	      default	remote-shell's	 path	(e.g.	 --rsync-path=/usr/lo-
	      cal/bin/rsync).	Note  that  PROGRAM  is	run with the help of a
	      shell, so	it can be any program,	script,	 or  command  sequence
	      you'd  care to run, so long as it	does not corrupt the standard-
	      in & standard-out	that rsync is using to communicate.

	      One tricky example is to set a different	default	 directory  on
	      the  remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For in-

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       --remote-option=OPTION, -M
	      This option is used for more advanced situations where you  want
	      certain  effects to be limited to	one side of the	transfer only.
	      For instance, if you want	to pass	--log-file=FILE	and --fake-su-
	      per to the remote	system,	specify	it like	this:

		  rsync	-av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

	      If  you  want  to	have an	option affect only the local side of a
	      transfer when it normally	affects	both sides, send its  negation
	      to the remote side.  Like	this:

		  rsync	-av -x -M--no-x	src/ dest/

	      Be  cautious  using  this, as it is possible to toggle an	option
	      that will	cause rsync to have a different	idea about  what  data
	      to  expect next over the socket, and that	will make it fail in a
	      cryptic fashion.

	      Note that	it is best to use a separate --remote-option for  each
	      option  you want to pass.	 This makes your usage compatible with
	      the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
	      your remote options will be split	by the remote shell unless you
	      take steps to protect them.

	      When performing a	local transfer,	the "local" side is the	sender
	      and the "remote" side is the receiver.

	      Note some	versions of the	popt option-parsing library have a bug
	      in them that prevents you	from using an  adjacent	 arg  with  an
	      equal  in	 it  next  to  a  short	 option	 letter	(e.g. -M--log-
	      file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your	version	of  popt,  you
	      can use the version of popt that is included with	rsync.

       --cvs-exclude, -C
	      This  is a useful	shorthand for excluding	a broad	range of files
	      that you often don't want	to transfer between systems.  It  uses
	      a	 similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should	be ig-

	      The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following	 items
	      (these  initial items are	marked as perishable --	see the	FILTER
	      RULES section):

		  RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*	tags TAGS  .make.state
		  .nse_depinfo	*~  #*	.#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK	*.orig
		  *.rej	.del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so	*.exe *.Z  *.elc  *.ln
		  core .svn/ .git/ .hg/	.bzr/

	      then,  files  listed in a	$HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
	      and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment	variable  (all
	      cvsignore	names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file	is ignored if it is in the same	directory as a
	      .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If you're	combining -C with your own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that	these CVS excludes are appended	at the end of your own
	      rules, regardless	of where the -C	was  placed  on	 the  command-
	      line.  This makes	them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
	      ified explicitly.	 If you	want to	control	where  these  CVS  ex-
	      cludes  get inserted into	your filter rules, you should omit the
	      -C as a command-line option and use a combination	of --filter=:C
	      and  --filter=-C	(either	on your	command-line or	by putting the
	      ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter	file with your	other  rules).
	      The  first  option  turns	 on the	per-directory scanning for the
	      .cvsignore file.	The second option does a  one-time  import  of
	      the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       --filter=RULE, -f
	      This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
	      tain files from the list of files	to be  transferred.   This  is
	      most useful in combination with a	recursive transfer.

	      You  may use as many --filter options on the command line	as you
	      like to build up the list	of files to exclude.   If  the	filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the rule to rsync	as a single argument.	The  text  below  also
	      mentions	that  you  can	use an underscore to replace the space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		  --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
	      that have	been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use	 their
	      rules  to	 filter	the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
	      it is a shorthand	for this rule:

		  --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter  files	 themselves  from  the

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES  section for detailed information	on how
	      these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that de-
	      faults to	an exclude rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

	      This option is related to	the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in	 the  file  and	lines starting with ';'	or '#' are ig-
	      nored.  If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard  in-

	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that de-
	      faults to	an include rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to	the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  include patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	and lines starting with	';'  or	 '#'  are  ig-
	      nored.   If FILE is '-', the list	will be	read from standard in-

	      Using this option	allows you to specify the exact	list of	 files
	      to transfer (as read from	the specified FILE or '-' for standard
	      input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
	      transferring just	the specified files and	directories easier:

	      o	     The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
		     the path information that is specified for	each  item  in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The --dirs	(-d) option is implied,	which will create  di-
		     rectories specified in the	list on	the destination	rather
		     than noisily skipping them	(use --no-dirs	or  --no-d  if
		     you want to turn that off).

	      o	     The --archive (-a)	option's behavior does not imply --re-
		     cursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if	you want it.

	      o	     These side-effects	change the default state of rsync,  so
		     the  position  of the --files-from	option on the command-
		     line has no bearing on how	other options are parsed (e.g.
		     -a	 works	the same before	or after --files-from, as does
		     --no-R and	all other options).

	      The filenames that are read from the FILE	are  all  relative  to
	      the  source  dir --  any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
	      references are allowed to	go higher than the  source  dir.   For
	      example, take this command:

		  rsync	-a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

	      If  /tmp/foo  contains  the  string  "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
	      /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin	on the	remote
	      host.   If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the im-
	      mediate contents of the directory	would also  be	sent  (without
	      needing  to be explicitly	mentioned in the file -- this began in
	      version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r	 option	 was  enabled,
	      that  dir's  entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in
	      mind that	-r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since  it	 is  not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of
	      the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate  only
	      the  path	 info  that is read from the file -- it	does not force
	      the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In addition, the --files-from file can be	read from  the	remote
	      host instead of the local	host if	you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a	prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the	transfer".  For	example:

		  rsync	-a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This would copy all the files specified in  the  /path/file-list
	      file that	was located on the remote "src"	host.

	      If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
	      --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the	sending	host's charset
	      to the receiving host's charset.

	      NOTE: sorting the	list of	files in the --files-from input	 helps
	      rsync  to	 be  more  efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the
	      path elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If  the
	      input  is	 not  sorted, some path	elements (implied directories)
	      may end up being scanned multiple	times, and rsync will  eventu-
	      ally  unduplicate	them after they	get turned into	file-list ele-

       --from0,	-0
	      This tells rsync that the	rules/filenames	it reads from  a  file
	      are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL,	CR, or
	      CR+LF.  This affects  --exclude-from,  --include-from,  --files-
	      from,  and  any  merged  files specified in a --filter rule.  It
	      does not affect --cvs-exclude  (since  all  names	 read  from  a
	      .cvsignore file are split	on whitespace).

       --protect-args, -s
	      This  option  sends all filenames	and most options to the	remote
	      rsync without allowing the remote	shell to interpret them.  This
	      means  that  spaces are not split	in names, and any non-wildcard
	      special characters are not translated  (such  as	~,  $,	;,  &,
	      etc.).   Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (in-
	      stead of the shell doing it).

	      If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the re-
	      mote  side  will also be translated from the local to the	remote
	      character-set.  The translation happens  before  wild-cards  are
	      expanded.	 See also the --files-from option.

	      You  may also control this option	via the	RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS en-
	      vironment	variable.  If this variable has	a non-zero value, this
	      option will be enabled by	default, otherwise it will be disabled
	      by default.  Either state	is overridden by a manually  specified
	      positive	or  negative  version of this option (note that	--no-s
	      and --no-protect-args are	the negative  versions).   Since  this
	      option  was  first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make sure
	      it's disabled if you ever	need to	interact with a	 remote	 rsync
	      that is older than that.

	      Rsync can	also be	configured (at build time) to have this	option
	      enabled by default (with is overridden by	both  the  environment
	      and  the command-line).  Run rsync --version to check if this is
	      the case,	as it will display "default protect-args" or "optional
	      protect-args" depending on how it	was compiled.

	      This option will eventually become a new default setting at some
	      as-yet-undetermined point	in the future.

	      This option instructs rsync to use the USER  and	(if  specified
	      after  a	colon)	the  GROUP for the copy	operations.  This only
	      works if the user	that is	 running  rsync	 has  the  ability  to
	      change users.  If	the group is not specified then	the user's de-
	      fault groups are used.

	      This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being	run as
	      root  into  or  out  of a	directory that might have live changes
	      happening	to it and you want to make sure	that  root-level  read
	      or  write	 actions  of system files are not possible.  While you
	      could alternatively run all of  rsync  as	 the  specified	 user,
	      sometimes	 you need the root-level host-access credentials to be
	      used, so this allows rsync to drop root for the copying part  of
	      the operation after the remote-shell or daemon connection	is es-

	      The option only affects one side	of  the	 transfer  unless  the
	      transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides.  Use the
	      --remote-option to affect	the remote  side,  such	 as  -M--copy-
	      as=joe.	For a local transfer, the lsh (or support file
	      provides a local-shell helper script that	can be used to allow a
	      "localhost:"  or "lh:" host-spec to be specified without needing
	      to setup any remote shells, allowing you to specify  remote  op-
	      tions  that  affect  the	side of	the transfer that is using the
	      host-spec	(and using hostname "lh" avoids	the overriding of  the
	      remote directory to the user's home dir).

	      For  example, the	following rsync	writes the local files as user

		  sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe	host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

	      This makes all files owned by user "joe",	limits the  groups  to
	      those  that  are available to that user, and makes it impossible
	      for the joe user to do a timed exploit of	the path to  induce  a
	      change to	a file that the	joe user has no	permissions to change.

	      The  following command does a local copy into the	"dest/"	dir as
	      user "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh	into a dir  on
	      your $PATH):

		  sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/

       --temp-dir=DIR, -T
	      This  option  instructs  rsync to	use DIR	as a scratch directory
	      when creating temporary copies of	the files transferred  on  the
	      receiving	 side.	 The default behavior is to create each	tempo-
	      rary file	in the same directory as  the  associated  destination
	      file.   Beginning	 with  rsync 3.1.1, the	temp-file names	inside
	      the specified DIR	will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
	      they will	still have a random suffix added).

	      This option is most often	used when the receiving	disk partition
	      does not have enough free	space to hold a	copy  of  the  largest
	      file  in	the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch di-
	      rectory is on a different	disk partition),  rsync	 will  not  be
	      able  to rename each received temporary file over	the top	of the
	      associated destination file,  but	 instead  must	copy  it  into
	      place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over	the top	of the
	      destination file,	which means that  the  destination  file  will
	      contain  truncated data during this copy.	 If this were not done
	      this way (even if	the destination	file were first	 removed,  the
	      data  locally  copied to a temporary file	in the destination di-
	      rectory, and then	renamed	into place) it would be	 possible  for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if	someone	had it
	      open), and thus there might not be enough	room to	 fit  the  new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
	      of disk space, you may wish to combine it	with  the  --delay-up-
	      dates  option,  which  will ensure that all copied files get put
	      into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy,	 awaiting  the
	      end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate
	      all the arriving files on	the destination	partition, another way
	      to  tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space
	      is to use	the --partial-dir option with a	relative path; because
	      this  tells  rsync that it is OK to stash	off a copy of a	single
	      file in a	subdir in the destination hierarchy,  rsync  will  use
	      the partial-dir as a staging area	to bring over the copied file,
	      and then rename it into place from there.	(Specifying  a	--par-
	      tial-dir with an absolute	path does not have this	side-effect.)

       --fuzzy,	-y
	      This option tells	rsync that it should look for a	basis file for
	      any destination file that	is  missing.   The  current  algorithm
	      looks in the same	directory as the destination file for either a
	      file that	has an identical size and modified-time,  or  a	 simi-
	      larly-named  file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan	will also be  done  in
	      any  matching  alternate destination directories that are	speci-
	      fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

	      Note that	the use	of the --delete	option might get  rid  of  any
	      potential	 fuzzy-match  files,  so  either use --delete-after or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR on	 the  destination  ma-
	      chine  as	 an  additional	hierarchy to compare destination files
	      against doing transfers (if the files are	missing	in the	desti-
	      nation  directory).  If a	file is	found in DIR that is identical
	      to the sender's file, the	file will NOT be  transferred  to  the
	      destination  directory.	This  is  useful for creating a	sparse
	      backup of	just files that	have changed from an  earlier  backup.
	      This  option  is	typically used to copy into an empty (or newly
	      created) directory.

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest  directories
	      may  be  provided,  which	will cause rsync to search the list in
	      the order	specified for an exact match.  If  a  match  is	 found
	      that  differs  only  in attributes, a local copy is made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a	match is not found, a basis file  from
	      one  of  the DIRs	will be	selected to try	to speed up the	trans-

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      NOTE:  beginning	with  version  3.1.0, rsync will remove	a file
	      from a non-empty destination hierarchy  if  an  exact  match  is
	      found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end re-
	      sult more	closely	match a	fresh copy).

	      This option behaves like --compare-dest,	but  rsync  will  also
	      copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
	      using a local copy.  This	is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination  while leaving existing files	intact,	and then doing
	      a	flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully	trans-

	      Multiple	--copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
	      cause rsync to search the	list in	the order specified for	an un-
	      changed file.  If	a match	is not found, a	basis file from	one of
	      the DIRs will be selected	to try to speed	up the transfer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --link-dest.

	      This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
	      hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The	 files
	      must be identical	in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly ownership) in order for the  files  to  be  linked  to-
	      gether.  An example:

		  rsync	-av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If  file's  aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
	      check if some attributes are getting forced outside  of  rsync's
	      control,	such  a	 mount	option	that squishes root to a	single
	      user, or mounts a	removable drive	with generic  ownership	 (such
	      as OS X's	"Ignore	ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be provided, which will cause rsync to search the	 list  in  the
	      order  specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20 such
	      directories).  If	a match	is found  that	differs	 only  in  at-
	      tributes,	a local	copy is	made and the attributes	updated.  If a
	      match is not found, a basis file from one	of the	DIRs  will  be
	      selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      This  option  works  best	when copying into an empty destination
	      hierarchy, as existing files may get their  attributes  tweaked,
	      and  that	can affect alternate destination files via hard-links.
	      Also, itemizing of changes can get a  bit	 muddled.   Note  that
	      prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
	      never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
	      tion file	already	exists.

	      Note  that if you	combine	this option with --ignore-times, rsync
	      will not link any	files together because it only links identical
	      files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --copy-dest.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a	bug that could
	      prevent --link-dest from working properly	for  a	non-super-user
	      when  -o	was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old	rsync.

       --compress, -z
	      With this	option,	rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
	      to the destination machine, which	reduces	the amount of data be-
	      ing transmitted -- something that	is useful over a slow  connec-

	      Rsync  supports multiple compression methods and will choose one
	      for you unless you force the choice using	the  --compress-choice
	      (--zc) option.

	      Run  rsync --version  to	see the	default	compress list compiled
	      into your	version.

	      When both	sides of  the  transfer	 are  at  least	 3.2.0,	 rsync
	      chooses the first	algorithm in the client's list of choices that
	      is also in the server's list of choices.	If no common  compress
	      choice is	found, rsync exits with	an error.  If the remote rsync
	      is too old to support checksum negotiation, its list is  assumed
	      to be "zlib".

	      The  default  order can be customized by setting the environment
	      variable RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST to a	space-separated	 list  of  ac-
	      ceptable	compression names.  If the string contains a "&" char-
	      acter, it	is separated into the "client string & server string",
	      otherwise	 the  same  string applies to both.  If	the string (or
	      string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters,  the  de-
	      fault  compress list is used.  Any unknown compression names are
	      discarded	from the list, but a list with only invalid names  re-
	      sults in a failed	negotiation.

	      There  are some older rsync versions that	were configured	to re-
	      ject a -z	option and require the use of -zz because  their  com-
	      pression	library	 was not compatible with the default zlib com-
	      pression method.	You can	usually	ignore this  weirdness	unless
	      the rsync	server complains and tells you to specify -zz.

	      See also the --skip-compress option for the default list of file
	      suffixes that will be transferred	with no	(or minimal)  compres-

       --compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
	      This option can be used to override the automatic	negotiation of
	      the compression algorithm	that occurs when --compress  is	 used.
	      The option implies --compress unless "none" was specified, which
	      instead implies --no-compress.

	      The compression options that you may be able to use are:

	      o	     zstd

	      o	     lz4

	      o	     zlibx

	      o	     zlib

	      o	     none

	      Run rsync	--version to see the default  compress	list  compiled
	      into your	version	(which may differ from the list	above).

	      Note  that  if you see an	error about an option named --old-com-
	      press or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send the	--com-
	      press-choice=zlib	 or  --compress-choice=zlibx option in a back-
	      ward-compatible manner  that  more  rsync	 versions  understand.
	      This  error indicates that the older rsync version on the	server
	      will not allow you to force the compression type.

	      Note that	the "zlibx" compression	algorithm is just  the	"zlib"
	      algorithm	with matched data excluded from	the compression	stream
	      (to try to make it more compatible with an external zlib	imple-

       --compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
	      Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z)
	      instead of letting it default.  The --compress option is implied
	      as  long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress" level for
	      the compression algorithm	that is	in effect (e.g.	zlib  compres-
	      sion treats level	0 as "off").

	      The  level values	vary depending on the checksum in effect.  Be-
	      cause rsync will negotiate a checksum choice  by	default	 (when
	      the  remote rsync	is new enough),	it can be good to combine this
	      option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option unless you're sure
	      of the choice in effect.	For example:

		  rsync	-aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

	      For  zlib	 &  zlibx compression the valid	values are from	1 to 9
	      with 6 being the default.	 Specifying 0 turns  compression  off,
	      and specifying -1	chooses	the default of 6.

	      For  zstd	 compression  the  valid values	are from -131072 to 22
	      with 3 being the default.	Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3.

	      For lz4 compression there	are no levels, so the value is	always

	      If  you  specify	a  too-large or	too-small value, the number is
	      silently limited to a valid value.  This allows you  to  specify
	      something	 like --zl=999999999 and be assured that you'll	end up
	      with the maximum compression level no matter what	algorithm  was

	      If  you  want  to	 know the compression level that is in effect,
	      specify --debug=nstr to see  the	"negotiated  string"  results.
	      This     will	report	   something	 like	  "Client com-
	      press: zstd (level 3)" (along with the checksum  choice  in  ef-

	      Override	the  list  of file suffixes that will be compressed as
	      little as	possible.  Rsync sets the compression level on a  per-
	      file basis based on the file's suffix.  If the compression algo-
	      rithm has	an "off" level (such as	zlib/zlibx) then  no  compres-
	      sion  occurs  for	 those	files.	 Other algorithms that support
	      changing the streaming level on-the-fly will have	the level min-
	      imized to	reduces	the CPU	usage as much as possible for a	match-
	      ing file.	 At this time, only zlib & zlibx  compression  support
	      this changing of levels on a per-file basis.

	      The  LIST	 should	be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
	      separated	by slashes (/).	 You may specify an  empty  string  to
	      indicate that no files should be skipped.

	      Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
	      of a list	of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are	supported, and '-' has no spe-
	      cial meaning).

	      The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?)	have  no  spe-
	      cial meaning.

	      Here's  an example that specifies	6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


	      The default file suffixes	in the skip-compress list in this ver-
	      sion of rsync are:

		  3g2  3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv gpg
		  gz iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v
		  m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg
		  mpv mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv  ogx
		  opus	otg  oth  otp  ots  ott	oxt png	qt rar rpm rz rzip spx
		  squashfs sxc sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz  tzo
		  vob war webm webp xz z zip zst

	      This  list  will be replaced by your --skip-compress list	in all
	      but one situation: a copy	from a	daemon	rsync  will  add  your
	      skipped  suffixes	 to its	list of	non-compressing	files (and its
	      list may be configured to	a different default).

	      With this	option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
	      rather  than using user and group	names and mapping them at both

	      By default rsync will use	the username and groupname  to	deter-
	      mine  what  ownership  to	give files.  The special uid 0 and the
	      special group 0 are never	mapped via user/group  names  even  if
	      the --numeric-ids	option is not specified.

	      If a user	or group has no	name on	the source system or it	has no
	      match on the destination system, then the	numeric	 ID  from  the
	      source  system  is  used	instead.  See also the comments	on the
	      "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for  information
	      on how the chroot	setting	affects	rsync's	ability	to look	up the
	      names of the users and groups and	what you can do	about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
	      These options allow you to specify users and groups that	should
	      be  mapped to other values by the	receiving side.	 The STRING is
	      one or more FROM:TO pairs	of values separated  by	 commas.   Any
	      matching	FROM value from	the sender is replaced with a TO value
	      from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or	user  IDs  for
	      the  FROM	 and TO	values,	and the	FROM value may also be a wild-
	      card string, which will be matched against  the  sender's	 names
	      (wild-cards  do  NOT  match against ID numbers, though see below
	      for why a	'*' matches everything).  You may  instead  specify  a
	      range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For exam-

		  --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

	      The first	match in the list is the one that is used.  You	should
	      specify  all your	user mappings using a single --usermap option,
	      and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

	      Note that	the sender's name for the 0 user  and  group  are  not
	      transmitted  to  the  receiver, so you should either match these
	      values using a 0,	or use the names in effect  on	the  receiving
	      side  (typically	"root").   All other FROM names	match those in
	      use on the sending side.	All TO names match those in use	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      Any  IDs that do not have	a name on the sending side are treated
	      as having	an empty name for the purpose of matching.   This  al-
	      lows  them  to be	matched	via a "*" or using an empty name.  For

		  --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

	      When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender	does not  send
	      any  names,  so all the IDs are treated as having	an empty name.
	      This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values  if
	      you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

	      For  the	--usermap  option to have any effect, the -o (--owner)
	      option must be used (or implied),	and the	receiver will need  to
	      be  running  as a	super-user (see	also the --fake-super option).
	      For the --groupmap option	to have	any effect, the	-g  (--groups)
	      option  must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
	      have permissions to set that group.

	      If your shell complains about the	wildcards, use	--protect-args

	      This  option  forces  all	 files	to be owned by USER with group
	      GROUP.  This is a	simpler	interface  than	 using	--usermap  and
	      --groupmap  directly,  but it is implemented using those options
	      internally, so you cannot	mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
	      is  empty, no mapping for	the omitted user/group will occur.  If
	      GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be	omitted, but  if  USER
	      is empty,	a leading colon	must be	supplied.

	      If  you  specify	"--chown=foo:bar", this	is exactly the same as
	      specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.   If
	      your  shell  complains  about  the wildcards, use	--protect-args

	      This option allows you to	set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
	      If no data is transferred	for the	specified time then rsync will
	      exit.  The default is 0, which means no timeout.

	      This option allows you to	set the	amount of time that rsync will
	      wait  for	 its connection	to an rsync daemon to succeed.	If the
	      timeout is reached, rsync	exits with an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when connect-
	      ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The	--address option allows	you to
	      specify a	specific IP address (or	hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
	      also this	option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  specifies  an alternate TCP	port number to use rather than
	      the default of 873.  This	is only	needed if you  are  using  the
	      double-colon  (::) syntax	to connect with	an rsync daemon	(since
	      the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a	 part  of  the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
	      their systems to the utmost degree.  You can set	all  sorts  of
	      socket  options  which  may  make	transfers faster (or slower!).
	      Read the man page	for the	setsockopt() system call  for  details
	      on  some	of  the	options	you may	be able	to set.	 By default no
	      special socket options are set.  This only affects direct	socket
	      connections to a remote rsync daemon.

	      This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a	remote
	      shell transport.	If the remote shell is either  rsh  or	remsh,
	      rsync  defaults  to using	blocking I/O, otherwise	it defaults to
	      using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh	 prefers  non-blocking

	      This  sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka
	      Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
	      tle  as  a  single  letter  for the mode,	and use	upper or lower

	      The main use of this option is to	change Full buffering to  Line
	      buffering	when rsync's output is going to	a file or pipe.

       --itemize-changes, -i
	      Requests	a  simple  itemized list of the	changes	that are being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the  same	 as  specifying	--out-format='%i %n%L'.	 If you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only	if the
	      receiving	 rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
	      older versions of	rsync, but that	also turns on  the  output  of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The  "%i"	 escape	 has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
	      The general format is like the string YXcstpoguaxf, where	 Y  is
	      replaced	by the type of update being done, X is replaced	by the
	      file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
	      be output	if they	are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the	Y are as follows:

	      o	     A	< means	that a file is being transferred to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A > means that a file is being transferred	to  the	 local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A	c  means that a	local change/creation is occurring for
		     the item (such as the creation  of	 a  directory  or  the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A	h  means  that the item	is a hard link to another item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A . means that the	item is	not being updated  (though  it
		     might have	attributes that	are being modified).

	      o	     A	* means	that the rest of the itemized-output area con-
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The file-types that replace the X	are: f for a file, a d	for  a
	      directory,  an  L	for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The other	letters	in the string indicate if some	attributes  of
	      the file have changed, as	follows:

	      o	     "." - the attribute is unchanged.

	      o	     "+" - the file is newly created.

	      o	     " "  - all	the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn to

	      o	     "?" - the change is unknown (when	the  remote  rsync  is

	      o	     A letter indicates	an attribute is	being updated.

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter	is as follows:

	      o	     A	c  means  either  that	a regular file has a different
		     checksum (requires	--checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or	 special  file	has a changed value.  Note that	if you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this	change
		     flag  will	be present only	for checksum-differing regular

	      o	     A s means the size	of a regular  file  is	different  and
		     will be updated by	the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification	time is	different and is being
		     updated to	the sender's value (requires --times).	An al-
		     ternate  value of T means that the	modification time will
		     be	set  to	 the  transfer	time,  which  happens  when  a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and	when a
		     symlink is	changed	and the	receiver can't set  its	 time.
		     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
		     the s flag	combined with t	instead	of the proper  T  flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A p means the permissions are different and are being up-
		     dated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An	o means	the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --owner and super-user priv-

	      o	     A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
		     the sender's value	(requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     A u|n|b indicates the following information: u  means the
		     access  (use)  time  is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --atimes); n means the  cre-
		     ate  time	(newness) is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires  --crtimes);	b  means  that
		     both the access and create	times are being	updated.

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

	      o	     The  x  means  that the extended attribute	information is
		     being changed.

	      One other	output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will
	      output  the  string  "*deleting" for each	item that is being re-
	      moved (assuming that you are talking to a	 recent	 enough	 rsync
	      that  it	logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync	client outputs
	      to  the user on a	per-update basis.  The format is a text	string
	      containing embedded single-character escape  sequences  prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.  A default format of "%n%L"	is as-
	      sumed if either --info=name or -v	is specified (this  tells  you
	      just  the	 name of the file and, if the item is a	link, where it
	      points).	For a full list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying  the  --out-format option implies the --info=name op-
	      tion, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets  updated
	      in  a  significant  way  (a  transferred	file, a	recreated sym-
	      link/device, or a	touched	directory).  In	addition, if the item-
	      ize-changes  escape  (%i)	is included in the string (e.g.	if the
	      --itemize-changes	option was used), the  logging	of  names  in-
	      creases  to mention any item that	is changed in any way (as long
	      as the receiving side is at least	2.6.4).	  See  the  --itemize-
	      changes option for a description of the output of	"%i".

	      Rsync will output	the out-format string prior to a file's	trans-
	      fer unless one of	the transfer-statistic escapes	is  requested,
	      in  which	 case  the  logging  is	 done at the end of the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late	logging	is in effect and --progress is
	      also  specified, rsync will also output the name of the file be-
	      ing transferred prior to its progress information	(followed,  of
	      course, by the out-format	output).

	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what	it is doing to a file.
	      This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
	      requested	 for  the client side and/or the server	side of	a non-
	      daemon transfer.	If specified as	a client option, transfer log-
	      ging  will  be  enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's a example command that requests the remote	 side  to  log
	      what is happening:

		  rsync	-av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

	      This  is	very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
	      put into the file	specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also be specified	for this option	to have	any effect).   If  you
	      specify  an empty	string,	updated	files will not be mentioned in
	      the log file.  For a list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      The  default FORMAT used if --log-file is	specified and this op-
	      tion is not is '%i %n%L'.

	      This tells rsync to print	a verbose set  of  statistics  on  the
	      file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective	rsync's	delta-
	      transfer algorithm is for	your data.  This option	is  equivalent
	      to  --info=stats2	 if  combined  with  0	or  1  -v  options, or
	      --info=stats3 if combined	with 2 or more -v options.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number of files is	the  count  of	all  "files"  (in  the
		     generic  sense),  which  includes	directories, symlinks,
		     etc.  The total count will	 be  followed  by  a  list  of
		     counts by filetype	(if the	total is non-zero).  For exam-
		     ple: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link:  2,  dev:  1,	 special:  1)"
		     lists  the	 totals	 for  regular files, directories, sym-
		     links, devices, and special files.	 If any	of value is 0,
		     it	is completely omitted from the list.

	      o	     Number of created files  is the count of how many "files"
		     (generic sense) were created  (as	opposed	 to  updated).
		     The  total	 count will be followed	by a list of counts by
		     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

	      o	     Number of deleted files is	the count of how many  "files"
		     (generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
		     The total count will be followed by a list	of  counts  by
		     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note	that this line
		     is	only output if deletions are in	effect,	 and  only  if
		     protocol 31 is being used (the default for	rsync 3.1.x).

	      o	     Number of regular files transferred  is the count of nor-
		     mal files that were updated  via  rsync's	delta-transfer
		     algorithm,	 which	does  not include dirs,	symlinks, etc.
		     Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into  this

	      o	     Total file	size is	the total sum of all file sizes	in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any	size  for  directories
		     or	special	files, but does	include	the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the	total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the	transferred files.

	      o	     Literal data is how much unmatched	 file-update  data  we
		     had  to  send  to the receiver for	it to recreate the up-
		     dated files.

	      o	     Matched data is how much data the	receiver  got  locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory	size for the file list due to some compressing
		     of	duplicated data	when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File list generation time is the number of	 seconds  that
		     the sender	spent creating the file	list.  This requires a
		     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer	time is	the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list	to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync	 received  by the client side from the
		     server side. "Non-message"	 bytes	means  that  we	 don't
		     count  the	 bytes	for  a verbose message that the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       --8-bit-output, -8
	      This tells rsync to leave	all high-bit characters	 unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test	them to	see if they're
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is	to  output  a  literal
	      backslash	 (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
	      its.  For	example, a newline would output	as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash	that is	in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       --human-readable, -h
	      Output numbers in	a more human-readable  format.	 There	are  3
	      possible	levels:	 (1)  output  numbers with a separator between
	      each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a	period,	 depending  on
	      if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
	      output numbers in	units of 1000 (with  a	character  suffix  for
	      larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in	units of 1024.

	      The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
	      the level	by one.	 You can take the level	down to	0  (to	output
	      numbers  as  pure	 digits) by specifying the --no-human-readable
	      (--no-h) option.

	      The unit letters that are	appended in levels  2  and  3  are:  K
	      (kilo), M	(mega),	G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For example,
	      a	1234567-byte file would	output as 1.23M	in  level-2  (assuming
	      that a period is your local decimal point).

	      Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do
	      not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0.
	      Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a compara-
	      ble manner in old	and new	versions as long as you	didn't specify
	      a	 --no-h	 option	 prior	to  one	 or  more -h options.  See the
	      --list-only option for one difference.

	      By default, rsync	will delete any	partially transferred file  if
	      the  transfer  is	interrupted.  In some circumstances it is more
	      desirable	to keep	partially transferred files.  Using the	--par-
	      tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which	should
	      make a subsequent	transfer of the	rest of	the file much faster.

	      A	better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
	      to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data (in-
	      stead of writing it out to the destination file).	 On  the  next
	      transfer,	 rsync	will  use  a file found	in this	dir as data to
	      speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after
	      it has served its	purpose.

	      Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified	(or implied), any par-
	      tial-dir file that is found for a	file  that  is	being  updated
	      will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without us-
	      ing rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create	the DIR	if it is missing (just the last	dir --
	      not  the whole path).  This makes	it easy	to use a relative path
	      (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have	 rsync	create
	      the  partial-directory  in the destination file's	directory when
	      needed, and then remove  it  again  when	the  partial  file  is
	      deleted.	 Note  that  the  directory is only removed if it is a
	      relative pathname, as it is expected that	an absolute path is to
	      a	directory that is reserved for partial-dir work.

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path,	rsync will add
	      an exclude rule at the end of all	your existing excludes.	  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files	that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving	side.  An example: the
	      above  --partial-dir  option  would  add	 the   equivalent   of
	      "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'"	at the end of any other	filter rules.

	      If you are supplying your	own exclude rules, you may need	to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
	      (1)  the	auto-added  rule may be	ineffective at the end of your
	      other rules, or (2) you may wish	to  override  rsync's  exclude
	      choice.	For  instance,	if you want to make rsync clean-up any
	      left-over	partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you	should
	      specify  --delete-after  and  add	 a  "risk"  filter  rule, e.g.
	      -f 'R .rsync-partial/'.	(Avoid	 using	 --delete-before    or
	      --delete-during  unless  you  don't need rsync to	use any	of the
	      left-over	partial-dir data during	the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by	 other
	      users or it is a security	risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR en-
	      vironment	variable.  Setting this	in the	environment  does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
	      tial files go when --partial is specified.   For	instance,  in-
	      stead  of	 using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp	along with --progress,
	      you could	set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then	 just  use  the	 -P  option  to	turn on	the use	of the
	      .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
	      --partial	 option	 does  not look	for this environment value are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace	conflicts with
	      --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was	specified (see

	      When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in  the  par-
	      tial-dir,	 that  partial file is now updated in-place instead of
	      creating yet another tmp-file copy (so it	maxes out  at  dest  +
	      tmp  instead  of dest + partial +	tmp).  This requires both ends
	      of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0.

	      For the purposes of the  daemon-config's	"refuse	options"  set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so	that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to	 disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files	with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a	holding	directory until	the end	of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are	renamed	into place in rapid succession.	  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in
	      each  file's  destination	directory, but if you've specified the
	      --partial-dir option, that directory will	be used	instead.   See
	      the  comments  in	 the --partial-dir section for a discussion of
	      how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from	the transfer, and what
	      you  can	do  if	you want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that
	      might be lying around.  Conflicts	with --inplace and --append.

	      This option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs  the  full
	      file  list  in  memory in	order to be able to iterate over it at
	      the end.

	      This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit  per
	      file  transferred)  and  also requires enough free disk space on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.   Note  also  that	you should not use an absolute path to
	      --partial-dir unless (1) there is	no chance of any of the	 files
	      in  the  transfer	 having	 the  same name	(since all the updated
	      files will be put	into a single directory	if the path  is	 abso-
	      lute)  and (2) there are no mount	points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the delayed updates will fail if	they  can't  be	 renamed  into

	      See  also	the "atomic-rsync" perl	script in the "support"	subdir
	      for an update algorithm  that  is	 even  more  atomic  (it  uses
	      --link-dest and a	parallel hierarchy of files).

       --prune-empty-dirs, -m
	      This option tells	the receiving rsync to get rid of empty	direc-
	      tories from the file-list,  including  nested  directories  that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation of a bunch of  useless  directories  when  the  sending
	      rsync  is	 recursively  scanning	a hierarchy of files using in-
	      clude/exclude/filter rules.

	      Note that	the use	of transfer rules, such	as the --min-size  op-
	      tion,  does  not	affect	what goes into the file	list, and thus
	      does not leave directories empty,	even if	none of	the files in a
	      directory	match the transfer rule.

	      Because the file-list is actually	being pruned, this option also
	      affects what directories get deleted when	a  delete  is  active.
	      However,	keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
	      prevent existing items from being	deleted	due to an exclude both
	      hiding  source  files and	protecting destination files.  See the
	      perishable filter-rule option for	how to avoid this.

	      You can prevent the pruning of certain  empty  directories  from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect"	filter.	 For instance,
	      this option would	ensure that the	directory "emptydir" was  kept
	      in the file-list:

		  --filter 'protect emptydir/'

	      Here's  an  example  that	 copies	all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
	      only creating the	necessary destination directories to hold  the
	      .pdf  files, and ensures that any	superfluous files and directo-
	      ries in the destination are removed (note	 the  hide  filter  of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

		  rsync	-avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f	'hide,!	*/' src/ dest

	      If  you didn't want to remove superfluous	destination files, the
	      more time-honored	options	of --include='*/' --exclude='*'	 would
	      work  fine  in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural
	      to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress	of the transfer.  This gives a bored user something to
	      watch.  With a modern rsync  this	 is  the  same	as  specifying
	      --info=flist2,name,progress,  but	any user-supplied settings for
	      those	 info	   flags      takes	 precedence	 (e.g.
	      "--info=flist0 --progress").

	      While  rsync  is	transferring  a	 regular  file,	 it  updates a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		  782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has	reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
	      63% of the sender's file,	which is being reconstructed at	a rate
	      of 110.64	kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
	      4	seconds	if the current rate is maintained until	the end.

	      These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer al-
	      gorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's	file  consists
	      of the basis file	followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will probably drop dramatically when the receiver	 gets  to  the
	      literal data, and	the transfer will probably take	much longer to
	      finish than the receiver	estimated  as  it  was	finishing  the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When  the	 file  transfer	 finishes, rsync replaces the progress
	      line with	a summary line that looks like this:

		  1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s	0:00:08	 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

	      In this example, the file	was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during	the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and	there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see  if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out	of the 396 to-
	      tal files	in the file-list.

	      In an incremental	recursion scan,	rsync  won't  know  the	 total
	      number  of  files	 in the	file-list until	it reaches the ends of
	      the scan,	but since it starts to transfer	files during the scan,
	      it  will	display	a line with the	text "ir-chk" (for incremental
	      recursion	check) instead of "to-chk" until  the  point  that  it
	      knows  the  full size of the list, at which point	it will	switch
	      to using "to-chk".  Thus,	seeing "ir-chk"	lets you know that the
	      total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
	      (and each	time it	does, the count	of files left  to  check  will
	      increase by the number of	the files added	to the list).

       -P     The  -P  option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its pur-
	      pose is to make it much easier to	specify	these two options  for
	      a	long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      There  is	also a --info=progress2	option that outputs statistics
	      based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.   Use
	      this  flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or spec-
	      ify --info=name0)	if you want to see how the transfer  is	 doing
	      without  scrolling  the  screen  with a lot of names. (You don't
	      need  to	specify	 the  --progress  option  in  order   to   use

	      Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync
	      a	signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.	On BSD systems,	a SIG-
	      INFO  is	generated  by typing a Ctrl+T (Linux doesn't currently
	      support a	SIGINFO	signal).  When	the  client-side  process  re-
	      ceives  one  of those signals, it	sets a flag to output a	single
	      progress report which is output when the current	file  transfer
	      finishes	(so  it	 may take a little time	if a big file is being
	      handled when the signal arrives).	  A  filename  is  output  (if
	      needed)  followed	 by  the  --info=progress2  format of progress
	      info.  If	you don't know which of	the 3 rsync processes  is  the
	      client  process,	it's  OK to signal all of them (since the non-
	      client processes ignore the signal).

	      CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older  rsync  (pre-3.2.0)  will
	      kill it.

	      This  option  allows  you	to provide a password for accessing an
	      rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
	      file  should  contain  just  the password	on the first line (all
	      other lines are ignored).	 Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
	      is  world	 readable  or if a root-run rsync command finds	a non-
	      root-owned file.

	      This option does not supply a password to	a remote shell	trans-
	      port  such  as  ssh; to learn how	to do that, consult the	remote
	      shell's documentation.  When accessing an	rsync daemon  using  a
	      remote  shell  as	the transport, this option only	comes into ef-
	      fect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if
	      you have also specified a	password in the	daemon's config	file).

	      This  option allows rsync	to send	up to 5K of data to the	"early
	      exec" script on its stdin.  One possible use of this data	is  to
	      give  the	script a secret	that can be used to mount an encrypted
	      filesystem (which	you should unmount in the the "post-xfer exec"

	      The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

	      This  option will	cause the source files to be listed instead of
	      transferred.  This option	is  inferred  if  there	 is  a	single
	      source  arg  and no destination specified, so its	main uses are:
	      (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
	      a	 file-listing  command,	or (2) to be able to specify more than
	      one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
	      tion:  keep  in  mind  that a source arg with a wild-card	is ex-
	      panded by	the shell into multiple	args, so it is never  safe  to
	      try to list such an arg without using this option. For example:

		  rsync	-av --list-only	foo* dest/

	      Starting	with  rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are
	      affected by the --human-readable option.	By default  they  will
	      contain  digit separators, but higher levels of readability will
	      output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the	column
	      width for	the size output	has increased from 11 to 14 characters
	      for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you	want just dig-
	      its in the sizes,	and the	old column width of 11 characters.

	      Compatibility  note:  when  requesting a remote listing of files
	      from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you	may  encounter
	      an  error	 if  you ask for a non-recursive listing.  This	is be-
	      cause a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o  --recursive,
	      and older	rsyncs don't have that option.	To avoid this problem,
	      either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't	need to	expand
	      a	 directory's  content),	 or  turn on recursion and exclude the
	      content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

	      This option allows you to	specify	the maximum transfer rate  for
	      the  data	 sent  over the	socket,	specified in units per second.
	      The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a  size
	      multiplier,    and    may	   be	a   fractional	 value	 (e.g.
	      "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no	suffix is specified, the value will be
	      assumed  to  be  in  units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had
	      been appended).  See the --max-size option for a description  of
	      all the available	suffixes.  A value of 0	specifies no limit.

	      For  backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate	limit  will be
	      rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate  smaller  than  1024
	      bytes per	second is possible.

	      Rsync  writes  data  over	 the socket in blocks, and this	option
	      both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and	 tries
	      to  keep the average transfer rate at the	requested limit.  Some
	      burstiness may be	seen where rsync writes	out a  block  of  data
	      and then sleeps to bring the average rate	into compliance.

	      Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
	      not be an	accurate reflection on how  fast  the  data  is	 being
	      sent.   This  is because some files can show up as being rapidly
	      sent when	the data is quickly buffered, while other can show  up
	      as  very	slow  when  the	 flushing of the output	buffer occurs.
	      This may be fixed	in a future version.

	      This option tells	rsync to stop copying when the specified  num-
	      ber of minutes has elapsed.

	      Rsync  also  accepts  an earlier version of this option: --time-

	      For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this	option
	      to  the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of
	      the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
	      even  when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can
	      tell the remote side about the time limit	using  --remote-option
	      (-M), should the need arise.

	      This option tells	rsync to stop copying when the specified point
	      in time has been reached.	The date & time	can be fully specified
	      in   a   numeric	 format	 of  year-month-dayThour:minute	 (e.g.
	      2000-12-31T23:59)	in the local timezone.	You may	choose to sep-
	      arate the	date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

	      The  value can also be abbreviated in a variety of ways, such as
	      specifying a 2-digit year	and/or leaving off various values.  In
	      all cases, the value will	be taken to be the next	possible point
	      in time where the	supplied information matches.	If  the	 value
	      specifies	 the  current time or a	past time, rsync exits with an

	      For example, "1-30" specifies the	next January 30th (at midnight
	      local  time),  "14:00"  specifies	the next 2 P.M., "1" specifies
	      the next 1st of the month	at midnight, "31" specifies  the  next
	      month where we can stop on its 31st day, and ":59" specifies the
	      next 59th	minute after the hour.

	      For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this	option
	      to  the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of
	      the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
	      even  when only one side of the connection supports it.  You can
	      tell the remote side about the time limit	using  --remote-option
	      (-M),  should  the  need arise.  Do keep in mind that the	remote
	      host may have a different	default	timezone than your local host.

	      Record a file that can later be  applied	to  another  identical
	      destination with --read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for
	      details, and also	the --only-write-batch option.

	      This option overrides the	negotiated checksum &  compress	 lists
	      and  always negotiates a choice based on old-school md5/md4/zlib
	      choices.	If you want a more modern choice, use the  --checksum-
	      choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc) options.

	      Works like --write-batch,	except that no updates are made	on the
	      destination system when  creating	 the  batch.   This  lets  you
	      transport	 the  changes to the destination system	via some other
	      means and	then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that	you can	feel free to write the batch directly to  some
	      portable	media:	if this	media fills to capacity	before the end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer	to the
	      destination  and repeat the whole	process	to get the rest	of the
	      changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
	      tion system while	the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note	that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote system because this allows	the batched  data  to  be  di-
	      verted  from  the	 sender	 into the batch	file without having to
	      flow over	the wire to the	receiver (when pulling,	the sender  is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply  all of the	changes	stored in FILE,	a file previously gen-
	      erated by	--write-batch.	If FILE	is -, the batch	data  will  be
	      read  from  standard input. See the "BATCH MODE" section for de-

	      Force an older protocol version to be used.  This	is useful  for
	      creating	a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
	      of rsync.	 For instance, if rsync	2.6.4 is being used  with  the
	      --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating	the  batch file	to force the older protocol version to
	      be used in the batch file	(assuming you can't upgrade the	 rsync
	      on the reading system).

	      Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
	      option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
	      default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
	      can fully	specify	what conversion	to do by giving	a local	and  a
	      remote  charset  separated  by  a	comma in the order --iconv=LO-
	      CAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that
	      the  option will stay the	same whether you're pushing or pulling
	      files.  Finally, you can specify either  --no-iconv  or  a  CON-
	      VERT_SPEC	 of  "-" to turn off any conversion.  The default set-
	      ting of this option is site-specific, and	can also  be  affected
	      via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
	      ports, you can run "iconv	--list".

	      If you specify the --protect-args	option (-s), rsync will	trans-
	      late  the	filenames you specify on the command-line that are be-
	      ing sent to the remote host.  See	also the --files-from option.

	      Note that	rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in	filter
	      files (including include/exclude files).	It is up to you	to en-
	      sure that	you're specifying matching rules  that	can  match  on
	      both sides of the	transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude rules if there are filename differences  on  the
	      two sides	that need to be	accounted for.

	      When  you	 pass an --iconv option	to an rsync daemon that	allows
	      it, the daemon uses the charset specified	in its "charset"  con-
	      figuration  parameter regardless of the remote charset you actu-
	      ally pass.  Thus,	you may	feel free to specify  just  the	 local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running
	      ssh.  This affects sockets that rsync has	direct	control	 over,
	      such  as	the  outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync
	      daemon, as well as the forwarding	of the -4 or -6	option to  ssh
	      when  rsync  can	deduce	that  ssh  is being used as the	remote
	      shell.  For other	remote	shells	you'll	need  to  specify  the
	      "--rsh SHELL -4" option directly (or whatever ipv4/ipv6 hint op-
	      tions it uses).

	      These options also exist in the --daemon mode section.

	      If rsync was complied without support for	IPv6, the  --ipv6  op-
	      tion  will have no effect.  The rsync --version output will con-
	      tain "no IPv6" if	is the case.

	      Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.	 This 4	byte  checksum
	      seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
	      (the more	modern MD5 file	checksums don't	use a seed).   By  de-
	      fault  the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults
	      to the current time().  This option is used to  set  a  specific
	      checksum	seed,  which  is useful	for applications that want re-
	      peatable block checksums,	or in the case where the user wants  a
	      more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync	to use
	      the default of time() for	checksum seed.

       The options allowed when	starting an rsync daemon are as	follows:

	      This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
	      start  running  may  be accessed using an	rsync client using the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If standard input	is a socket then rsync will assume that	it  is
	      being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
	      terminal and become a background daemon.	The daemon  will  read
	      the  config  file	(rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See	the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon with the --daemon option.	The  --address	option	allows
	      you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
	      This makes virtual hosting  possible  in	conjunction  with  the
	      --config	option.	  See  also the	"address" global option	in the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This option allows you to	specify	the maximum transfer rate  for
	      the data the daemon sends	over the socket.  The client can still
	      specify a	smaller	--bwlimit value, but no	larger value  will  be
	      allowed.	See the	client version of this option (above) for some
	      extra details.

	      This specifies an	alternate config file than the default.	  This
	      is  only	relevant  when	--daemon is specified.	The default is
	      /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsyncd.conf unless the  daemon  is  running
	      over  a  remote shell program and	the remote user	is not the su-
	      per-user;	in that	case the default is rsyncd.conf	in the current
	      directory	(typically $HOME).

       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M
	      This  option  can	 be used to set	a daemon-config	parameter when
	      starting up rsync	in daemon mode.	 It is	equivalent  to	adding
	      the  parameter  at  the  end of the global settings prior	to the
	      first module's definition.  The parameter	names can be specified
	      without spaces, if you so	desire.	 For instance:

		  rsync	--daemon -M pidfile=/path/

	      When running as a	daemon,	this option instructs rsync to not de-
	      tach itself and become a background process.  This option	is re-
	      quired when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be use-
	      ful when rsync is	supervised by a	program	such as	daemontools or
	      AIX's  System Resource Controller.   --no-detach	is also	recom-
	      mended when rsync	is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
	      effect if	rsync is run from inetd	or sshd.

	      This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
	      listen on	rather than the	default	of 873.	 See also  the	"port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync daemon to	use the	given log-file
	      name instead of using the	"log file" setting in the config file.

	      This option tells	the rsync  daemon  to  use  the	 given	FORMAT
	      string  instead  of using	the "log format" setting in the	config
	      file.  It	also enables "transfer logging"	unless the  string  is
	      empty, in	which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This  overrides  the  socket options  setting in the rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       --verbose, -v
	      This option increases the	amount of information the daemon  logs
	      during  its  startup phase.  After the client connects, the dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the	incoming sock-
	      ets  that	 the  rsync daemon will	use to listen for connections.
	      One of these options may be required in older versions of	 Linux
	      to work around an	IPv6 bug in the	kernel (if you see an "address
	      already in use" error when nothing else is using the  port,  try
	      specifying --ipv6	or --ipv4 when starting	the daemon).

	      These options also exist in the regular rsync options section.

	      If  rsync	 was complied without support for IPv6,	the --ipv6 op-
	      tion will	have no	effect.	 The rsync --version output will  con-
	      tain "no IPv6" if	is the case.

       --help, -h
	      When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ-
	      ing the options available	for starting an	rsync daemon.

       The filter rules	allow for flexible selection of	which files to	trans-
       fer  (include) and which	files to skip (exclude).  The rules either di-
       rectly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a  way  to  ac-
       quire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As  the	list  of  files/directories to transfer	is built, rsync	checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of	 include/exclude  pat-
       terns  in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is an
       exclude pattern,	then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then  that  filename  is	 not skipped; if no matching pattern is	found,
       then the	filename is not	skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules	have the following syntax:


       You  have  your choice of using either short or long RULE names,	as de-
       scribed below.  If you use a short-named	rule, the ','  separating  the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows (when present) must	come after either a single space or an	under-
       score (_).  Here	are the	available rule prefixes:

       exclude,	'-'
	      specifies	an exclude pattern.

       include,	'+'
	      specifies	an include pattern.

       merge, '.'
	      specifies	a merge-file to	read for more rules.

       dir-merge, ':'
	      specifies	a per-directory	merge-file.

       hide, 'H'
	      specifies	a pattern for hiding files from	the transfer.

       show, 'S'
	      files that match the pattern are not hidden.

       protect,	'P'
	      specifies	a pattern for protecting files from deletion.

       risk, 'R'
	      files that match the pattern are not protected.

       clear, '!'
	      clears the current include/exclude list (takes no	arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored,	as are
       comment lines that start	with a "#".

       Note that the --include & --exclude command-line	options	do  not	 allow
       the  full  range	 of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow
       the specification of include / exclude patterns plus  a	"!"  token  to
       clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from
       a file).	 If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space)  or  "+ "
       (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted	as if "+ " (for	an in-
       clude option) or	"- " (for an exclude  option)  were  prefixed  to  the
       string.	 A --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain ei-
       ther a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern each.  To add multiple ones, you can repeat	the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from / --exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns	using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter	rules (as  introduced  in  the	FILTER	RULES  section
       above).	 The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the	files that  are	 going	to  be	trans-
       ferred.	These patterns can take	several	forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is	anchored to a particu-
	      lar spot in the hierarchy	of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is	similar	to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus /foo would match a name  of	 "foo"
	      at  either  the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in
	      the merge-file's directory (for a	per-directory rule).   An  un-
	      qualified	 foo  would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree
	      because the algorithm is applied recursively from	the top	 down;
	      it  behaves  as  if each path component gets a turn at being the
	      end of the filename.  Even the unanchored	"sub/foo" would	 match
	      at  any  point in	the hierarchy where a "foo" was	found within a
	      directory	named "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EX-
	      CLUDE PATTERNS for a full	discussion of how to specify a pattern
	      that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then	it will	only  match  a	direc-
	      tory, not	a regular file,	symlink, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
	      matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these	 three
	      wildcard characters: '*',	'?', and '[' .

       o      a	'*' matches any	path component,	but it stops at	slashes.

       o      use '**' to match	anything, including slashes.

       o      a	'?' matches any	character except a slash (/).

       o      a	 '['  introduces  a  character	class, such as [a-z] or	[[:al-

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be	used to	escape a wild-
	      card  character,	but  it	is matched literally when no wildcards
	      are present.  This means that there is an	extra level  of	 back-
	      slash  removal  when a pattern contains wildcard characters com-
	      pared to a pattern that has none.	 e.g. if you add a wildcard to
	      "foo\bar"	 (which	 matches  the backslash) you would need	to use
	      "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       o      if the pattern contains a	/ (not counting	a  trailing  /)	 or  a
	      "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
	      any leading directories.	If the pattern doesn't contain a /  or
	      a	 "**",	then it	is matched only	against	the final component of
	      the filename. (Remember that the	algorithm  is  applied	recur-
	      sively  so "full filename" can actually be any portion of	a path
	      from the starting	directory on down.)

       o      a	trailing "dir_name/***"	will match both	the directory  (as  if
	      "dir_name/"  had been specified) and everything in the directory
	      (as if "dir_name/**" had been  specified).   This	 behavior  was
	      added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when	using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subdir component of every path is  visited  left  to	right,
       with  each  directory having a chance for exclusion before its content.
       In this way include/exclude patterns are	 applied  recursively  to  the
       pathname	of each	node in	the filesystem's tree (those inside the	trans-
       fer).  The exclude patterns short-circuit the directory traversal stage
       as rsync	finds the files	to send.

       For  instance,  to  include  "/foo/bar/baz", the	directories "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded.	 Excluding one of those	parent	direc-
       tories prevents the examination of its content, cutting off rsync's re-
       cursion into those paths	and rendering the include  for	"/foo/bar/baz"
       ineffectual  (since  rsync  can't  match	something it never sees	in the
       cut-off section of the directory	hierarchy).

       The concept path	exclusion  is  particularly  important	when  using  a
       trailing	'*' rule.  For instance, this won't work:

	   + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	   + /file-is-included
	   - *

       This  fails  because the	parent directory "some"	is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so	rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask	for all	directories in
       the hierarchy to	be included by using a single  rule:  "+ */"  (put  it
       somewhere  before  the  "- *" rule), and	perhaps	use the	--prune-empty-
       dirs option.  Another solution is to add	specific include rules for all
       the  parent  dirs  that	need to	be visited.  For instance, this	set of
       rules works fine:

	   + /some/
	   + /some/path/
	   + /some/path/this-file-is-found
	   + /file-also-included
	   - *

       Here are	some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all	names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or	directory) named  foo  in  the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar"  would exclude any	file named bar which is	at two
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-

       o      "- /foo/**/bar"  would  exclude  any  file named bar two or more
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
	      directories and C	source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would in-
	      clude only the foo directory and foo/bar.c  (the	foo  directory
	      must be explicitly included or it	would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+"	or "-":

       o      A	 /  specifies  that the	include/exclude	rule should be matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/ /usr/local/etc/rsync/passwd"	would  exclude the passwd file
	      any time the transfer was	sending	files from the	"/etc"	direc-
	      tory,  and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is
	      in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is	at  the	 root  of  the
	      current transfer.

       o      A	! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect	if the
	      pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A	 C  is	used to	indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
	      should be	inserted as excludes in	place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
	      should follow.

       o      An  s  is	 used to indicate that the rule	applies	to the sending
	      side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents	 files
	      from  being  transferred.	  The  default is for a	rule to	affect
	      both sides unless	--delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default  rules  become  sender-side only.	 See also the hide (H)
	      and show (S) rules, which	are an alternate way to	specify	 send-
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate	that the rule applies to the receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it	prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which	are an	alternate  way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A	 p indicates that a rule is perishable,	meaning	that it	is ig-
	      nored in directories that	are being deleted.  For	instance,  the
	      -C  option's  default  rules  that exclude things	like "CVS" and
	      "*.o" are	marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
	      that  was	removed	on the source from being deleted on the	desti-

       o      An x  indicates  that  a	rule  affects  xattr  names  in	 xattr
	      copy/delete  operations  (and  is	 thus  ignored	when  matching
	      file/dir names).	If no xattr-matching rules  are	 specified,  a
	      default xattr filtering rule is used (see	the --xattrs option).

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules	by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge	(:) filter rule	(as introduced in  the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two kinds of	merged files --	single-instance	('.') and per-
       directory (':').	 A single-instance merge file is read  one  time,  and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.  For per-directory	merge files, rsync will	scan  every  directory
       that  it	 traverses  for	 the named file, merging its contents when the
       file exists into	the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory  rule  files must be created on the	sending	side because it	is the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These  rule files may also need to be transferred to the	receiving side
       if you want them	to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	   merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsync/default.rules
	   . /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsync/default.rules
	   dir-merge .per-dir-filter
	   dir-merge,n-	.non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	   :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	 - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	+ specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 C  is a way to	specify	that the file should be	read in	a CVS-
	      compatible manner.  This turns on	'n', 'w', and  '-',  but  also
	      allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
	      name is provided,	".cvsignore" is	assumed.

       o      A	e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the	rules are not inherited	by subdirecto-

       o      A	w specifies that the rules are word-split  on  whitespace  in-
	      stead  of	 the  normal line-splitting.  This also	turns off com-
	      ments.  Note: the	space that separates the prefix	from the  rule
	      is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar"	is parsed as two rules
	      (assuming	that prefix-parsing wasn't also	disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers	for  the  "+"  or  "-"
	      rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
	      the file default to having that modifier set (except for	the  !
	      modifier,	 which	would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
	      .excl" would treat the contents of .excl	as  absolute-path  ex-
	      cludes,  while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all
	      their per-directory rules	apply only on the  sending  side.   If
	      the  merge  rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r modi-
	      fier or both), then the rules in the file	must not specify sides
	      (via a modifier or a rule	prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the	direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was	 used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed	to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set	of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together	in the spot where the merge-file was specified,	so  it
       is  possible  to	override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read	 from a	per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a	single rule from a dir-merge file  from	 being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file	are relative to	the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo"	would only match the file "foo"	in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's  an  example  filter  file  which	 you'd	specify	  via	--fil-
       ter=". file":

	   merge /home/user/.global-filter
	   - *.gz
	   dir-merge .rules
	   + *.[ch]
	   - *.o
	   - foo*

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the	list and also turns the	".rules" filename into a  per-
       directory filter	file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the di-
       rectory scan follow the global anchoring	rules (i.e.  a	leading	 slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is	specified with a path that is a	parent
       directory of the	first transfer directory, rsync	will scan all the par-
       ent dirs	from that starting point to the	transfer directory for the in-
       dicated per-directory file.  For	instance, here is a common filter (see

	   --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells	rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all	direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to the start of the normal directory scan	of the file in the di-
       rectories that are sent as a part of the	transfer. (Note: for an	 rsync
       daemon, the root	is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of	this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	   rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	   rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	   rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter'	/src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands	above will look	for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and	 its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and	only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in  each  di-
       rectory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a	".cvsignore" in	your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect where the	--cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of  the  per-di-
       rectory .cvsignore file gets placed into	your rules by putting the ":C"
       wherever	you like in your filter	rules.	Without	this, rsync would  add
       the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of	all your other
       rules (giving it	a lower	priority than your command-line	 rules).   For

	   cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	   + foo.o
	   - *.old
	   rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of	 the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each	one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore	rules in the middle of the list	rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific	rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C	instead	 of  being  subservient	 to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents	of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g.  "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"	filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES	section	above).	 The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the	 rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set	of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a	subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the	transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think	of the
       transfer	as a subtree of	names that are being sent from sender  to  re-
       ceiver,	the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in
       the destination directory.  This	root governs where patterns that start
       with a /	match.

       Because	the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing	slash on a source path or changing your	use of the  --relative
       option  affects	the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file	tree is	duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match	two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with	a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	   Example cmd:	rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	   +/- pattern:	/me/foo/bar
	   +/- pattern:	/you/bar/baz
	   Target file:	/dest/me/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/you/bar/baz

	   Example cmd:	rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	   +/- pattern:	/foo/bar	       (note missing "me")
	   +/- pattern:	/bar/baz	       (note missing "you")
	   Target file:	/dest/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/bar/baz

	   Example cmd:	rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you	/dest
	   +/- pattern:	/home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
	   +/- pattern:	/home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
	   Target file:	/dest/home/me/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/home/you/bar/baz

	   Example cmd:	cd /home; rsync	-a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
	   +/- pattern:	/me/foo/bar	 (starts at specified path)
	   +/- pattern:	/you/bar/baz	 (ditto)
	   Target file:	/dest/me/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see	what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any	files).

       Without	a  delete option, per-directory	rules are only relevant	on the
       sending side, so	you can	feel free to exclude  the  merge  files	 them-
       selves without affecting	the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you,	as seen	in these two  equivalent  com-

	   rsync -av --filter=': .excl'	--exclude=.excl	host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	 if you	want to	do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be	excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,	because	 this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same	exclude	rules as the sending side before it  tries  to	delete

	   rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or	 you'll	 need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on	the receiving side.  An	example	of the first is	 this  (assume
       that the	remote .rules files exclude themselves):

	   rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	      --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides	of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the	.rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote	side is	 excluding  the	 .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer,	but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and	then put rules into the	local files  to	 control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete	host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same	set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems.  Suppose one has a tree which is replicated	on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some	changes	have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be	propagated to the other	hosts.	In order to do
       this  using batch mode, rsync is	run with the write-batch option	to ap-
       ply the changes made to the source  tree	 to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.	The  write-batch  option causes	the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all	 the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical	destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block	generation more	than once when updating	multi-
       ple  destination	 trees.	  Multicast transport protocols	can be used to
       transfer	the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,  in-
       stead of	sending	the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded	changes	to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the	read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync	updates	the destination	tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For your	convenience, a script file is also  created  when  the	write-
       batch  option is	used: it will be named the same	as the batch file with
       ".sh" appended.	This script file contains a command-line suitable  for
       updating	a destination tree using the associated	batch file.  It	can be
       executed	using a	Bourne (or Bourne-like)	shell, optionally  passing  in
       an  alternate  destination  tree	pathname which is then used instead of
       the original destination	path.  This is	useful	when  the  destination
       tree  path  on the current host differs from the	one used to create the
       batch file.


	   $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a	host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	   $ scp foo* remote:
	   $ ssh remote	./ /bdest/dir/

	   $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a	/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	   $ ssh remote	rsync --read-batch=- -a	/bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is	used  to   update   /adest/dir/	  from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this	operation is stored in
       "foo" and "".  The	host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into	the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the	flexibility you	have in	how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first	example	shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host	 using
	      either  the  remote-shell	 syntax	or rsync daemon	syntax,	as de-

       o      The first	example	uses the created  ""  file  to  get  the
	      right  rsync  options when running the read-batch	command	on the
	      remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
	      that  the	batch file doesn't need	to be copied to	the remote ma-
	      chine first.  This example avoids	the script  because  it
	      needed to	use a modified --read-batch option, but	you could edit
	      the script file if you wished to make use	of it  (just  be  sure
	      that  no	other  option is trying	to use standard	input, such as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that	was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference	between	the destination	 trees
       is  encountered	the  update  might be discarded	with a warning (if the
       file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update  may  be  at-
       tempted	and  then,  if	the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a	 read-
       batch  operation	 if the	command	got interrupted.  If you wish to force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and  date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an error oc-
       curs, the destination tree will probably	 be  in	 a  partially  updated
       state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one	used to	generate the batch file.  Rsync	will die with an error
       if the protocol version in the batch file is too	 new  for  the	batch-
       reading	rsync  to handle.  See also the	--protocol option for a	way to
       have the	creating rsync generate	a batch	file that an older  rsync  can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will	not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync	will force the value  of  certain  op-
       tions to	match the data in the batch file if you	didn't set them	to the
       same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)  be
       changed.	  For instance --write-batch changes to	--read-batch, --files-
       from is dropped,	and the	--filter / --include / --exclude  options  are
       not needed unless one of	the --delete options is	specified.

       The  code  that	creates	 the	file transforms	any filter/in-
       clude/exclude options into a single list	that is	appended as  a	"here"
       document	 to  the  shell	script file.  An advanced user can use this to
       modify the exclude list if a change in what gets	deleted	by --delete is
       desired.	  A  normal user can ignore this detail	and just use the shell
       script as an easy way to	run the	appropriate --read-batch  command  for
       the batched data.

       The  original batch mode	in rsync was based on "rsync+",	but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when	rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not	transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,	then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links	is specified, then symlinks are	"collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An  ex-
       ample  where this might be used is a web	site mirror that wishes	to en-
       sure that the rsync module that is copied  does	not  include  symbolic
       links to	/usr/local/etc/rsync/passwd in the public section of the site.
       Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any	links to be copied as the file
       they point to on	the destination.  Using	--safe-links will cause	unsafe
       links to	be omitted altogether. (Note that you must specify --links for
       --safe-links to have any	effect.)

       Symbolic	 links	are  considered	 unsafe	 if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough	 ".."	components  to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a summary of how	the symlink options are	interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if	your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn all symlinks	into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate	all safe  sym-

	      Turn  all	unsafe symlinks	into files, noisily skip all safe sym-

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate	safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

	      Duplicate	all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem	a little cryp-
       tic.   The one that seems to cause the most confusion is	"protocol ver-
       sion mismatch --	is your	shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote	 shell
       facility	 producing  unwanted garbage on	the stream that	rsync is using
       for its transport.  The way to diagnose this problem is to run your re-
       mote shell like this:

	   ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look at out.dat.  If everything is	working	correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero	length file.  If you are getting the above error  from
       rsync  then  you	 will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is	producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as	.cshrc or .profile) that contain output	statements for non-in-
       teractive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity	rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included	or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or	usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested	 action	 not supported:	an attempt was made to manipu-
	      late 64-bit files	on a platform that cannot support them;	or  an
	      option  was specified that is supported by the client and	not by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The CVSIGNORE environment	variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
	      terns  in	 .cvsignore  files.   See the --cvs-exclude option for
	      more details.

	      Specify a	default	--iconv	setting	using this  environment	 vari-
	      able. (First supported in	3.0.0.)

	      Specify  a non-zero numeric value	if you want the	--protect-args
	      option to	be enabled by default, or a zero value	to  make  sure
	      that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

	      The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
	      default shell used as the	transport for rsync.  Command line op-
	      tions  are  permitted  after the command name, just as in	the -e

	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
	      mon.  You	should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to	the required password  allows  you  to
	      run  authenticated  rsync	connections to an rsync	daemon without
	      user intervention.  Note that this does not supply a password to
	      a	 remote	 shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
	      consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The USER or LOGNAME environment variables	are used to  determine
	      the  default  username  sent  to an rsync	daemon.	 If neither is
	      set, the username	defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the	user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

       /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsyncd.conf	or rsyncd.conf

       rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5)

       times are transferred as	*nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems	 rsync	may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments	on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred	 as  native  numerical

       see also	the comments on	the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man	page is	current	for version 3.2.3 of rsync.

       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by	 a  user  under	 normal	 circumstances.	  Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that can	only run an rsync  command.   For  in-
       stance,	the support directory of the rsync distribution	has an example
       script named rrsync (for	restricted rsync) that can be used with	a  re-
       stricted	ssh login.

       rsync  is  distributed  under  the GNU General Public License.  See the
       file COPYING for	details.

       A web site is available at  The site includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic	which  may  cover  questions unanswered	by this	manual

       We would	be delighted to	hear  from  you	 if  you  like	this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This  program  uses  the	 excellent zlib	compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly	and Mark Adler.

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen,  Matt	McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
       Terpstra,  David	 Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre,	J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and	David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell	 and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many people have	later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by
       Wayne Davison.

       Mailing	lists  for  support   and   development	  are	available   at

rsync 3.2.3			  06 Aug 2020			      rsync(1)


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