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rsync(1)			 User Commands			      rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

	   rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	       rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync	daemon:
	       rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

       Usages with just	one SRC	arg and	no DEST	arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       The online version of this manpage (that	includes cross-linking of top-
       ics) is available at

       Rsync  is  a  fast and extraordinarily versatile	file copying tool.  It
       can copy	locally, to/from  another  host	 over  any  remote  shell,  or
       to/from	a  remote  rsync  daemon.  It offers a large number of options
       that control every aspect of its	 behavior  and	permit	very  flexible
       specification  of  the set of files to be copied.  It is	famous for its
       delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of  data  sent  over
       the  network  by	 sending only the differences between the source files
       and the existing	files in the destination.  Rsync is  widely  used  for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved	copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" al-
       gorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size  or
       in  last-modified  time.	 Any changes in	the other preserved attributes
       (as requested by	options) are made on  the  destination	file  directly
       when the	quick check indicates that the file's data does	not need to be

       Some of the additional features of rsync	are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and  permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	 CVS  exclude  mode for	ignoring the same files	that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal  for

       Rsync  copies  files either to or from a	remote host, or	locally	on the
       current host (it	does not support  copying  files  between  two	remote

       There  are two different	ways for rsync to contact a remote system: us-
       ing a remote-shell program as the transport (such as  ssh  or  rsh)  or
       contacting  an  rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell	trans-
       port is used whenever the source	or destination path contains a	single
       colon  (:)  separator  after a host specification.  Contacting an rsync
       daemon directly happens when the	source or destination path contains  a
       double  colon  (::)  separator  after  a	host specification, OR when an
       rsync://	URL is specified (see also the USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA
       A  REMOTE-SHELL	CONNECTION  section  for  an  exception	to this	latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a	desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format	similar	to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a	remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the client and	the remote side	as the
       server.	Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is	always
       a server, but a server can be either a daemon or	a remote-shell spawned

       See the file for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,	 you  can use rsync to any machine that	you can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that	you can	access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).	 For remote transfers, a modern	rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can	also specify any remote	shell you like,	either by using	the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH	environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the  source  and  destination

       You  use	 rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best	way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	   rsync -t *.c	foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the	directory src on the machine foo.  If any of the files
       already exist on	the remote system then the rsync remote-update	proto-
       col  is	used to	update the file	by sending only	the differences	in the
       data.  Note that	the expansion of wildcards on the  command-line	 (*.c)
       into  a	list of	files is handled by the	shell before it	runs rsync and
       not by rsync itself (exactly the	same as	 all  other  Posix-style  pro-

	   rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the	/data/tmp/bar directory	on the local  machine.
       The  files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures that symbolic
       links, devices, attributes, permissions,	ownerships, etc. are preserved
       in  the transfer.  Additionally,	compression will be used to reduce the
       size of data portions of	the transfer.

	   rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash	on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You	can think of a
       trailing	/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the at-
       tributes	of the containing directory are	transferred to the  containing
       directory  on  the  destination.	 In other words, each of the following
       commands	copies the files in the	same way, including their  setting  of
       the attributes of /dest/foo:

	   rsync -av /src/foo /dest
	   rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that	 host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to	copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these	copy the remote	directory's contents into "/dest":

	   rsync -av host: /dest
	   rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can	 also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both	the source and
       destination don't have a	':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy	command.

       Finally,	 you can list all the (listable) modules available from	a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       Rsync always sorts the specified	filenames into its  internal  transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together	of the contents	of identically
       named directories, makes	it easy	to remove duplicate filenames. It can,
       however,	 confuse someone when the files	are transferred	in a different
       order than what was given on the	command-line.

       If you need a particular	file to	be transferred prior to	 another,  ei-
       ther  separate  the files into different	rsync calls, or	consider using
       --delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted	 transfer  order,  but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more	rapidly).

       Rsync takes steps to ensure that	the file requests that are shared in a
       transfer	are protected against various security issues.	 Most  of  the
       potential  problems arise on the	receiving side where rsync takes steps
       to ensure that the list of files	being transferred remains  within  the
       bounds of what was requested.

       Toward  this  end,  rsync 3.1.2 and later have aborted when a file list
       contains	an absolute or relative	path that tries	to escape out  of  the
       top  of	the  transfer.	Also, beginning	with version 3.2.5, rsync does
       two more	safety checks of the file list to (1)  ensure  that  no	 extra
       source arguments	were added into	the transfer other than	those that the
       client requested	and (2)	ensure that the	file list  obeys  the  exclude
       rules that were sent to the sender.

       For  those that don't yet have a	3.2.5 client rsync (or those that want
       to be extra careful), it	is safest to do	a copy into a dedicated	desti-
       nation  directory  for the remote files when you	don't trust the	remote
       host.  For example, instead of doing an rsync copy into your  home  di-

	   rsync -aiv host1:dir1 ~

       Dedicate	a "host1-files"	dir to the remote content:

	   rsync -aiv host1:dir1 ~/host1-files

       See the --trust-sender option for additional details.

       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a	remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style	as the	first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all	these work:

	   rsync -aiv host:file1 :file2	host:file{3,4} /dest/
	   rsync -aiv host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/extra /dest/
	   rsync -aiv host::modname/first ::modname/extra{1,2} /dest/

       Really old versions of rsync (2.6.9 and before) only allowed specifying
       one remote-source arg, so some people have instead relied  on  the  re-
       mote-shell  performing space splitting to break up an arg into multiple
       paths. Such unintuitive behavior	is  no	longer	supported  by  default
       (though you can request it, as described	below).

       Starting	in 3.2.4, filenames are	passed to a remote shell in such a way
       as to preserve the characters you give it. Thus,	if you ask for a  file
       with spaces in the name,	that's what the	remote rsync looks for:

	   rsync -aiv host:'a simple file.pdf' /dest/

       If you use scripts that have been written to manually apply extra quot-
       ing to the remote rsync args (or	to require remote arg splitting),  you
       can  ask	 rsync	to let your script handle the extra escaping.  This is
       done by either adding the --old-args option to the rsync	 runs  in  the
       script  (which  requires	a new rsync) or	exporting RSYNC_OLD_ARGS=1 and
       RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS=0 (which works with old or new rsync versions).

       It is also possible to use rsync	without	a remote shell as  the	trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to	a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port	873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be
       running	on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC	DAEMON
       TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell ex-
       cept that:

       o      you  either  use	a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first	word of	the "path" is actually a module	name.

       o      the remote daemon	may print a message of the day when  you  con-

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon	will be	shown.

       o      if you specify no	local destination then a listing of the	speci-
	      fied files on the	remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option (since	that overrides
	      the daemon connection to use ssh -- see USING RSYNC-DAEMON  FEA-

       An example that copies all the files in a remote	module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on the remote daemon may require authentication.	If so,
       you will	receive	a password prompt when you connect.  You can avoid the
       password	 prompt	 by setting the	environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you	want to	use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	 On  some  systems  environment	 variables  are	visible	to all
       users.  On those	systems	using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection	via a web proxy	by setting  the	 envi-
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note	that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may	 also establish	a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a	direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the	rsync  command	(so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).	 For example:

	   export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
	   rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	   rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses	ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which  forwards all data	to port	873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
       ost (%H).

       Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment  variable	is  set,  that
       program	will  be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of
       using the default shell of the system() call.

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as  named modules) without actually allowing any	new socket connections
       into a system (other than what is already  required  to	allow  remote-
       shell  access).	 Rsync	supports  connecting  to a host	using a	remote
       shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server  that  expects  to
       read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This	can be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the  daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
       to use features such as chroot or change	the uid	used  by  the  daemon.
       (For  another  way  to encrypt a	daemon transfer, consider using	ssh to
       tunnel a	local port to a	remote machine and configure  a	 normal	 rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow	connections from "localhost".)

       From  the user's	perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax	as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon  transfer,  with  the only exception	being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line	with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option. (Setting	the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
       functionality.) For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a	different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying	the rsync-user
       value (for a module that	 requires  user-based  authentication).	  This
       means  that  you	 must give the '-l user' option	to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short	version	of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e	"ssh -l	ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In this setup, the daemon is started by the ssh command that is access-
       ing  the	 system	 (which	 can  be forced	via the	~/.ssh/authorized_keys
       file, if	desired).  However, when accessing a daemon directly, it needs
       to be started beforehand.

       In order	to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon	already	running	(or it needs to	have configured	something like
       inetd to	spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full	information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming	socket	connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage --
       that is the config file for the daemon, and it contains	the  full  de-
       tails  for  how to run the daemon (including stand-alone	and inetd con-

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for	the  transfer,
       there is	no need	to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Here are	some examples of how rsync can be used.

       To  backup  a home directory, which consists of large MS	Word files and
       mail folders, a per-user	cron job can be	used that runs this each day:

	   rsync -aiz .	bkhost:backup/joe/

       To move some files from a remote	host to	the local host,	you could run:

	   rsync -aiv --remove-source-files rhost:/tmp/{file1,file2}.c ~/src/

       Here is a short summary of the options available	in rsync.  Each	option
       also has	its own	detailed description later in this manpage.

       --verbose, -v		increase verbosity
       --info=FLAGS		fine-grained informational verbosity
       --debug=FLAGS		fine-grained debug verbosity
       --stderr=e|a|c		change stderr output mode (default: errors)
       --quiet,	-q		suppress non-error messages
       --no-motd		suppress daemon-mode MOTD
       --checksum, -c		skip based on checksum,	not mod-time & size
       --archive, -a		archive	mode is	-rlptgoD (no -A,-X,-U,-N,-H)
       --no-OPTION		turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
       --recursive, -r		recurse	into directories
       --relative, -R		use relative path names
       --no-implied-dirs	don't send implied dirs	with --relative
       --backup, -b		make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
       --backup-dir=DIR		make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
       --suffix=SUFFIX		backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
       --update, -u		skip files that	are newer on the receiver
       --inplace		update destination files in-place
       --append			append data onto shorter files
       --append-verify		--append w/old data in file checksum
       --dirs, -d		transfer directories without recursing
       --old-dirs, --old-d	works like --dirs when talking to old rsync
       --mkpath			create the destination's path component
       --links,	-l		copy symlinks as symlinks
       --copy-links, -L		transform symlink into referent	file/dir
       --copy-unsafe-links	only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
       --safe-links		ignore symlinks	that point outside the tree
       --munge-links		munge symlinks to make them safe & unusable
       --copy-dirlinks,	-k	transform symlink to dir into referent dir
       --keep-dirlinks,	-K	treat symlinked	dir on receiver	as dir
       --hard-links, -H		preserve hard links
       --perms,	-p		preserve permissions
       --fileflags		preserve file-flags (aka chflags)
       --executability,	-E	preserve executability
       --chmod=CHMOD		affect file and/or directory permissions
       --acls, -A		preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
       --xattrs, -X		preserve extended attributes
       --owner,	-o		preserve owner (super-user only)
       --group,	-g		preserve group
       --devices		preserve device	files (super-user only)
       --copy-devices		copy device contents as	a regular file
       --write-devices		write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
       --specials		preserve special files
       -D			same as	--devices --specials
       --times,	-t		preserve modification times
       --atimes, -U		preserve access	(use) times
       --open-noatime		avoid changing the atime on opened files
       --crtimes, -N		preserve create	times (newness)
       --omit-dir-times, -O	omit directories from --times
       --omit-link-times, -J	omit symlinks from --times
       --super			receiver attempts super-user activities
       --fake-super		store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
       --sparse, -S		turn sequences of nulls	into sparse blocks
       --preallocate		allocate dest files before writing them
       --dry-run, -n		perform	a trial	run with no changes made
       --whole-file, -W		copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
       --checksum-choice=STR	choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
       --one-file-system, -x	don't cross filesystem boundaries
       --block-size=SIZE, -B	force a	fixed checksum block-size
       --rsh=COMMAND, -e	specify	the remote shell to use
       --rsync-path=PROGRAM	specify	the rsync to run on remote machine
       --existing		skip creating new files	on receiver
       --ignore-existing	skip updating files that exist on receiver
       --remove-source-files	sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
       --del			an alias for --delete-during
       --delete			delete extraneous files	from dest dirs
       --delete-before		receiver deletes before	xfer, not during
       --delete-during		receiver deletes during	the transfer
       --delete-delay		find deletions during, delete after
       --delete-after		receiver deletes after transfer, not during
       --delete-excluded	also delete excluded files from	dest dirs
       --ignore-missing-args	ignore missing source args without error
       --delete-missing-args	delete missing source args from	destination
       --ignore-errors		delete even if there are I/O errors
       --force-delete		force deletion of directories even if not empty
       --force-change		affect user-/system-immutable files/dirs
       --force-uchange		affect user-immutable files/dirs
       --force-schange		affect system-immutable	files/dirs
       --max-delete=NUM		don't delete more than NUM files
       --max-size=SIZE		don't transfer any file	larger than SIZE
       --min-size=SIZE		don't transfer any file	smaller	than SIZE
       --max-alloc=SIZE		change a limit relating	to memory alloc
       --partial		keep partially transferred files
       --partial-dir=DIR	put a partially	transferred file into DIR
       --delay-updates		put all	updated	files into place at end
       --prune-empty-dirs, -m	prune empty directory chains from file-list
       --numeric-ids		don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
       --usermap=STRING		custom username	mapping
       --groupmap=STRING	custom groupname mapping
       --chown=USER:GROUP	simple username/groupname mapping
       --timeout=SECONDS	set I/O	timeout	in seconds
       --contimeout=SECONDS	set daemon connection timeout in seconds
       --ignore-times, -I	don't skip files that match size and time
       --size-only		skip files that	match in size
       --modify-window=NUM, -@	set the	accuracy for mod-time comparisons
       --temp-dir=DIR, -T	create temporary files in directory DIR
       --fuzzy,	-y		find similar file for basis if no dest file
       --compare-dest=DIR	also compare destination files relative	to DIR
       --copy-dest=DIR		... and	include	copies of unchanged files
       --link-dest=DIR		hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
       --compress, -z		compress file data during the transfer
       --compress-choice=STR	choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
       --compress-level=NUM	explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
       --skip-compress=LIST	skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
       --cvs-exclude, -C	auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
       --filter=RULE, -f	add a file-filtering RULE
       -F			same as	--filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
				repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
       --exclude=PATTERN	exclude	files matching PATTERN
       --exclude-from=FILE	read exclude patterns from FILE
       --include=PATTERN	don't exclude files matching PATTERN
       --include-from=FILE	read include patterns from FILE
       --files-from=FILE	read list of source-file names from FILE
       --from0,	-0		all *-from/filter files	are delimited by 0s
       --old-args		disable	the modern arg-protection idiom
       --protect-args, -s	no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
       --trust-sender		trust the remote sender's file list
       --copy-as=USER[:GROUP]	specify	user & optional	group for the copy
       --address=ADDRESS	bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
       --port=PORT		specify	double-colon alternate port number
       --sockopts=OPTIONS	specify	custom TCP options
       --blocking-io		use blocking I/O for the remote	shell
       --outbuf=N|L|B		set out	buffering to None, Line, or Block
       --stats			give some file-transfer	stats
       --8-bit-output, -8	leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
       --human-readable, -h	output numbers in a human-readable format
       --progress		show progress during transfer
       -P			same as	--partial --progress
       --itemize-changes, -i	output a change-summary	for all	updates
       --remote-option=OPT, -M	send OPTION to the remote side only
       --out-format=FORMAT	output updates using the specified FORMAT
       --log-file=FILE		log what we're doing to	the specified FILE
       --log-file-format=FMT	log updates using the specified	FMT
       --password-file=FILE	read daemon-access password from FILE
       --early-input=FILE	use FILE for daemon's early exec input
       --list-only		list the files instead of copying them
       --bwlimit=RATE		limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --stop-after=MINS	Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m	Stop rsync at the specified point in time
       --fsync			fsync every written file
       --write-batch=FILE	write a	batched	update to FILE
       --only-write-batch=FILE	like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
       --read-batch=FILE	read a batched update from FILE
       --protocol=NUM		force an older protocol	version	to be used
       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC	request	charset	conversion of filenames
       --checksum-seed=NUM	set block/file checksum	seed (advanced)
       --ipv4, -4		prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6		prefer IPv6
       --version, -V		print the version + other info and exit
       --help, -h (*)		show this help (* -h is	help only on its own)

       Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

       --daemon			run as an rsync	daemon
       --address=ADDRESS	bind to	the specified address
       --bwlimit=RATE		limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --config=FILE		specify	alternate rsyncd.conf file
       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M	override global	daemon config parameter
       --no-detach		do not detach from the parent
       --port=PORT		listen on alternate port number
       --log-file=FILE		override the "log file"	setting
       --log-file-format=FMT	override the "log format" setting
       --sockopts=OPTIONS	specify	custom TCP options
       --verbose, -v		increase verbosity
       --ipv4, -4		prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6		prefer IPv6
       --help, -h		show this help (when used with --daemon)

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and	short  (single-dash  +
       letter)	options.  The full list	of the available options are described
       below.  If an option can	be specified in	more than one way, the choices
       are  comma-separated.   Some  options  only  have a long	variant, not a

       If the option takes a parameter,	the parameter is only listed after the
       long  variant,  even  though  it	 must also be specified	for the	short.
       When specifying	a  parameter,  you  can	 either	 use  the  form	 --op-
       tion=param,  --option param, -o=param, -o param,	or -oparam (the	latter
       choices assume that your	option has a short variant).

       The parameter may need to be quoted in some manner for  it  to  survive
       the  shell's  command-line  parsing.   Also keep	in mind	that a leading
       tilde (~) in a pathname is substituted by your shell, so	make sure that
       you  separate  the  option  name	from the pathname using	a space	if you
       want the	local shell to expand it.

       --help Print a short help page  describing  the	options	 available  in
	      rsync  and exit.	You can	also use -h for	--help when it is used
	      without any other	options	(since it normally means --human-read-

       --version, -V
	      Print the	rsync version plus other info and exit.

	      The output includes the default list of checksum algorithms, the
	      default list of compression algorithms, a	 list  of  compiled-in
	      capabilities,  a	link  to  the  rsync  web  site,  and some li-
	      cense/copyright info.

       --verbose, -v
	      This option increases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the transfer.  By	default, rsync works silently.	A sin-
	      gle -v will give you information	about  what  files  are	 being
	      transferred and a	brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
	      give you	information  on	 what  files  are  being  skipped  and
	      slightly	more information at the	end.  More than	two -v options
	      should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

	      The end-of-run summary tells you the number of bytes sent	to the
	      remote  rsync (which is the receiving side on a local copy), the
	      number of	bytes received from the	remote host, and  the  average
	      bytes  per  second of the	transferred data computed over the en-
	      tire length of the rsync run. The	second line  shows  the	 total
	      size  (in	 bytes),  which	 is the	sum of all the file sizes that
	      rsync considered transferring.  It also shows a "speedup"	value,
	      which  is	 a  ratio of the total file size divided by the	sum of
	      the sent and received bytes (which is really  just  a  feel-good
	      bigger-is-better	number).   Note	 that these byte values	can be
	      made more	(or less) human-readable by using the --human-readable
	      (or --no-human-readable) options.

	      In a modern rsync, the -v	option is equivalent to	the setting of
	      groups of	--info and --debug options.  You  can  choose  to  use
	      these  newer options in addition to, or in place of using	--ver-
	      bose, as any fine-grained	settings override the implied settings
	      of  -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that
	      tells you	exactly	what flags are set for each increase  in  ver-

	      However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
	      will limit how high of a level the various individual flags  can
	      be  set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the	max is 2, then
	      any info and/or debug flag that is set to	a  higher  value  than
	      what  would be set by -vv	will be	downgraded to the -vv level in
	      the daemon's logging.

	      This option lets you have	fine-grained control over the informa-
	      tion  output  you	 want  to see.	An individual flag name	may be
	      followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that  out-
	      put,  1  being  the default output level,	and higher numbers in-
	      creasing the output of that flag (for those that support	higher
	      levels).	 Use  --info=help to see all the available flag	names,
	      what they	output,	and what flag names are	 added	for  each  in-
	      crease in	the verbose level.  Some examples:

		  rsync	-a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
		  rsync	-avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0	src/ dest/

	      Note  that  --info=name's	output is affected by the --out-format
	      and --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for  more
	      information on what is output and	when.

	      This  option was added to	3.1.0, so an older rsync on the	server
	      side might reject	your attempts at fine-grained control (if  one
	      or more flags needed to be send to the server and	the server was
	      too old to  understand  them).   See  also  the  "max verbosity"
	      caveat above when	dealing	with a daemon.

	      This  option  lets  you have fine-grained	control	over the debug
	      output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
	      by  a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 be-
	      ing the default output level, and	higher numbers increasing  the
	      output of	that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
	      --debug=help to see all the available flag names,	what they out-
	      put, and what flag names are added for each increase in the ver-
	      bose level.  Some	examples:

		  rsync	-avvv --debug=none src/	dest/
		  rsync	-avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

	      Note that	some debug messages  will  only	 be  output  when  the
	      --stderr=all option is specified,	especially those pertaining to
	      I/O and buffer debugging.

	      Beginning	in 3.2.0, this option is no longer  auto-forwarded  to
	      the server side in order to allow	you to specify different debug
	      values for each side of the transfer, as well as	to  specify  a
	      new  debug  option that is only present in one of	the rsync ver-
	      sions.  If you want to duplicate the same	option on both	sides,
	      using  brace  expansion  is an easy way to save you some typing.
	      This works in zsh	and bash:

		  rsync	-aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

	      This option controls which processes output  to  stderr  and  if
	      info  messages are also changed to stderr.  The mode strings can
	      be abbreviated, so feel free to use a single letter value.   The
	      3	possible choices are:

	      o	     errors  - (the default) causes all	the rsync processes to
		     send an error directly to stderr, even if the process  is
		     on	 the  remote  side of the transfer.  Info messages are
		     sent to the client	side  via  the	protocol  stream.   If
		     stderr  is	 not  available	(i.e. when directly connecting
		     with a daemon via a socket) errors	 fall  back  to	 being
		     sent via the protocol stream.

	      o	     all  -  causes all	rsync messages (info and error)	to get
		     written directly to stderr	from all (possible) processes.
		     This  causes  stderr  to become line-buffered (instead of
		     raw) and eliminates the ability to	divide up the info and
		     error messages by file handle.  For those doing debugging
		     or	using several levels of	 verbosity,  this  option  can
		     help  to  avoid  clogging	up  the	transfer stream	(which
		     should prevent any	 chance	 of  a	deadlock  bug  hanging
		     things  up).  It also allows --debug to enable some extra
		     I/O related messages.

	      o	     client - causes all rsync messages	 to  be	 sent  to  the
		     client  side via the protocol stream.  One	client process
		     outputs all messages, with	errors on stderr and info mes-
		     sages  on	stdout.	  This	was the	default	in older rsync
		     versions, but can cause error delays when a lot of	trans-
		     fer  data	is  ahead  of the messages.  If	you're pushing
		     files to an older rsync, you may want to use --stderr=all
		     since that	idiom has been around for several releases.

	      This  option  was	added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version also began
	      the forwarding of	a non-default  setting	to  the	 remote	 side,
	      though  rsync uses the backward-compatible options --msgs2stderr
	      and --no-msgs2stderr to represent	the all	and  client  settings,
	      respectively.  A newer rsync will	continue to accept these older
	      option names to maintain compatibility.

       --quiet,	-q
	      This option decreases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the  transfer,  notably suppressing information messages
	      from the remote server.  This option  is	useful	when  invoking
	      rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the	client
	      at the start of a	daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
	      of-the-day  (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
	      that the daemon sends in response	to the "rsync host::"  request
	      (due to a	limitation in the rsync	protocol), so omit this	option
	      if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       --ignore-times, -I
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
	      size  and	 have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This	option
	      turns off	this "quick check" behavior, causing all files	to  be

	      This  option  can	be confusing compared to --ignore-existing and
	      --ignore-non-existing in that that they cause rsync to  transfer
	      fewer  files,  while  this  option causes	rsync to transfer more

	      This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for	finding	 files
	      that  need  to  be  transferred, changing	it from	the default of
	      transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
	      modified	time  to  just	looking	for files that have changed in
	      size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using an-
	      other  mirroring	system	which  may not preserve	timestamps ex-

       --modify-window=NUM, -@
	      When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats  the	timestamps  as
	      being  equal  if	they  differ by	no more	than the modify-window
	      value.  The default is 0,	which matches  just  integer  seconds.
	      If  you  specify	a negative value (and the receiver is at least
	      version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also	be taken into account.
	      Specifying  1  is	 useful	 for  copies  to/from  MS  Windows FAT
	      filesystems, because FAT represents times	with a 2-second	 reso-
	      lution  (allowing	 times	to differ from the original by up to 1

	      If you want all your transfers to	default	to comparing  nanosec-
	      onds, you	can create a ~/.popt file and put these	lines in it:

		  rsync	alias -a -a@-1
		  rsync	alias -t -t@-1

	      With  that  as  the default, you'd need to specify --modify-win-
	      dow=0 (aka -@0) to override it and ignore	nanoseconds,  e.g.  if
	      you're  copying between ext3 and ext4, or	if the receiving rsync
	      is older than 3.1.3.

       --checksum, -c
	      This changes the way rsync checks	if the files have been changed
	      and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
	      a	"quick check" that (by default)	checks if each file's size and
	      time of last modification	match between the sender and receiver.
	      This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
	      file  that  has a	matching size.	Generating the checksums means
	      that both	sides will expend a lot	of disk	I/O  reading  all  the
	      data  in the files in the	transfer, so this can slow things down
	      significantly (and this is prior to any  reading	that  will  be
	      done to transfer changed files)

	      The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
	      file-system scan that builds the list of	the  available	files.
	      The  receiver  generates	its  checksums when it is scanning for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file	that has the same size
	      as  the corresponding sender's file: files with either a changed
	      size or a	changed	checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that	rsync always verifies that each	transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	 receiving  side by checking a
	      whole-file checksum that is generated  as	 the  file  is	trans-
	      ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
	      nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
	      file need	to be updated?"	check.

	      The  checksum used is auto-negotiated between the	client and the
	      server, but can be overridden using either the --checksum-choice
	      (--cc)  option  or  an environment variable that is discussed in
	      that option's section.

       --archive, -a
	      This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you
	      want recursion and want to preserve almost everything.  Be aware
	      that it does not include	preserving  ACLs  (-A),	 xattrs	 (-X),
	      atimes  (-U),  crtimes  (-N),  nor the finding and preserving of
	      hardlinks	(-H).  It also does not	imply --fileflags.

	      The only exception to the	above equivalence is when --files-from
	      is specified, in which case -r is	not implied.

	      You  may	turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the
	      option name with "no-".  Not all positive	options	have a negated
	      opposite,	but a lot do, including	those that can be used to dis-
	      able an implied option (e.g.  --no-D, --no-perms)	or  have  dif-
	      ferent  defaults in various circumstances	(e.g. --no-whole-file,
	      --no-blocking-io,	--no-dirs).  Every valid  negated  option  ac-
	      cepts  both  the	short and the long option name after the "no-"
	      prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

	      As an example, if	you want to use	--archive (-a) but don't  want
	      --owner  (-o),  instead  of  converting -a into -rlptgD, you can
	      specify -a --no-o	(aka --archive --no-owner).

	      The order	of the options is important: if	you specify --no-r -a,
	      the  -r  option  would  end  up being turned on, the opposite of
	      -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
	      option  are  NOT	positional, as it affects the default state of
	      several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       --recursive, -r
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories	recursively.  See also
	      --dirs (-d) for an option	that allows the	scanning of  a	single

	      See the --inc-recursive option for a discussion of the incremen-
	      tal recursion for	creating the list of files to transfer.

       --inc-recursive,	--i-r
	      This option explicitly enables  on  incremental  recursion  when
	      scanning	for  files, which is enabled by	default	when using the
	      --recursive option and both sides	of the	transfer  are  running
	      rsync 3.0.0 or newer.

	      Incremental  recursion  uses much	less memory than non-incremen-
	      tal, while also beginning	the transfer more  quickly  (since  it
	      doesn't  need  to	 scan  the entire transfer hierarchy before it
	      starts transferring files).  If no recursion is enabled  in  the
	      source files, this option	has no effect.

	      Some  options require rsync to know the full file	list, so these
	      options disable the incremental recursion	mode.  These include:

	      o	     --delete-before (the old default of --delete)

	      o	     --delete-after

	      o	     --prune-empty-dirs

	      o	     --delay-updates

	      In order to make --delete	compatible with	incremental recursion,
	      rsync  3.0.0 made	--delete-during	the default delete mode	(which
	      was first	added in 2.6.4).

	      One side-effect of incremental recursion	is  that  any  missing
	      sub-directories  inside  a recursively-scanned directory are (by
	      default) created prior to	recursing  into	 the  sub-dirs.	  This
	      earlier creation point (compared to a non-incremental recursion)
	      allows rsync to then set the modify time of the finished	direc-
	      tory  right  away	(without having	to delay that until a bunch of
	      recursive	copying	has finished).	However, these early  directo-
	      ries  don't  yet	have their completed mode, mtime, or ownership
	      set -- they have more restrictive	 rights	 until	the  subdirec-
	      tory's  copying  actually	begins.	 This early-creation idiom can
	      be avoiding by using the --omit-dir-times	option.

	      Incremental recursion can	be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
	      sive (--no-i-r) option.

       --no-inc-recursive, --no-i-r
	      Disables the new incremental recursion algorithm of the --recur-
	      sive option.  This makes rsync scan the full file	list before it
	      begins to	transfer files.	 See --inc-recursive for more info.

       --relative, -R
	      Use  relative paths.  This means that the	full path names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent	to the server rather than just
	      the  last	 parts	of the filenames.  This	is particularly	useful
	      when you want to send several different directories at the  same
	      time.  For example, if you used this command:

		  rsync	-av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      would  create a file named baz.c in /tmp/	on the remote machine.
	      If instead you used

		  rsync	-avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then a file named	/tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the re-
	      mote  machine,  preserving its full path.	 These extra path ele-
	      ments are	called "implied	directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
	      "foo/bar"	directories in the above example).

	      Beginning	with rsync 3.0.0, rsync	always sends these implied di-
	      rectories	as real	directories in the file	list, even if  a  path
	      element  is really a symlink on the sending side.	 This prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the	full path of a
	      file  that you didn't realize had	a symlink in its path.	If you
	      want to duplicate	a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
	      link via its path, and referent directory	via its	real path.  If
	      you're dealing with an older rsync on the	sending	side, you  may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs	option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.	  With
	      a	 modern	 rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into	the source path, like this:

		  rsync	-avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create	/tmp/bar/baz.c on the  remote  machine.	 (Note
	      that  the	dot must be followed by	a slash, so "/foo/." would not
	      be abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need	to use
	      a	 chdir	to  limit  the source path.  For example, when pushing

		  (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put	the two	commands into a	sub-shell,  so
	      that  the	 "cd" command doesn't remain in	effect for future com-
	      mands.) If you're	pulling	files from an older  rsync,  use  this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		       remote:bar/baz.c	/tmp/

	      This  option  affects the	default	behavior of the	--relative op-
	      tion.  When it is	specified, the attributes of the  implied  di-
	      rectories	 from  the source names	are not	included in the	trans-
	      fer.  This means that the	corresponding  path  elements  on  the
	      destination  system  are	left  unchanged	if they	exist, and any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even	allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences, such as being a symlink to	a directory on	the  receiving

	      For  instance,  if a command-line	arg or a files-from entry told
	      rsync to transfer	 the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
	      "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
	      "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
	      receiving	 rsync would ordinarily	delete "path/foo", recreate it
	      as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
	      With    --no-implied-dirs,    the	   receiving   rsync   updates
	      "path/foo/file" using the	existing path  elements,  which	 means
	      that  the	file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
	      to accomplish this link  preservation  is	 to  use  the  --keep-
	      dirlinks	option (which will also	affect symlinks	to directories
	      in the rest of the transfer).

	      When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
	      to use this option if the	sending	side has a symlink in the path
	      you request and you wish the implied directories	to  be	trans-
	      ferred as	normal directories.

       --backup, -b
	      With  this  option, preexisting destination files	are renamed as
	      each file	is transferred or deleted.  You	can control where  the
	      backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets	appended using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      If you don't specify --backup-dir:

	      1.     the --omit-dir-times option will be forced	on

	      2.     the use of	--delete (without  --delete-excluded),	causes
		     rsync  to add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup suf-
		     fix to the	end of all your	existing  filters  that	 looks
		     like  this:  -f "P	*~".   This  rule  prevents previously
		     backed-up files from being	deleted.

	      Note that	if you are supplying your own filter  rules,  you  may
	      need  to manually	insert your own	exclude/protect	rule somewhere
	      higher up	in the list so that it has a high enough  priority  to
	      be  effective  (e.g.  if	your  rules  specify a trailing	inclu-
	      sion/exclusion  of  *,  the  auto-added  rule  would  never   be

	      This  implies  the --backup option, and tells rsync to store all
	      backups in the specified directory on the	receiving side.	  This
	      can be used for incremental backups.  You	can additionally spec-
	      ify a backup suffix using	the  --suffix  option  (otherwise  the
	      files backed up in the specified directory will keep their orig-
	      inal filenames).

	      Note that	if you specify a relative path,	the  backup  directory
	      will  be	relative to the	destination directory, so you probably
	      want to specify either an	absolute path or a  path  that	starts
	      with  "../".  If an rsync	daemon is the receiver,	the backup dir
	      cannot go	outside	the module's path  hierarchy,  so  take	 extra
	      care not to delete it or copy into it.

	      This  option  allows  you	 to override the default backup	suffix
	      used with	the --backup (-b) option.  The default suffix is  a  ~
	      if  no  --backup-dir  was	 specified,  otherwise	it is an empty

       --update, -u
	      This forces rsync	to skip	any files which	exist on the  destina-
	      tion  and	 have  a  modified  time that is newer than the	source
	      file. (If	an existing destination	file has a  modification  time
	      equal  to	the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are

	      Note that	this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
	      other  special files.  Also, a difference	of file	format between
	      the sender and receiver is always	 considered  to	 be  important
	      enough for an update, no matter what date	is on the objects.  In
	      other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
	      has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-

	      This option is a TRANSFER	RULE, so don't expect any exclude side

	      A	 caution for those that	choose to combine --inplace with --up-
	      date: an interrupted transfer will leave behind a	 partial  file
	      on  the  receiving side that has a very recent modified time, so
	      re-running the transfer will probably not	 continue  the	inter-
	      rupted  file.   As  such,	 it is usually best to avoid combining
	      this with	--inplace unless you have implemented manual steps  to
	      handle any interrupted in-progress files.

	      This  option  changes  how  rsync	transfers a file when its data
	      needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
	      new  copy	 of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
	      plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
	      destination file.

	      This has several effects:

	      o	     Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
		     be	visible	through	other hard links  to  the  destination
		     file.   Moreover, attempts	to copy	differing source files
		     onto a multiply-linked destination	file will result in  a
		     "tug  of war" with	the destination	data changing back and

	      o	     In-use binaries cannot be updated	(either	 the  OS  will
		     prevent  this from	happening, or binaries that attempt to
		     swap-in their data	will misbehave or crash).

	      o	     The file's	data will be in	an inconsistent	 state	during
		     the transfer and will be left that	way if the transfer is
		     interrupted or if an update fails.

	      o	     A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
		     While  a  super  user  can	update any file, a normal user
		     needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
		     file for writing to be successful.

	      o	     The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm	may be
		     reduced if	some data in the destination file is overwrit-
		     ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later	in the
		     file.  This does not apply	if  you	 use  --backup,	 since
		     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
		     file for the transfer.

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update	files that are
	      being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing	to use
	      this for a copy.

	      This option is useful for	transferring large files  with	block-
	      based  changes  or  appended  data, and also on systems that are
	      disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-on-
	      write  filesystem	snapshot from diverging	the entire contents of
	      a	file that only has minor changes.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the file), but	conflicts with --partial-dir and --de-
	      lay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incompati-
	      ble with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  special  copy  mode	only works to efficiently update files
	      that are known to	be growing larger where	any  existing  content
	      on  the  receiving side is also known to be the same as the con-
	      tent on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous	if you
	      aren't  100% sure	that all the files in the transfer are shared,
	      growing files.  You should thus use filter rules to ensure  that
	      you weed out any files that do not fit this criteria.

	      Rsync  updates these growing file	in-place without verifying any
	      of the existing content in the file (it only verifies  the  con-
	      tent that	it is appending).  Rsync skips any files that exist on
	      the receiving side that are not shorter than the associated file
	      on  the  sending	side  (which  means  that new files are	trans-
	      ferred).	It also	skips any files	whose size on the sending side
	      gets  shorter  during the	send negotiations (rsync warns about a
	      "diminished" file	when this happens).

	      This does	not interfere with the updating	of a  file's  non-con-
	      tent  attributes	(e.g.	permissions, ownership,	etc.) when the
	      file does	not need to be transferred, nor	does it	affect the up-
	      dating of	any directories	or non-regular files.

	      This  special  copy mode works like --append except that all the
	      data in the file is included in the checksum verification	 (mak-
	      ing  it less efficient but also potentially safer).  This	option
	      can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that all	the  files  in
	      the transfer are shared, growing files.  See the --append	option
	      for more details.

	      Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the	--append  option  worked  like
	      --append-verify,	so  if you are interacting with	an older rsync
	      (or the transfer is using	a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
	      either append option will	initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       --dirs, -d
	      Tell  the	 sending  side to include any directories that are en-
	      countered.  Unlike --recursive, a	directory's contents  are  not
	      copied unless the	directory name specified is "."	or ends	with a
	      trailing slash (e.g.  ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
	      option  or  the --recursive option, rsync	will skip all directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The --dirs option	is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
	      --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
	      --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories	 are  seen  in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

	      There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
	      (--old-d)	 that tells rsync to use a hack	of -r --exclude='/*/*'
	      to get an	older rsync to list a single directory without recurs-

	      Create  a	 missing  path component of the	destination arg.  This
	      allows rsync to create multiple levels  of  missing  destination
	      dirs and to create a path	in which to put	a single renamed file.
	      Keep in mind that	you'll need to supply a	trailing slash if  you
	      want  the	 entire	 destination path to be	treated	as a directory
	      when copying a single arg	(making	rsync behave the same way that
	      it  would	 if  the path component	of the destination had already

	      For example, the following creates a copy	of file	foo as bar  in
	      the  sub/dir directory, creating dirs "sub" and "sub/dir"	if ei-
	      ther do not yet exist:

		  rsync	-ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

	      If you instead ran the following,	it would have created file foo
	      in the sub/dir/bar directory:

		  rsync	-ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

       --links,	-l
	      Add  symlinks to the transferred files instead of	noisily	ignor-
	      ing them with a "non-regular file" warning for each symlink  en-
	      countered.   You can alternately silence the warning by specify-
	      ing --info=nonreg0.

	      The default handling of symlinks is to recreate  each  symlink's
	      unchanged	value on the receiving side.

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --copy-links, -L
	      The  sender  transforms each symlink encountered in the transfer
	      into the referent	item, following	the symlink chain to the  file
	      or  directory that it references.	 If a symlink chain is broken,
	      an error is output and the file is dropped from the transfer.

	      This option supersedes any other options that affect symlinks in
	      the transfer, since there	are no symlinks	left in	the transfer.

	      This option does not change the handling of existing symlinks on
	      the receiving side, unlike versions  of  rsync  prior  to	 2.6.3
	      which  had the side-effect of telling the	receiving side to also
	      follow symlinks.	A modern rsync won't forward this option to  a
	      remote  receiver (since only the sender needs to know about it),
	      so this caveat should only affect	someone	using an rsync	client
	      older  than  2.6.7  (which is when -L stopped being forwarded to
	      the receiver).

	      See the --keep-dirlinks (-K) if you need a symlink to  a	direc-
	      tory to be treated as a real directory on	the receiving side.

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent	of symbolic links that
	      point outside the	 copied	 tree.	 Absolute  symlinks  are  also
	      treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks	in the
	      source path itself when --relative is used.

	      Note that	the cut-off point is the top of	the transfer, which is
	      the  part	of the path that rsync isn't mentioning	in the verbose
	      output.  If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then the "subdir"
	      directory	is a name inside the transfer tree, not	the top	of the
	      transfer (which is /src) so it is	 legal	for  created  relative
	      symlinks	to  refer to other names inside	the /src and /dest di-
	      rectories.  If you instead copy "/src/subdir/" (with a  trailing
	      slash)  to  "/dest/subdir"  that would not allow symlinks	to any
	      files outside of "subdir".

	      Note that	safe symlinks are only	copied	if  --links  was  also
	      specified	 or implied. The --copy-unsafe-links option has	no ex-
	      tra effect when combined with --copy-links.

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

	      This tells the receiving rsync to	ignore any symbolic  links  in
	      the  transfer which point	outside	the copied tree.  All absolute
	      symlinks are also	ignored.

	      Since this ignoring is happening on the receiving	side, it  will
	      still  be	 effective  even when the sending side has munged sym-
	      links (when it is	using --munge-links). It  also	affects	 dele-
	      tions, since the file being present in the transfer prevents any
	      matching file on the receiver from being deleted when  the  sym-
	      link is deemed to	be unsafe and is skipped.

	      This option must be combined with	--links	(or --archive) to have
	      any symlinks in the transfer to conditionally ignore. Its	effect
	      is superseded by --copy-unsafe-links.

	      Using  this option in conjunction	with --relative	may give unex-
	      pected results.

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

	      This option affects just one side	 of  the  transfer  and	 tells
	      rsync  to	munge symlink values when it is	receiving files	or un-
	      munge symlink values when	it is sending files.  The munged  val-
	      ues  make	 the symlinks unusable on disk but allows the original
	      contents of the symlinks to be recovered.

	      The server-side rsync often  enables  this  option  without  the
	      client's	knowledge,  such as in an rsync	daemon's configuration
	      file or by an option given  to  the  rrsync  (restricted	rsync)
	      script.	When  specified	on the client side, specify the	option
	      normally if it is	the client side	that has/needs the munged sym-
	      links,  or  use -M--munge-links to give the option to the	server
	      when it has/needs	the munged symlinks.  Note  that  on  a	 local
	      transfer,	the client is the sender, so specifying	the option di-
	      rectly unmunges symlinks while specifying	it as a	remote	option
	      munges symlinks.

	      This option has no effect	when sent to a daemon via --remote-op-
	      tion because the daemon configures whether it wants munged  sym-
	      links via	its "munge symlinks" parameter.

	      The symlink value	is munged/unmunged once	it is in the transfer,
	      so any option that transforms symlinks into non-symlinks	occurs
	      prior to the munging/unmunging except for	--safe-links, which is
	      a	choice that the	receiver makes,	so it bases  its  decision  on
	      the  munged/unmunged  value.   This does mean that if a receiver
	      has munging enabled, that	using --safe-links will	cause all sym-
	      links to be ignored (since they are all absolute).

	      The  method  that	 rsync uses to munge the symlinks is to	prefix
	      each one's value with the	string "/rsyncd-munged/".   This  pre-
	      vents  the  links	 from being used as long as the	directory does
	      not exist.  When this option is enabled, rsync  will  refuse  to
	      run  if  that  path  is  a directory or a	symlink	to a directory
	      (though it only checks at	startup).  See	also  the  "munge-sym-
	      links" python script in the support directory of the source code
	      for a way	to munge/unmunge one or	more symlinks in-place.

       --copy-dirlinks,	-k
	      This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to	a  di-
	      rectory  as  though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you don't	want symlinks to non-directories to  be	 affected,  as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without  this  option, if	the sending side has replaced a	direc-
	      tory with	a symlink to a	directory,  the	 receiving  side  will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the	new symlink, including
	      a	directory hierarchy (as	long as	--force-delete or --delete  is
	      in effect).

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

	      --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to  directories  in  the
	      source.	If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
	      trick you	can use	is to pass them	as additional source args with
	      a	 trailing  slash,  using --relative to make the	paths match up
	      right.  For example:

		  rsync	-r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

	      This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on  the  source  arg  as
	      given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
	      giving rise to a directory in the	file-list which	overrides  the
	      symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --keep-dirlinks,	-K
	      This  option  causes  the	receiving side to treat	a symlink to a
	      directory	as though it were a real directory,  but  only	if  it
	      matches  a real directory	from the sender.  Without this option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with	a real

	      For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
	      tains a file "file", but "foo" is	a symlink to  directory	 "bar"
	      on  the receiver.	 Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
	      symlink "foo", recreates it as a	directory,  and	 receives  the
	      file into	the new	directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the	symlink	and "file" ends	up in "bar".

	      One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must	 trust
	      all  the symlinks	in the copy or enable the --munge-links	option
	      on the receiving side!  If it is possible	for an untrusted  user
	      to  create  their	 own  symlink  to any real directory, the user
	      could then (on a subsequent copy)	replace	 the  symlink  with  a
	      real  directory and affect the content of	whatever directory the
	      symlink references.  For backup copies, you are better off using
	      something	 like a	bind mount instead of a	symlink	to modify your
	      receiving	hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the sending

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --hard-links, -H
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in	the source and
	      link together the	corresponding files on the destination.	 With-
	      out  this	option,	hard-linked files in the source	are treated as
	      though they were separate	files.

	      This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
	      links  on	 the  destination  exactly matches that	on the source.
	      Cases in which the destination may end up	with extra hard	 links
	      include the following:

	      o	     If	 the  destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
		     linking than what is present in the  source  file	list),
		     the  copying  algorithm  will  not	break them explicitly.
		     However, if one or	more of	the paths have content differ-
		     ences,  the  normal  file-update process will break those
		     extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

	      o	     If	you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
		     links,  the  linking of the destination files against the
		     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
		     to	become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

	      Note that	rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
	      are  inside  the transfer	set.  If rsync updates a file that has
	      extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to	avoid this breakage, be	very careful that you know how
	      your files are being updated so that you are certain that	no un-
	      intended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see the
	      --inplace	option for more	caveats).

	      If  incremental recursion	is active (see --inc-recursive), rsync
	      may transfer a missing hard-linked file before it	finds that an-
	      other  link for that contents exists elsewhere in	the hierarchy.
	      This does	not affect the accuracy	of the	transfer  (i.e.	 which
	      files are	hard-linked together), just its	efficiency (i.e. copy-
	      ing the data for a new, early copy of a  hard-linked  file  that
	      could have been found later in the transfer in another member of
	      the hard-linked set of files).  One way to  avoid	 this  ineffi-
	      ciency  is  to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-
	      recursive	option.

       --perms,	-p
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to	 set  the  destination
	      permissions  to be the same as the source	permissions. (See also
	      the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync	 considers  to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this	option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing files (including updated files) retain their ex-
		     isting permissions,  though  the  --executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New  files	 get their "normal" permission bits set	to the
		     source file's permissions masked with the	receiving  di-
		     rectory's	 default  permissions  (either	the  receiving
		     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
		     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
		     permission	bits disabled except in	the case where	a  new
		     directory	inherits  a  setgid bit	from its parent	direc-

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's  behavior	 is the	same as	that of	other file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In summary: to give destination files (both  old	and  new)  the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give	new files the destina-
	      tion-default  permissions	 (while	 leaving  existing  files  un-
	      changed),	 make  sure  that  the	--perms	 option	is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get  en-
	      abled).	If  you'd  care	to make	this latter behavior easier to
	      type, you	could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line  in	the file ~/.popt (the following	defines	the -Z option,
	      and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination

		  rsync	alias -Z --no-p	--no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You  could  then	use  this new option in	a command such as this

		  rsync	-avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or	it will	re-en-
	      able the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

	      The  preservation	 of the	destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
	      ated directories when --perms is off was added in	 rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
	      permission bits for newly-created	files when  --perms  was  off,
	      while  overriding	 the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
	      newly-created directory.	Default	ACL observance	was  added  to
	      the  ACL	patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even	if default ACLs	are present.  (Keep in
	      mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
	      these behaviors.)

       --executability,	-E
	      This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or  non-
	      executability)  of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
	      regular file is considered to be executable if at	least one  'x'
	      is  turned  on in	its permissions.  When an existing destination
	      file's executability differs  from  that	of  the	 corresponding
	      source  file,  rsync modifies the	destination file's permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	make a file non-executable, rsync turns	 off  all  its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To	 make  a file executable, rsync	turns on each 'x' per-
		     mission that has a	corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       --acls, -A
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs	to  be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The	option also implies --perms.

	      The  source and destination systems must have compatible ACL en-
	      tries for	this option to work properly.	See  the  --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       --xattrs, -X
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination extended  at-
	      tributes to be the same as the source ones.

	      For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces,	a copy
	      being done by a super-user copies	 all  namespaces  except  sys-
	      tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.	 To be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as	a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

	      The  above name filtering	can be overridden by using one or more
	      filter options with the x	modifier.  When	you specify an	xattr-
	      affecting	 filter	rule, rsync requires that you do your own sys-
	      tem/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for what
	      xattr names are copied and what names are	allowed	to be deleted.
	      For example, to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

		  --filter='-x system.*'

	      To skip all namespaces except  the  user	namespace,  you	 could
	      specify a	negated-user match:

		  --filter='-x!	user.*'

	      To  prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could specify
	      a	receiver-only rule that	excludes all names:

		  --filter='-xr	*'

	      Note that	the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr val-
	      ues (e.g.	 those used by --fake-super) unless you	repeat the op-
	      tion (e.g. -XX).	This "copy all xattrs"	mode  cannot  be  used
	      with --fake-super.

	      This option causes rsync to update the file-flags	to be the same
	      as the source files and directories (if  your  OS	 supports  the
	      chflags(2) system	call).	 Some flags can	only be	altered	by the
	      super-user and some might	only be	unset below a certain  secure-
	      level  (usually single-user mode). It will not make files	alter-
	      able that	are set	to immutable on	the receiver.  To do that, see
	      --force-change, --force-uchange, and --force-schange.

	      This option causes rsync to disable both user-immutable and sys-
	      tem-immutable flags on files and directories that	are being  up-
	      dated  or	 deleted on the	receiving side.	 This option overrides
	      --force-uchange and --force-schange.

	      This option causes rsync	to  disable  user-immutable  flags  on
	      files  and  directories that are being updated or	deleted	on the
	      receiving	side.  It does not try to affect system	 flags.	  This
	      option overrides --force-change and --force-schange.

	      This  option  causes  rsync to disable system-immutable flags on
	      files and	directories that are being updated or deleted  on  the
	      receiving	side.  It does not try to affect user flags.  This op-
	      tion overrides --force-change and	--force-uchange.

	      This option tells	rsync to apply	one  or	 more  comma-separated
	      "chmod"  modes  to  the permission of the	files in the transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as	though it were the permissions
	      that  the	 sending  side supplied	for the	file, which means that
	      this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In  addition  to	the  normal  parsing  rules  specified	in the
	      chmod(1) manpage,	you can	specify	an item	that should only apply
	      to  a  directory	by prefixing it	with a 'D', or specify an item
	      that should only apply to	a file by prefixing  it	 with  a  'F'.
	      For  example, the	following will ensure that all directories get
	      marked set-gid, that no files are	other-writable,	that both  are
	      user-writable  and group-writable, and that both have consistent
	      executability across all bits:


	      Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


	      It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
	      additional  option  is  just  appended to	the list of changes to

	      See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
	      ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the	trans-

       --owner,	-o
	      This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
	      file  to be the same as the source file, but only	if the receiv-
	      ing rsync	is being run as	the super-user (see also  the  --super
	      and  --fake-super	 options).   Without this option, the owner of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The  preservation	 of ownership will associate matching names by
	      default, but may fall back to using the ID number	in  some  cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full discus-

       --group,	-g
	      This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
	      file  to	be the same as the source file.	 If the	receiving pro-
	      gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
	      specified),  only	groups that the	invoking user on the receiving
	      side is a	member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group  is	 set  to the default group of the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The preservation of group	information  will  associate  matching
	      names  by	 default,  but may fall	back to	using the ID number in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full

	      This  option causes rsync	to transfer character and block	device
	      files to the remote system to recreate these  devices.   If  the
	      receiving	 rsync	is  not	 being	run  as	 the super-user, rsync
	      silently skips creating the device files (see also  the  --super
	      and --fake-super options).

	      By  default,  rsync  generates  a	"non-regular file" warning for
	      each device file encountered when	this option is not  set.   You
	      can silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0.

	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  transfer	special	files, such as
	      named sockets and	fifos.	If the receiving rsync	is  not	 being
	      run as the super-user, rsync silently skips creating the special
	      files (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

	      By default, rsync	generates a  "non-regular  file"  warning  for
	      each  special file encountered when this option is not set.  You
	      can silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to "--devices	--specials".

	      This tells rsync to treat	a device on the	sending	side as	a reg-
	      ular file, allowing it to	be copied to a normal destination file
	      (or another device if --write-devices was	also specified).

	      This option is refused by	default	by an rsync daemon.

	      This tells rsync to treat	a device on the	receiving  side	 as  a
	      regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device.

	      This option implies the --inplace	option.

	      Be  careful  using  this,	 as  you  should know what devices are
	      present on the receiving side of the transfer,  especially  when
	      running rsync as root.

	      This option is refused by	default	by an rsync daemon.

       --times,	-t
	      This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times	along with the
	      files and	update them on the remote system.  Note	that  if  this
	      option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
	      have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
	      missing  -t (or -a) will cause the next transfer to behave as if
	      it used --ignore-times (-I), causing all	files  to  be  updated
	      (though  rsync's	delta-transfer	algorithm will make the	update
	      fairly efficient if the files haven't actually  changed,	you're
	      much better off using -t).

       --atimes, -U
	      This  tells  rsync to set	the access (use) times of the destina-
	      tion files to the	same value as the source files.

	      If repeated, it also sets	the --open-noatime option,  which  can
	      help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the same
	      access times on the transferred files  without  needing  to  run
	      rsync an extra time after	a file is transferred.

	      Note  that  some	older rsync versions (prior to 3.2.0) may have
	      been built with a	pre-release --atimes patch that	does not imply
	      --open-noatime when this option is repeated.

	      This  tells rsync	to open	files with the O_NOATIME flag (on sys-
	      tems that	support	it) to avoid changing the access time  of  the
	      files  that  are being transferred.  If your OS does not support
	      the O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this  option.
	      Note  also  that	some filesystems are mounted to	avoid updating
	      the atime	on read	access even without the	O_NOATIME  flag	 being

       --crtimes, -N,
	      This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the	desti-
	      nation files to the same value as	the source files.

       --omit-dir-times, -O
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when	it is preserving modi-
	      fication,	 access,  and create times.  If	NFS is sharing the di-
	      rectories	on the receiving side, it is a good idea  to  use  -O.
	      This  option  is	inferred if you	use --backup without --backup-

	      This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early  creation
	      of  missing  sub-directories  when  incremental recursion	is en-
	      abled, as	discussed in the --inc-recursive section.

       --omit-link-times, -J
	      This tells rsync to omit symlinks	when it	is preserving  modifi-
	      cation, access, and create times.

	      This  tells  the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by	the super-user.	 These
	      activities  include:  preserving	users  via the --owner option,
	      preserving all groups (not just the current user's  groups)  via
	      the  --group  option,  and copying devices via the --devices op-
	      tion.  This is useful for	systems	 that  allow  such  activities
	      without  being  the  super-user,	and also for ensuring that you
	      will get errors if the receiving side isn't being	run as the su-
	      per-user.	 To turn off super-user	activities, the	super-user can
	      use --no-super.

	      When this	option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user  activi-
	      ties  by	saving/restoring the privileged	attributes via special
	      extended attributes that are attached to each file (as  needed).
	      This  includes  the file's owner and group (if it	is not the de-
	      fault), the file's device	info (device & special files are  cre-
	      ated as empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't
	      allow to be set on the real file (e.g. the real file gets	u-s,g-
	      s,o-t  for safety) or that would limit the owner's access	(since
	      the real super-user can always access/change a file,  the	 files
	      we  create can always be accessed/changed	by the creating	user).
	      This option also handles ACLs (if	--acls was specified) and non-
	      user extended attributes (if --xattrs was	specified).

	      This  is	a  good	way to backup data without using a super-user,
	      and to store ACLs	from incompatible systems.

	      The --fake-super option only affects the side where  the	option
	      is  used.	  To  affect the remote	side of	a remote-shell connec-
	      tion, use	the --remote-option (-M) option:

		  rsync	-av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

	      For a local copy,	this option affects both the  source  and  the
	      destination.   If	 you  wish  a local copy to enable this	option
	      just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If  you
	      wish  a  local  copy  to	enable this option just	for the	source
	      files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

	      This option is overridden	by both	--super	and --no-super.

	      See also the fake	super  setting	in  the	 daemon's  rsyncd.conf

       --sparse, -S
	      Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
	      space on the destination.	 If combined with --inplace  the  file
	      created  might  not end up with sparse blocks with some combina-
	      tions of kernel version and/or filesystem	type.  If --whole-file
	      is  in  effect  (e.g. for	a local	copy) then it will always work
	      because rsync truncates the file prior to	writing	 out  the  up-
	      dated version.

	      Note  that  versions  of	rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the
	      combination of --sparse and --inplace.

	      This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file	to its
	      eventual	size before writing data to the	file.  Rsync will only
	      use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided  by
	      Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
	      not the slow glibc implementation	that writes a null  byte  into
	      each block.

	      Without this option, larger files	may not	be entirely contiguous
	      on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
	      more  slowly.   If  the  destination is not an extent-supporting
	      filesystem (such as ext4,	xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
	      no positive effect at all.

	      If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse	blocks
	      (as opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes)	if the	kernel
	      version  and filesystem type support creating holes in the allo-
	      cated data.

       --dry-run, -n
	      This makes rsync perform a  trial	 run  that  doesn't  make  any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a	real run).  It
	      is most commonly used in combination  with  the  --verbose  (-v)
	      and/or  --itemize-changes	(-i) options to	see what an rsync com-
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
	      same on a	dry run	and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery and system call failures); if it	isn't, that's  a  bug.
	      Other  output should be mostly unchanged,	but may	differ in some
	      areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send	the  actual  data  for
	      file  transfers,	so --progress has no effect, the "bytes	sent",
	      "bytes received",	"literal data",	and "matched data"  statistics
	      are  too	small,	and the	"speedup" value	is equivalent to a run
	      where no file transfers were needed.

       --whole-file, -W
	      This option disables  rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm,	 which
	      causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer may
	      be faster	if this	option is used when the	bandwidth between  the
	      source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
	      tination are specified as	local paths, but  only	if  no	batch-
	      writing option is	in effect.

       --no-whole-file,	--no-W
	      Disable  whole-file updating when	it is enabled by default for a
	      local transfer.  This usually slows rsync	down, but  it  can  be
	      useful  if you are trying	to minimize the	writes to the destina-
	      tion file	(if combined with --inplace) or	for testing the	check-
	      sum-based	update algorithm.

	      See also the --whole-file	option.

       --checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
	      This option overrides the	checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm
	      name is specified, it is used for	both  the  transfer  checksums
	      and  (assuming  --checksum is specified) the pre-transfer	check-
	      sums.  If	two comma-separated names are supplied,	the first name
	      affects  the transfer checksums, and the second name affects the
	      pre-transfer checksums (-c).

	      The checksum options that	you may	be able	to use are:

	      o	     auto (the default automatic choice)

	      o	     xxh128

	      o	     xxh3

	      o	     xxh64 (aka	xxhash)

	      o	     md5

	      o	     md4

	      o	     none

	      Run rsync	--version to see the default  checksum	list  compiled
	      into your	version	(which may differ from the list	above).

	      If  "none"  is  specified	 for  the  first  (or  only) name, the
	      --whole-file option is forced on and no checksum verification is
	      performed	 on  the transferred data.  If "none" is specified for
	      the second (or only) name, the --checksum	option cannot be used.

	      The "auto" option	is the default,	where rsync  bases  its	 algo-
	      rithm  choice on a negotiation between the client	and the	server
	      as follows:

	      When both	sides of  the  transfer	 are  at  least	 3.2.0,	 rsync
	      chooses the first	algorithm in the client's list of choices that
	      is also in the server's list of choices.	If no common  checksum
	      choice is	found, rsync exits with	an error.  If the remote rsync
	      is too old to support checksum negotiation, a  value  is	chosen
	      based  on	 the  protocol	version	(which chooses between MD5 and
	      various flavors of MD4 based on protocol age).

	      The default order	can be customized by setting  the  environment
	      variable	RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST  to	 a space-separated list	of ac-
	      ceptable checksum	names.	If the string contains a  "&"  charac-
	      ter,  it	is separated into the "client string & server string",
	      otherwise	the same string	applies	to both.  If  the  string  (or
	      string  portion)	contains no non-whitespace characters, the de-
	      fault checksum list is used.  This method	does not allow you  to
	      specify  the  transfer checksum separately from the pre-transfer
	      checksum,	and it discards	"auto" and all unknown checksum	names.
	      A	list with only invalid names results in	a failed negotiation.

	      The  use of the --checksum-choice	option overrides this environ-
	      ment list.

       --one-file-system, -x
	      This tells rsync to avoid	crossing a  filesystem	boundary  when
	      recursing.   This	 does  not limit the user's ability to specify
	      items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that	rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is	repeated, rsync	omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise,	it includes an empty directory
	      at each mount-point it encounters	(using the attributes  of  the
	      mounted  directory  because  those of the	underlying mount-point
	      directory	are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been	told to	collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on	another	device
	      is treated like a	mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --ignore-non-existing, --existing
	      This  tells rsync	to skip	creating files (including directories)
	      that do not exist	yet on the destination.	  If  this  option  is
	      combined with the	--ignore-existing option, no files will	be up-
	      dated (which can be useful if all	you want to do is  delete  ex-
	      traneous files).

	      This option is a TRANSFER	RULE, so don't expect any exclude side

	      This tells rsync to skip updating	files that  already  exist  on
	      the  destination	(this does not ignore existing directories, or
	      nothing would get	done).	See also --ignore-non-existing.

	      This option is a TRANSFER	RULE, so don't expect any exclude side

	      This  option  can	 be  useful  for those doing backups using the
	      --link-dest option when they need	to continue a backup run  that
	      got  interrupted.	  Since	a --link-dest run is copied into a new
	      directory	hierarchy (when	it is used properly), using [--ignore-
	      existing	will  ensure  that the already-handled files don't get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in	permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).	This does mean that this option	is only	looking	at the
	      existing files in	the destination	hierarchy itself.

	      When --info=skip2	is used	rsync  will  output  "FILENAME	exists
	      (INFO)"  messages	where the INFO indicates one of	"type change",
	      "sum change" (requires -c), "file	change"	(based	on  the	 quick
	      check), "attr change", or	"uptodate".  Using --info=skip1	(which
	      is also implied by 2 -v  options)	 outputs  the  exists  message
	      without the INFO suffix.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the	sending	side the files
	      (meaning non-directories)	that are a part	of  the	 transfer  and
	      have been	successfully duplicated	on the receiving side.

	      Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that
	      are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
	      in  a  particular	directory over to another host,	make sure that
	      the finished files get renamed into the  source  directory,  not
	      directly	written	into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer
	      a	file that is not yet fully written.  If	you can't first	 write
	      the  files  into	a different directory, you should use a	naming
	      idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not  yet
	      finished	(e.g.  name the	file "" when it is written, re-
	      name it to "foo" when it is done,	and then use the option	 --ex-
	      clude='*.new' for	the rsync transfer).

	      Starting	with  3.1.0,  rsync  will skip the sender-side removal
	      (and output an error) if the file's size or modify time has  not
	      stayed unchanged.

	      This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
	      side (ones that aren't on	the sending side), but	only  for  the
	      directories  that	 are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
	      rsync to send the	whole directory	(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using  a	wildcard  for  the directory's contents	(e.g. "dir/*")
	      since the	wildcard is expanded by	the shell and rsync thus  gets
	      a	 request  to  transfer individual files, not the files'	parent
	      directory.  Files	that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option or	mark the rules as only matching	on  the	 sending  side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the	FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior  to	 rsync	2.6.7, this option would have no effect	unless
	      --recursive was enabled.	Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!	It is  a  very
	      good  idea to first try a	run using the --dry-run	(-n) option to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
	      This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures	(such  as  NFS
	      errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
	      files on the destination.	 You can override this with the	 --ig-
	      nore-errors option.

	      The  --delete  option  may be combined with one of the --delete-
	      WHEN options without conflict,  as  well	as  --delete-excluded.
	      However,	if  none  of  the --delete-WHEN	options	are specified,
	      rsync will choose	the --delete-during algorithm when talking  to
	      rsync  3.0.0  or	newer,	or  the	--delete-before	algorithm when
	      talking  to  an  older  rsync.   See  also  --delete-delay   and

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete	(which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting	before	the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
	      tight for	space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the  transfer  possible.	However, it does introduce a delay be-
	      fore the start of	the transfer, and this delay might  cause  the
	      transfer	to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that  requires  rsync to scan all	the files in the transfer into
	      memory at	once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during,	--del
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory	delete
	      scan is done right before	each directory is checked for updates,
	      so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
	      doing the	deletions prior	to any per-directory filter files  be-
	      ing  updated.   This  option  was	 first	added in rsync version
	      2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)	for  more  details  on

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be com-
	      puted during the transfer	(like --delete-during),	and  then  re-
	      moved  after  the	 transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or	--fuzzy, and is	more efficient
	      than  using  --delete-after  (but	 can behave differently, since
	      --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass	 after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an internal buffer, a temporary file will	be created on the  re-
	      ceiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open,	so you
	      shouldn't	see it during the transfer).  If the creation  of  the
	      temporary	 file  fails,  rsync  will  try	 to fall back to using
	      --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive	 is  doing  an
	      incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied) for more de-
	      tails on file-deletion.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      after  the  transfer  has	 completed.  This is useful if you are
	      sending new per-directory	merge files as a part of the  transfer
	      and  you	want  their  exclusions	 to take effect	for the	delete
	      phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
	      old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm	that requires rsync to
	      scan all the files in the	transfer  into	memory	at  once  (see
	      --recursive).  See  --delete (which is implied) for more details
	      on file-deletion.

	      See also the --delete-delay option that might be a faster	choice
	      for  those  that	just want the deletions	to occur at the	end of
	      the transfer.

	      This option turns	any  unqualified  exclude/include  rules  into
	      server-side rules	that do	not affect the receiver's deletions.

	      By  default, an exclude or include has both a server-side	effect
	      (to "hide" and "show" files  when	 building  the	server's  file
	      list)  and a receiver-side effect	(to "protect" and "risk" files
	      when deletions are occuring).  Any rule that has no modifier  to
	      specify  what sides it is	executed on will be instead treated as
	      if it were a server-side rule only, avoiding any	"protect"  ef-
	      fects of the rules.

	      A	rule can still apply to	both sides even	with this option spec-
	      ified if the rule	is given both the sender  &  receiver  modifer
	      letters  (e.g.,  -f'-sr foo').  Receiver-side protect/risk rules
	      can also be explicitly specified to limit	the  deletions.	  This
	      saves  you  from	having to edit a bunch of -f'- foo' rules into
	      -f'-s foo' (aka -f'H foo') rules (not to mention the correspond-
	      ing includes).

	      See the FILTER RULES section for more information.  See --delete
	      (which is	implied) for more details on deletion.

	      When rsync is first processing the explicitly  requested	source
	      files (e.g.  command-line	arguments or --files-from entries), it
	      is normally an error if the file cannot be found.	  This	option
	      suppresses  that	error,	and does not try to transfer the file.
	      This does	not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if  a  file
	      was initially found to be	present	and later is no	longer there.

	      This  option  takes the behavior of the (implied)	--ignore-miss-
	      ing-args option a	step farther: each missing arg will  become  a
	      deletion	request	 of  the corresponding destination file	on the
	      receiving	side (should it	exist).	 If the	destination file is  a
	      non-empty	 directory,  it	 will  only be successfully deleted if
	      --force-delete or	--delete are in	effect.	 Other than that, this
	      option is	independent of any other type of delete	processing.

	      The  missing  source  files are represented by special file-list
	      entries which display as a "*missing" entry in  the  --list-only

	      Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even	when there are
	      I/O errors.

       --force-delete, --force
	      This option tells	rsync to delete	a non-empty directory when  it
	      is  to be	replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
	      deletions	are not	active (see --delete for details).

	      Note that	some older rsync versions used to require --force when
	      using  --delete-after,  and  it used to be non-functional	unless
	      the --recursive option was also enabled.

	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
	      ries.   If  that	limit  is  exceeded, all further deletions are
	      skipped through the end of the transfer.	At the end, rsync out-
	      puts  a warning (including a count of the	skipped	deletions) and
	      exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
	      condition	also occurred).

	      Beginning	 with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
	      be warned	about any extraneous files in the destination  without
	      removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
	      ited", so	if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
	      use  the	less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
	      way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
	      versions didn't warn when	the limit was exceeded).

	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file	that is	larger
	      than the specified SIZE.	A numeric value	can be suffixed	with a
	      string  to  indicate  the	 numeric  units	or left	unqualified to
	      specify bytes.  Feel free	to use a fractional value  along  with
	      the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

	      This option is a TRANSFER	RULE, so don't expect any exclude side

	      The first	letter of a units string can be	B (bytes), K (kilo), M
	      (mega),  G  (giga),  T  (tera), or P (peta).  If the string is a
	      single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g.	"G" or "GiB") then the
	      units  are  multiples  of	 1024.	If you use a two-letter	suffix
	      that ends	with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you	 get  units  that  are
	      multiples	of 1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper
	      and lower-case that you want to use.

	      Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is off-
	      set  by one byte in the indicated	direction.  The	largest	possi-
	      ble value	is usually 8192P-1.

	      Examples:	 --max-size=1.5mb-1  is	 1499999  bytes,  and	--max-
	      size=2g+1	is 2147483649 bytes.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 3.1.0 did not allow	--max-

	      This tells rsync to avoid	transferring any file that is  smaller
	      than  the	 specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
	      small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for	a  description
	      of SIZE and other	info.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 3.1.0 did not allow	--min-

	      By default rsync limits an individual  malloc/realloc  to	 about
	      1GB  in  size.   For  most people	this limit works just fine and
	      prevents a protocol  error  causing  rsync  to  request  massive
	      amounts  of memory.  However, if you have	many millions of files
	      in a transfer, a large amount of server memory,  and  you	 don't
	      want  to split up	your transfer into multiple parts, you can in-
	      crease the per-allocation	limit to something  larger  and	 rsync
	      will consume more	memory.

	      Keep in mind that	this is	not a limit on the total size of allo-
	      cated memory.  It	is a sanity-check value	 for  each  individual

	      See  the	--max-size option for a	description of how SIZE	can be
	      specified.  The default suffix if	none is	given is bytes.

	      Beginning	in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

	      You can set a  default  value  using  the	 environment  variable
	      RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC  using the same SIZE values as supported by this
	      option.  If the remote rsync doesn't understand the  --max-alloc
	      option,  you  can	 override an environmental value by specifying
	      --max-alloc=1g, which will make rsync avoid sending  the	option
	      to the remote side (because "1G" is the default).

       --block-size=SIZE, -B
	      This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
	      rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected	based  on  the
	      size  of	each file being	updated.  See the technical report for

	      Beginning	in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with	 a  suffix  as
	      detailed in the --max-size option.  Older	versions only accepted
	      a	byte count.

       --rsh=COMMAND, -e
	      This option allows you to	choose	an  alternative	 remote	 shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and	remote
	      copies of	rsync.	Typically, rsync is configured to use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on	a local	network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will	be used	to run an rsync	daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and all data will be transmitted through that re-
	      mote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket  con-
	      nection  to  a running rsync daemon on the remote	host.  See the
	      tion above.

	      Beginning	 with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable
	      will be set when a daemon	connection is being made via a remote-
	      shell  connection.  It is	set to 0 if the	default	daemon port is
	      being assumed, or	it is set to the value of the rsync port  that
	      was  specified  via either the --port option or a	non-empty port
	      value in an rsync:// URL.	 This allows the script	to discern  if
	      a	 non-default port is being requested, allowing for things such
	      as an SSL	or stunnel helper script to connect to	a  default  or
	      alternate	port.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single	 argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not	tabs or	other whitespace) to separate the com-
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to	 preserve spaces in an argument	(but not back-
	      slashes).	 Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
	      quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
	      quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes	rsync is parsing).  Some exam-

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h	%p"'

	      (Note that ssh users  can	 alternately  customize	 site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

	      See  also	the --blocking-io option which is affected by this op-

	      Use this to specify what program is to be	run on the remote  ma-
	      chine  to	 start-up  rsync.  Often used when rsync is not	in the
	      default	remote-shell's	 path	(e.g.	 --rsync-path=/usr/lo-
	      cal/bin/rsync).	Note  that  PROGRAM  is	run with the help of a
	      shell, so	it can be any program,	script,	 or  command  sequence
	      you'd  care to run, so long as it	does not corrupt the standard-
	      in & standard-out	that rsync is using to communicate.

	      One tricky example is to set a different	default	 directory  on
	      the  remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For in-

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       --remote-option=OPTION, -M
	      This option is used for more advanced situations where you  want
	      certain  effects to be limited to	one side of the	transfer only.
	      For instance, if you want	to pass	--log-file=FILE	and --fake-su-
	      per to the remote	system,	specify	it like	this:

		  rsync	-av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

	      If  you  want  to	have an	option affect only the local side of a
	      transfer when it normally	affects	both sides, send its  negation
	      to the remote side.  Like	this:

		  rsync	-av -x -M--no-x	src/ dest/

	      Be  cautious  using  this, as it is possible to toggle an	option
	      that will	cause rsync to have a different	idea about  what  data
	      to  expect next over the socket, and that	will make it fail in a
	      cryptic fashion.

	      Note that	you should use a separate -M option  for  each	remote
	      option  you want to pass.	 On older rsync	versions, the presence
	      of any spaces in the remote-option arg  could  cause  it	to  be
	      split  into  separate  remote args, but this requires the	use of
	      --old-args in a modern rsync.

	      When performing a	local transfer,	the "local" side is the	sender
	      and the "remote" side is the receiver.

	      Note some	versions of the	popt option-parsing library have a bug
	      in them that prevents you	from using an  adjacent	 arg  with  an
	      equal  in	 it  next  to  a  short	 option	 letter	(e.g. -M--log-
	      file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your	version	of  popt,  you
	      can use the version of popt that is included with	rsync.

       --cvs-exclude, -C
	      This  is a useful	shorthand for excluding	a broad	range of files
	      that you often don't want	to transfer between systems.  It  uses
	      a	 similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should	be ig-

	      The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following	 items
	      (these  initial items are	marked as perishable --	see the	FILTER
	      RULES section):

		  RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*	tags TAGS  .make.state
		  .nse_depinfo	*~  #*	.#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK	*.orig
		  *.rej	.del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so	*.exe *.Z  *.elc  *.ln
		  core .svn/ .git/ .hg/	.bzr/

	      then,  files  listed in a	$HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
	      and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment	variable  (all
	      cvsignore	names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file	is ignored if it is in the same	directory as a
	      .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If you're	combining -C with your own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that	these CVS excludes are appended	at the end of your own
	      rules, regardless	of where the -C	was  placed  on	 the  command-
	      line.  This makes	them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
	      ified explicitly.	 If you	want to	control	where  these  CVS  ex-
	      cludes  get inserted into	your filter rules, you should omit the
	      -C as a command-line option and use a combination	of --filter=:C
	      and  --filter=-C	(either	on your	command-line or	by putting the
	      ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter	file with your	other  rules).
	      The  first  option  turns	 on the	per-directory scanning for the
	      .cvsignore file.	The second option does a  one-time  import  of
	      the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       --filter=RULE, -f
	      This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
	      tain files from the list of files	to be  transferred.   This  is
	      most useful in combination with a	recursive transfer.

	      You  may use as many --filter options on the command line	as you
	      like to build up the list	of files to exclude.   If  the	filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the rule to rsync	as a single argument.	The  text  below  also
	      mentions	that  you  can	use an underscore to replace the space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		  --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
	      that have	been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use	 their
	      rules  to	 filter	the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
	      it is a shorthand	for this rule:

		  --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter  files	 themselves  from  the

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES  section for detailed information	on how
	      these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      specifies	an exclude rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.  This is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying -f'- PATTERN'.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to	the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  exclude patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	are ignored, as	are whole-line	comments  that
	      start with ';' or	'#' (filename rules that contain those charac-
	      ters are unaffected).

	      If a line	begins with "- " (dash,	space) or "+ " (plus,  space),
	      then  the	 type  of rule is being	explicitly specified as	an ex-
	      clude or an include (respectively).  Any rules  without  such  a
	      prefix are taken to be an	exclude.

	      If  a  line  consists of just "!", then the current filter rules
	      are cleared before adding	any further rules.

	      If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      specifies	an include rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.  This is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying -f'+ PATTERN'.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to	the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  include patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	are ignored, as	are whole-line	comments  that
	      start with ';' or	'#' (filename rules that contain those charac-
	      ters are unaffected).

	      If a line	begins with "- " (dash,	space) or "+ " (plus,  space),
	      then  the	 type  of rule is being	explicitly specified as	an ex-
	      clude or an include (respectively).  Any rules  without  such  a
	      prefix are taken to be an	include.

	      If  a  line  consists of just "!", then the current filter rules
	      are cleared before adding	any further rules.

	      If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

	      Using this option	allows you to specify the exact	list of	 files
	      to transfer (as read from	the specified FILE or '-' for standard
	      input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
	      transferring just	the specified files and	directories easier:

	      o	     The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
		     the path information that is specified for	each  item  in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The --dirs	(-d) option is implied,	which will create  di-
		     rectories specified in the	list on	the destination	rather
		     than noisily skipping them	(use --no-dirs	or  --no-d  if
		     you want to turn that off).

	      o	     The --archive (-a)	option's behavior does not imply --re-
		     cursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if	you want it.

	      o	     These side-effects	change the default state of rsync,  so
		     the  position  of the --files-from	option on the command-
		     line has no bearing on how	other options are parsed (e.g.
		     -a	 works	the same before	or after --files-from, as does
		     --no-R and	all other options).

	      The filenames that are read from the FILE	are  all  relative  to
	      the  source  dir --  any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
	      references are allowed to	go higher than the  source  dir.   For
	      example, take this command:

		  rsync	-a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

	      If  /tmp/foo  contains  the  string  "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
	      /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin	on the	remote
	      host.   If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the im-
	      mediate contents of the directory	would also  be	sent  (without
	      needing  to be explicitly	mentioned in the file -- this began in
	      version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r	 option	 was  enabled,
	      that  dir's  entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in
	      mind that	-r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since it is not implied by -a.  Also note	that the effect	of the
	      (enabled by default) -r option is	to  duplicate  only  the  path
	      info  that is read from the file -- it does not force the	dupli-
	      cation of	the source-spec	path (/usr in this case).

	      In addition, the --files-from file can be	read from  the	remote
	      host instead of the local	host if	you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a	prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the	transfer".  For	example:

		  rsync	-a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This would copy all the files specified in  the  /path/file-list
	      file that	was located on the remote "src"	host.

	      If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
	      --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the	sending	host's charset
	      to the receiving host's charset.

	      NOTE: sorting the	list of	files in the --files-from input	 helps
	      rsync  to	 be  more  efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the
	      path elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If  the
	      input  is	 not  sorted, some path	elements (implied directories)
	      may end up being scanned multiple	times, and rsync will  eventu-
	      ally  unduplicate	them after they	get turned into	file-list ele-

       --from0,	-0
	      This tells rsync that the	rules/filenames	it reads from  a  file
	      are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL,	CR, or
	      CR+LF.  This affects  --exclude-from,  --include-from,  --files-
	      from,  and  any  merged  files specified in a --filter rule.  It
	      does not affect --cvs-exclude  (since  all  names	 read  from  a
	      .cvsignore file are split	on whitespace).

	      This option tells	rsync to stop trying to	protect	the arg	values
	      on the remote side from unintended word-splitting	or other  mis-

	      The  default  in a modern	rsync is for "shell-active" characters
	      (including spaces) to be backslash-escaped in the	args that  are
	      sent  to the remote shell.  The wildcard characters *, ?,	[, & ]
	      are not escaped in filename args (allowing them to  expand  into
	      multiple	filenames)  while being	protected in option args, such
	      as --usermap.

	      If you have a script that	wants to use old-style	arg  splitting
	      in its filenames,	specify	this option once.  If the remote shell
	      has a problem with any backslash escapes at  all,	 specify  this
	      option twice.

	      You  may	also control this setting via the RSYNC_OLD_ARGS envi-
	      ronment variable.	 If it has the value "1", rsync	 will  default
	      to  a single-option setting.  If it has the value	"2" (or	more),
	      rsync will default to a repeated-option setting.	If it is  "0",
	      you'll  get  the	default	escaping behavior.  The	environment is
	      always overridden	by manually specified positive or negative op-
	      tions (the negative is --no-old-args).

	      Note that	this option also disables the extra safety check added
	      in 3.2.5 that ensures that a remote sender isn't including extra
	      top-level	 items in the file-list	that you didn't	request.  This
	      side-effect is necessary because we can't	 know  for  sure  what
	      names to expect when the remote shell is interpreting the	args.

	      This option conflicts with the --protect-args option.

       --protect-args, -s
	      This  option  sends all filenames	and most options to the	remote
	      rsync without allowing  the  remote  shell  to  interpret	 them.
	      Wildcards	 are  expanded	on the remote host by rsync instead of
	      the shell	doing it.

	      This is similar to the new-style backslash-escaping of args that
	      was added	in 3.2.4, but supports some extra features and doesn't
	      rely on backslash	escaping in the	remote shell.

	      If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the re-
	      mote  side  will also be translated from the local to the	remote
	      character-set.  The translation happens  before  wild-cards  are
	      expanded.	 See also the --files-from option.

	      You may also control this	setting	via the	RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS en-
	      vironment	variable.  If it has a non-zero	 value,	 this  setting
	      will be enabled by default, otherwise it will be disabled	by de-
	      fault.  Either state is overridden by a manually specified posi-
	      tive  or	negative  version of this option (note that --no-s and
	      --no-protect-args	are the	negative versions).  This  environment
	      variable is also superseded by a non-zero	RSYNC_OLD_ARGS export.

	      You  may	need  to  disable this option when interacting with an
	      older rsync (one prior to	3.0.0).

	      This option conflicts with the --old-args	option.

	      Note that	this option is incompatible with the use  of  the  re-
	      stricted	rsync  script (rrsync) since it	hides options from the
	      script's inspection.

	      This option disables two extra validation	checks	that  a	 local
	      client  performs	on the file list generated by a	remote sender.
	      This option should only be used if you trust the sender  to  not
	      put  something  malicious	in the file list (something that could
	      possibly be done via a modified rsync, a modified	shell, or some
	      other similar manipulation).

	      Normally,	 the rsync client (as of version 3.2.5)	runs two extra
	      validation checks	when pulling files from	a remote rsync:

	      o	     It	verifies that additional arg items didn't get added at
		     the top of	the transfer.

	      o	     It	 verifies  that	none of	the items in the file list are
		     names that	should have been  excluded  (if	 filter	 rules
		     were specified).

	      Note  that  various  options  can	 turn off one or both of these
	      checks if	the option interferes with the	validation.   For  in-

	      o	     Using a per-directory filter file reads filter rules that
		     only the server knows about, so the  filter  checking  is

	      o	     Using  the	--old-args option allows the sender to manipu-
		     late the requested	args, so the arg checking is disabled.

	      o	     Reading the files-from list from the  server  side	 means
		     that  the	client	doesn't	 know the arg list, so the arg
		     checking is disabled.

	      o	     Using --read-batch	disables both checks since  the	 batch
		     file's  contents will have	been verified when it was cre-

	      This option may help an under-powered client server if the extra
	      pattern  matching	is slowing things down on a huge transfer.  It
	      can also be used to work around a	currently-unknown bug  in  the
	      verification logic for a transfer	from a trusted sender.

	      When  using this option it is a good idea	to specify a dedicated
	      destination directory, as	discussed in the  MULTI-HOST  SECURITY

	      This  option  instructs  rsync to	use the	USER and (if specified
	      after a colon) the GROUP for the	copy  operations.   This  only
	      works  if	 the  user  that  is  running rsync has	the ability to
	      change users.  If	the group is not specified then	the user's de-
	      fault groups are used.

	      This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being	run as
	      root into	or out of a directory that  might  have	 live  changes
	      happening	 to  it	and you	want to	make sure that root-level read
	      or write actions of system files are not	possible.   While  you
	      could  alternatively  run	 all  of  rsync	as the specified user,
	      sometimes	you need the root-level	host-access credentials	to  be
	      used,  so	this allows rsync to drop root for the copying part of
	      the operation after the remote-shell or daemon connection	is es-

	      The  option  only	 affects  one  side of the transfer unless the
	      transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides.  Use the
	      --remote-option  to  affect  the	remote side, such as -M--copy-
	      as=joe.  For a local transfer, the lsh (or support  file
	      provides a local-shell helper script that	can be used to allow a
	      "localhost:" or "lh:" host-spec to be specified without  needing
	      to  setup	 any remote shells, allowing you to specify remote op-
	      tions that affect	the side of the	transfer  that	is  using  the
	      host-spec	 (and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding	of the
	      remote directory to the user's home dir).

	      For example, the following rsync writes the local	files as  user

		  sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe	host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

	      This  makes  all files owned by user "joe", limits the groups to
	      those that are available to that user, and makes	it  impossible
	      for  the	joe user to do a timed exploit of the path to induce a
	      change to	a file that the	joe user has no	permissions to change.

	      The following command does a local copy into the "dest/" dir  as
	      user  "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh into a	dir on
	      your $PATH):

		  sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/

       --temp-dir=DIR, -T
	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR as	 a  scratch  directory
	      when  creating  temporary	copies of the files transferred	on the
	      receiving	side.  The default behavior is to create  each	tempo-
	      rary  file  in  the same directory as the	associated destination
	      file.  Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the  temp-file	 names	inside
	      the specified DIR	will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
	      they will	still have a random suffix added).

	      This option is most often	used when the receiving	disk partition
	      does  not	 have  enough free space to hold a copy	of the largest
	      file in the transfer.  In	this case (i.e.	when the  scratch  di-
	      rectory  is  on  a  different disk partition), rsync will	not be
	      able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
	      associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
	      place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
	      destination  file,  which	 means	that the destination file will
	      contain truncated	data during this copy.	If this	were not  done
	      this  way	 (even if the destination file were first removed, the
	      data locally copied to a temporary file in the  destination  di-
	      rectory,	and  then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if	someone	had it
	      open),  and  thus	 there might not be enough room	to fit the new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
	      of  disk	space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay-up-
	      dates option, which will ensure that all copied  files  get  put
	      into  subdirectories  in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
	      end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate
	      all the arriving files on	the destination	partition, another way
	      to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk	 space
	      is to use	the --partial-dir option with a	relative path; because
	      this tells rsync that it is OK to	stash off a copy of  a	single
	      file  in	a  subdir in the destination hierarchy,	rsync will use
	      the partial-dir as a staging area	to bring over the copied file,
	      and  then	 rename	it into	place from there. (Specifying a	--par-
	      tial-dir with an absolute	path does not have this	side-effect.)

       --fuzzy,	-y
	      This option tells	rsync that it should look for a	basis file for
	      any  destination	file  that  is missing.	 The current algorithm
	      looks in the same	directory as the destination file for either a
	      file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
	      larly-named file.	 If found, rsync uses the fuzzy	basis file  to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      If  the  option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
	      any matching alternate destination directories that  are	speci-
	      fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

	      Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might	get rid	of any
	      potential	fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This  option  instructs  rsync to	use DIR	on the destination ma-
	      chine as an additional hierarchy to  compare  destination	 files
	      against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the	desti-
	      nation directory).  If a file is found in	DIR that is  identical
	      to  the  sender's	 file, the file	will NOT be transferred	to the
	      destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a	sparse
	      backup  of  just files that have changed from an earlier backup.
	      This option is typically used to copy into an  empty  (or	 newly
	      created) directory.

	      Beginning	 in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
	      may be provided, which will cause	rsync to search	 the  list  in
	      the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a	match is found
	      that differs only	in attributes, a local copy is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync	 will  remove  a  file
	      from  a  non-empty  destination  hierarchy  if an	exact match is
	      found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end re-
	      sult more	closely	match a	fresh copy).

	      This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
	      copy unchanged files found in DIR	to the	destination  directory
	      using a local copy.  This	is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination while	leaving	existing files intact, and then	 doing
	      a	 flash-cutover	when  all  files have been successfully	trans-

	      Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be	provided,  which  will
	      cause rsync to search the	list in	the order specified for	an un-
	      changed file.  If	a match	is not found, a	basis file from	one of
	      the DIRs will be selected	to try to speed	up the transfer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --link-dest.

	      This option behaves like --copy-dest, but	 unchanged  files  are
	      hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
	      must be identical	in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly	ownership)  in	order  for  the	files to be linked to-
	      gether.  An example:

		  rsync	-av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If files aren't linking, double-check  their  attributes.	  Also
	      check  if	 some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
	      control, such a mount option that	 squishes  root	 to  a	single
	      user,  or	 mounts	a removable drive with generic ownership (such
	      as OS X's	"Ignore	ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to	search the list	in the
	      order specified for an exact match (there	is a limit of 20  such
	      directories).   If  a  match  is	found that differs only	in at-
	      tributes,	a local	copy is	made and the attributes	updated.  If a
	      match  is	 not  found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be
	      selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      This option works	best when copying into	an  empty  destination
	      hierarchy,  as  existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
	      and that can affect alternate destination	files via  hard-links.
	      Also,  itemizing	of  changes  can get a bit muddled.  Note that
	      prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
	      never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
	      tion file	already	exists.

	      Note that	if you combine this option with	--ignore-times,	 rsync
	      will not link any	files together because it only links identical
	      files together as	a substitute for transferring the file,	 never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --copy-dest.

	      Note that	rsync versions prior to	2.6.1 had  a  bug  that	 could
	      prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a	non-super-user
	      when --owner (-o)	was specified (or  implied).   You  can	 work-
	      around this bug by avoiding the -o option	(or using --no-o) when
	      sending to an old	rsync.

       --compress, -z
	      With this	option,	rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
	      to the destination machine, which	reduces	the amount of data be-
	      ing transmitted -- something that	is useful over a slow  connec-

	      Rsync  supports multiple compression methods and will choose one
	      for you unless you force the choice using	the  --compress-choice
	      (--zc) option.

	      Run  rsync --version  to	see the	default	compress list compiled
	      into your	version.

	      When both	sides of  the  transfer	 are  at  least	 3.2.0,	 rsync
	      chooses the first	algorithm in the client's list of choices that
	      is also in the server's list of choices.	If no common  compress
	      choice is	found, rsync exits with	an error.  If the remote rsync
	      is too old to support checksum negotiation, its list is  assumed
	      to be "zlib".

	      The  default  order can be customized by setting the environment
	      variable RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST to a	space-separated	 list  of  ac-
	      ceptable	compression names.  If the string contains a "&" char-
	      acter, it	is separated into the "client string & server string",
	      otherwise	 the  same  string applies to both.  If	the string (or
	      string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters,  the  de-
	      fault  compress list is used.  Any unknown compression names are
	      discarded	from the list, but a list with only invalid names  re-
	      sults in a failed	negotiation.

	      There  are some older rsync versions that	were configured	to re-
	      ject a -z	option and require the use of -zz because  their  com-
	      pression	library	 was not compatible with the default zlib com-
	      pression method.	You can	usually	ignore this  weirdness	unless
	      the rsync	server complains and tells you to specify -zz.

       --compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
	      This option can be used to override the automatic	negotiation of
	      the compression algorithm	that occurs when --compress  is	 used.
	      The option implies --compress unless "none" was specified, which
	      instead implies --no-compress.

	      The compression options that you may be able to use are:

	      o	     zstd

	      o	     lz4

	      o	     zlibx

	      o	     zlib

	      o	     none

	      Run rsync	--version to see the default  compress	list  compiled
	      into your	version	(which may differ from the list	above).

	      Note  that  if you see an	error about an option named --old-com-
	      press or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send the	--com-
	      press-choice=zlib	 or  --compress-choice=zlibx option in a back-
	      ward-compatible manner  that  more  rsync	 versions  understand.
	      This  error indicates that the older rsync version on the	server
	      will not allow you to force the compression type.

	      Note that	the "zlibx" compression	algorithm is just  the	"zlib"
	      algorithm	with matched data excluded from	the compression	stream
	      (to try to make it more compatible with an external zlib	imple-

       --compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
	      Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z)
	      instead of letting it default.  The --compress option is implied
	      as  long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress" level for
	      the compression algorithm	that is	in effect (e.g.	zlib  compres-
	      sion treats level	0 as "off").

	      The  level values	vary depending on the checksum in effect.  Be-
	      cause rsync will negotiate a checksum choice  by	default	 (when
	      the  remote rsync	is new enough),	it can be good to combine this
	      option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option unless you're sure
	      of the choice in effect.	For example:

		  rsync	-aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

	      For  zlib	 &  zlibx compression the valid	values are from	1 to 9
	      with 6 being the default.	 Specifying --zl=0  turns  compression
	      off, and specifying --zl=-1 chooses the default level of 6.

	      For  zstd	 compression  the  valid values	are from -131072 to 22
	      with 3 being the default.	Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3.

	      For lz4 compression there	are no levels, so the value is	always

	      If  you  specify	a  too-large or	too-small value, the number is
	      silently limited to a valid value.  This allows you  to  specify
	      something	 like --zl=999999999 and be assured that you'll	end up
	      with the maximum compression level no matter what	algorithm  was

	      If  you  want  to	 know the compression level that is in effect,
	      specify --debug=nstr to see  the	"negotiated  string"  results.
	      This     will	report	   something	 like	  "Client com-
	      press: zstd (level 3)" (along with the checksum  choice  in  ef-

	      NOTE: no compression method currently supports per-file compres-
	      sion changes, so this option has no effect.

	      Override the list	of file	suffixes that will  be	compressed  as
	      little  as possible.  Rsync sets the compression level on	a per-
	      file basis based on the file's suffix.  If the compression algo-
	      rithm  has  an "off" level, then no compression occurs for those
	      files.  Other algorithms that  support  changing	the  streaming
	      level  on-the-fly	 will  have the	level minimized	to reduces the
	      CPU usage	as much	as possible for	a matching file.

	      The LIST should be one or	more file suffixes (without  the  dot)
	      separated	 by  slashes  (/).  You	may specify an empty string to
	      indicate that no files should be skipped.

	      Simple character-class matching is supported: each must  consist
	      of a list	of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are	supported, and '-' has no spe-
	      cial meaning).

	      The  characters  asterisk	(*) and	question-mark (?) have no spe-
	      cial meaning.

	      Here's an	example	that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1  of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


	      The default file suffixes	in the skip-compress list in this ver-
	      sion of rsync are:

		  3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv  gpg
		  gz iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v
		  m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg
		  mpv  mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv ogx
		  opus otg oth otp ots ott oxt png qt  rar  rpm	 rz  rzip  spx
		  squashfs  sxc	sxd sxg	sxm sxw	sz tbz tbz2 tgz	tlz ts txz tzo
		  vob war webm webp xz z zip zst

	      This list	will be	replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
	      but  one	situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
	      skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
	      list may be configured to	a different default).

	      With  this option	rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
	      rather than using	user and group names and mapping them at  both

	      By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to	deter-
	      mine what	ownership to give files.  The special uid  0  and  the
	      special  group  0	 are never mapped via user/group names even if
	      the --numeric-ids	option is not specified.

	      If a user	or group has no	name on	the source system or it	has no
	      match  on	 the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
	      source system is used instead.  See also the use chroot  setting
	      in  the  rsyncd.conf manpage for some comments on	how the	chroot
	      setting affects rsync's ability to look  up  the	names  of  the
	      users and	groups and what	you can	do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
	      These  options allow you to specify users	and groups that	should
	      be mapped	to other values	by the receiving side.	The STRING  is
	      one  or  more  FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any
	      matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO	 value
	      from  the	 receiver.   You may specify usernames or user IDs for
	      the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be  a	 wild-
	      card  string,  which  will be matched against the	sender's names
	      (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers,  though  see	 below
	      for  why	a  '*' matches everything).  You may instead specify a
	      range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For exam-

		  --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

	      The first	match in the list is the one that is used.  You	should
	      specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap  option,
	      and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

	      Note  that  the  sender's	 name for the 0	user and group are not
	      transmitted to the receiver, so you should  either  match	 these
	      values  using  a	0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
	      side (typically "root").	All other FROM names  match  those  in
	      use on the sending side.	All TO names match those in use	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are  treated
	      as  having  an empty name	for the	purpose	of matching.  This al-
	      lows them	to be matched via a "*"	or using an empty  name.   For

		  --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

	      When  the	--numeric-ids option is	used, the sender does not send
	      any names, so all	the IDs	are treated as having an  empty	 name.
	      This  means that you will	need to	specify	numeric	FROM values if
	      you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

	      For the --usermap	option to work,	the receiver will need	to  be
	      running  as  a super-user	(see also the --super and --fake-super
	      options).	 For the --groupmap option to work, the	receiver  will
	      need to have permissions to set that group.

	      Starting	with  rsync  3.2.4,  the  --usermap option implies the
	      --owner (-o) option while	 the  --groupmap  option  implies  the
	      --group (-g) option (since rsync needs to	have those options en-
	      abled for	the mapping options to work).

	      An older rsync client may	need to	 use  --protect-args  (-s)  to
	      avoid  a complaint about wildcard	characters, but	a modern rsync
	      handles this automatically.

	      This option forces all files to be  owned	 by  USER  with	 group
	      GROUP.   This  is	 a  simpler  interface	than using --usermap &
	      --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using	those  options
	      internally so they cannot	be mixed.  If either the USER or GROUP
	      is empty,	no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.   If
	      GROUP  is	 empty,	the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER
	      is empty,	a leading colon	must be	supplied.

	      If you specify "--chown=foo:bar",	this is	exactly	 the  same  as
	      specifying  "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier (and
	      with the same implied --owner and/or --group options).

	      An older rsync client may	need to	 use  --protect-args  (-s)  to
	      avoid  a complaint about wildcard	characters, but	a modern rsync
	      handles this automatically.

	      This option allows you to	set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
	      If no data is transferred	for the	specified time then rsync will
	      exit.  The default is 0, which means no timeout.

	      This option allows you to	set the	amount of time that rsync will
	      wait  for	 its connection	to an rsync daemon to succeed.	If the
	      timeout is reached, rsync	exits with an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when connect-
	      ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The	--address option allows	you to
	      specify a	specific IP address (or	hostname) to bind to.

	      See also the daemon version of the --address option.

	      This specifies an	alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
	      the  default  of	873.  This is only needed if you are using the
	      double-colon (::)	syntax to connect with an rsync	daemon	(since
	      the  URL	syntax	has a way to specify the port as a part	of the

	      See also the daemon version of the --port	option.

	      This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
	      their  systems  to  the utmost degree.  You can set all sorts of
	      socket options which may make  transfers	faster	(or  slower!).
	      Read the manpage for the setsockopt() system call	for details on
	      some of the options you may be able to set.  By default no  spe-
	      cial  socket  options  are set.  This only affects direct	socket
	      connections to a remote rsync daemon.

	      See also the daemon version of the --sockopts option.

	      This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a	remote
	      shell  transport.	  If  the remote shell is either rsh or	remsh,
	      rsync defaults to	using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
	      using  non-blocking  I/O.	 (Note	that  ssh prefers non-blocking

	      This sets	the output buffering mode.  The	mode can be None  (aka
	      Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
	      tle as a single letter for the mode,  and	 use  upper  or	 lower

	      The  main	use of this option is to change	Full buffering to Line
	      buffering	when rsync's output is going to	a file or pipe.

       --itemize-changes, -i
	      Requests a simple	itemized list of the changes  that  are	 being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only	if the
	      receiving	rsync is at least version 2.6.7	(you can use -vv  with
	      older  versions  of  rsync, but that also	turns on the output of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that	is  11	letters	 long.
	      The  general  format is like the string YXcstpoguaxf, where Y is
	      replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
	      file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
	      be output	if they	are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the	Y are as follows:

	      o	     A < means that a file is being transferred	to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A	>  means that a	file is	being transferred to the local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A c means that a local change/creation is	occurring  for
		     the  item	(such  as  the	creation of a directory	or the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A h means that the	item is	a hard link  to	 another  item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A	.  means that the item is not being updated (though it
		     might have	attributes that	are being modified).

	      o	     A * means that the	rest of	the itemized-output area  con-
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The  file-types  that replace the	X are: f for a file, a d for a
	      directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S	for  a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The  other  letters in the string	indicate if some attributes of
	      the file have changed, as	follows:

	      o	     "." - the attribute is unchanged.

	      o	     "+" - the file is newly created.

	      o	     " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn  to

	      o	     "?"  -  the  change  is unknown (when the remote rsync is

	      o	     A letter indicates	an attribute is	being updated.

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter	is as follows:

	      o	     A c means either that a  regular  file  has  a  different
		     checksum (requires	--checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or	special	file has a changed value.  Note	 that  if  you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this	change
		     flag will be present only for checksum-differing  regular

	      o	     A	s  means  the  size of a regular file is different and
		     will be updated by	the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification	time is	different and is being
		     updated to	the sender's value (requires --times).	An al-
		     ternate value of T	means that the modification time  will
		     be	 set  to  the  transfer	 time,	which  happens	when a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and	when a
		     symlink  is  changed and the receiver can't set its time.
		     (Note: when using an rsync	3.0.0 client,  you  might  see
		     the  s  flag combined with	t instead of the proper	T flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A p means the permissions are different and are being up-
		     dated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An	o means	the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --owner and super-user priv-

	      o	     A	g means	the group is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).


		     o	    A u|n|b indicates the following information:

			    u  means the access	(use) time is different	and is
			    being updated  to  the  sender's  value  (requires

		     o	    n means the	create time (newness) is different and
			    is being updated to	the sender's  value  (requires

		     o	    b  means that both the access and create times are
			    being updated

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

	      o	     The x means that the extended  attribute  information  is
		     being changed.

	      One other	output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will
	      output the string	"*deleting" for	each item that	is  being  re-
	      moved  (assuming	that  you are talking to a recent enough rsync
	      that it logs deletions instead of	outputting them	as  a  verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync	client outputs
	      to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is	a text	string
	      containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.  A default format of "%n%L"	is as-
	      sumed  if	 either	--info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
	      just the name of the file	and, if	the item is a link,  where  it
	      points).	For a full list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the log format setting in	the rsyncd.conf	manpage.

	      Specifying the --out-format option implies the  --info=name  op-
	      tion,  which will	mention	each file, dir,	etc. that gets updated
	      in a significant way  (a	transferred  file,  a  recreated  sym-
	      link/device, or a	touched	directory).  In	addition, if the item-
	      ize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string	(e.g.  if  the
	      --itemize-changes	 option	 was  used),  the logging of names in-
	      creases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as  long
	      as  the  receiving  side is at least 2.6.4).  See	the --itemize-
	      changes option for a description of the output of	"%i".

	      Rsync will output	the out-format string prior to a file's	trans-
	      fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
	      in which case the	logging	is done	 at  the  end  of  the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late	logging	is in effect and --progress is
	      also specified, rsync will also output the name of the file  be-
	      ing  transferred prior to	its progress information (followed, of
	      course, by the out-format	output).

	      This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a	 file.
	      This  is	similar	 to the	logging	that a daemon does, but	can be
	      requested	for the	client side and/or the server side of  a  non-
	      daemon transfer.	If specified as	a client option, transfer log-
	      ging will	be enabled with	a default format of  "%i  %n%L".   See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's  an  example command that requests	the remote side	to log
	      what is happening:

		  rsync	-av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

	      This is very useful if you need to debug	why  a	connection  is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      See also the daemon version of the --log-file option.

	      This  allows  you	 to specify exactly what per-update logging is
	      put into the file	specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also  be	specified for this option to have any effect).	If you
	      specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
	      the log file.  For a list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the log format setting in	the rsyncd.conf	manpage.

	      The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this  op-
	      tion is not is '%i %n%L'.

	      See also the daemon version of the --log-file-format option.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics	on the
	      file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective	rsync's	delta-
	      transfer	algorithm is for your data.  This option is equivalent
	      to --info=stats2	if  combined  with  0  or  1  -v  options,  or
	      --info=stats3 if combined	with 2 or more -v options.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number of files  is  the  count  of  all  "files" (in the
		     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
		     etc.   The	 total	count  will  be	 followed by a list of
		     counts by filetype	(if the	total is non-zero).  For exam-
		     ple:  "(reg:  5,  dir:  3,	 link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)"
		     lists the totals for  regular  files,  directories,  sym-
		     links, devices, and special files.	 If any	of value is 0,
		     it	is completely omitted from the list.

	      o	     Number of created files is	the count of how many  "files"
		     (generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
		     The total count will be followed by a list	of  counts  by
		     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

	      o	     Number of deleted files  is the count of how many "files"
		     (generic sense) were deleted.  The	total  count  will  be
		     followed by a list	of counts by filetype (if the total is
		     non-zero).	 Note that this	line is	only output  if	 dele-
		     tions  are	 in  effect,  and only if protocol 31 is being
		     used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

	      o	     Number of regular files transferred is the	count of  nor-
		     mal  files	 that  were updated via	rsync's	delta-transfer
		     algorithm,	which does not include	dirs,  symlinks,  etc.
		     Note  that	rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

	      o	     Total file	size is	the total sum of all file sizes	in the
		     transfer.	 This  does not	count any size for directories
		     or	special	files, but does	include	the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the	total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the	transferred files.

	      o	     Literal data  is  how  much unmatched file-update data we
		     had to send to the	receiver for it	to  recreate  the  up-
		     dated files.

	      o	     Matched data  is  how  much data the receiver got locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory size for	the file list due to some  compressing
		     of	duplicated data	when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File list generation time	is  the	number of seconds that
		     the sender	spent creating the file	list.  This requires a
		     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer	time is	the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list	to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received  is  the  count  of  all non-message
		     bytes that	rsync received by the  client  side  from  the
		     server  side.  "Non-message"  bytes  means	 that we don't
		     count the bytes for a verbose  message  that  the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       --8-bit-output, -8
	      This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
	      the output instead of trying to test  them  to  see  if  they're
	      valid  in	the current locale and escaping	the invalid ones.  All
	      control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,  regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7	is to output a literal
	      backslash	(\) and	a hash (#), followed by	exactly	3  octal  dig-
	      its.  For	example, a newline would output	as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash	that is	in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       --human-readable, -h
	      Output  numbers  in  a  more human-readable format.  There are 3
	      possible levels:

	      1.     output numbers with a separator between  each  set	 of  3
		     digits  (either  a	comma or a period, depending on	if the
		     decimal point is represented by a period or a comma).

	      2.     output numbers in units of	1000 (with a character	suffix
		     for larger	units -- see below).

	      3.     output numbers in units of	1024.

	      The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
	      the level	by one.	 You can take the level	down to	0  (to	output
	      numbers  as  pure	 digits) by specifying the --no-human-readable
	      (--no-h) option.

	      The unit letters that are	appended in levels  2  and  3  are:  K
	      (kilo), M	(mega),	G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For example,
	      a	1234567-byte file would	output as 1.23M	in  level-2  (assuming
	      that a period is your local decimal point).

	      Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do
	      not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0.
	      Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a compara-
	      ble manner in old	and new	versions as long as you	didn't specify
	      a	 --no-h	 option	 prior	to  one	 or  more -h options.  See the
	      --list-only option for one difference.

	      By default, rsync	will delete any	partially transferred file  if
	      the  transfer  is	interrupted.  In some circumstances it is more
	      desirable	to keep	partially transferred files.  Using the	--par-
	      tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which	should
	      make a subsequent	transfer of the	rest of	the file much faster.

	      This option modifies the behavior	of the --partial option	 while
	      also  implying  that  it be enabled.  This enhanced partial-file
	      method puts any partially	transferred files into	the  specified
	      DIR  instead  of writing the partial file	out to the destination
	      file.  On	the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this
	      dir  as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then
	      delete it	after it has served its	purpose.

	      Note that	if --whole-file	is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
	      tial-dir	files  that are	found for a file that is being updated
	      will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without us-
	      ing rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync  will  create  the DIR if it is missing, but just the last
	      dir -- not the whole path.  This makes it	easy to	use a relative
	      path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync cre-
	      ate the partial-directory	in the	destination  file's  directory
	      when  it	is  needed,  and then remove it	again when the partial
	      file is deleted.	Note that this directory removal is only  done
	      for a relative pathname, as it is	expected that an absolute path
	      is to a directory	that is	reserved for partial-dir work.

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path,	rsync will add
	      an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files	that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An	 example:  the
	      above  --partial-dir  option  would  add	the equivalent of this
	      "perishable" exclude at the  end	of  any	 other	filter	rules:
	      -f '-p .rsync-partial/'

	      If you are supplying your	own exclude rules, you may need	to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because:

	      1.     the auto-added rule may be	ineffective at the end of your
		     other rules, or

	      2.     you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice.

	      For  instance,  if you want to make rsync	clean-up any left-over
	      partial-dirs that	 may  be  lying	 around,  you  should  specify
	      --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R .rsync-
	      partial/'. Avoid using --delete-before or	--delete-during	unless
	      you  don't  need	rsync  to use any of the left-over partial-dir
	      data during the current run.

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by	 other
	      users or it is a security	risk!  E.g. AVOID "/tmp"!

	      You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR en-
	      vironment	variable.  Setting this	in the	environment  does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
	      tial files go when --partial is specified.   For	instance,  in-
	      stead  of	 using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp	along with --progress,
	      you could	set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then	use the	-P option to turn on the use of	the .rsync-tmp
	      dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that	the  --partial
	      option does not look for this environment	value are:

	      1.     when  --inplace  was specified (since --inplace conflicts
		     with --partial-dir), and

	      2.     when --delay-updates was specified	(see below).

	      When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in  the  par-
	      tial-dir,	 that  partial file is now updated in-place instead of
	      creating yet another tmp-file copy (so it	maxes out  at  dest  +
	      tmp  instead  of dest + partial +	tmp).  This requires both ends
	      of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0.

	      For the purposes of the  daemon-config's	"refuse	options"  set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so	that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to	 disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files	with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a	holding	directory until	the end	of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are	renamed	into place in rapid succession.	  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in
	      each  file's  destination	directory, but if you've specified the
	      --partial-dir option, that directory will	be used	instead.   See
	      the  comments  in	 the --partial-dir section for a discussion of
	      how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from	the transfer, and what
	      you  can	do  if	you want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that
	      might be lying around.  Conflicts	with --inplace and --append.

	      This option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs  the  full
	      file  list  in  memory in	order to be able to iterate over it at
	      the end.

	      This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit  per
	      file  transferred)  and  also requires enough free disk space on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.   Note  also  that	you should not use an absolute path to
	      --partial-dir unless:

	      1.     there is no chance	of any of the files  in	 the  transfer
		     having the	same name (since all the updated files will be
		     put into a	single directory if the	path is	absolute), and

	      2.     there are no mount	points in the hierarchy	(since the de-
		     layed  updates  will  fail	 if they can't be renamed into

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" python script	in the "support"  sub-
	      dir  for	an  update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses
	      --link-dest and a	parallel hierarchy of files).

       --prune-empty-dirs, -m
	      This option tells	the receiving rsync to get rid of empty	direc-
	      tories  from  the	 file-list,  including nested directories that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation	of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
	      rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy	 of  files  using  in-
	      clude/exclude/filter rules.

	      This  option  can	still leave empty directories on the receiving
	      side if you make use of TRANSFER_RULES.

	      Because the file-list is actually	being pruned, this option also
	      affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
	      However, keep in mind that excluded files	 and  directories  can
	      prevent existing items from being	deleted	due to an exclude both
	      hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
	      perishable filter-rule option for	how to avoid this.

	      You  can	prevent	 the pruning of	certain	empty directories from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect"	filter.	 For instance,
	      this  option would ensure	that the directory "emptydir" was kept
	      in the file-list:

		  --filter 'protect emptydir/'

	      Here's an	example	that copies all	.pdf  files  in	 a  hierarchy,
	      only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
	      .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
	      ries  in	the  destination  are removed (note the	hide filter of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

		  rsync	-avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f	'hide,!	*/' src/ dest

	      If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
	      more  time-honored options of --include='*/' --exclude='*' would
	      work fine	in place of the	hide-filter (if	that is	 more  natural
	      to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress of the transfer.	 This gives a bored user something  to
	      watch.   With  a	modern	rsync  this  is	the same as specifying
	      --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings  for
	      those	 info	   flags      takes	 precedence	 (e.g.
	      --info=flist0 --progress).

	      While rsync  is  transferring  a	regular	 file,	it  updates  a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		  782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In  this example,	the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
	      63% of the sender's file,	which is being reconstructed at	a rate
	      of  110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer	will finish in
	      4	seconds	if the current rate is maintained until	the end.

	      These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer al-
	      gorithm  is  in use.  For	example, if the	sender's file consists
	      of the basis file	followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will  probably  drop  dramatically when the receiver gets	to the
	      literal data, and	the transfer will probably take	much longer to
	      finish  than  the	 receiver  estimated  as  it was finishing the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When the file transfer finishes,	rsync  replaces	 the  progress
	      line with	a summary line that looks like this:

		  1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s	0:00:08	 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

	      In this example, the file	was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per  second  over	the 8 seconds that it took to complete,	it was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during	the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and	there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396  to-
	      tal files	in the file-list.

	      In  an  incremental  recursion  scan, rsync won't	know the total
	      number of	files in the file-list until it	reaches	 the  ends  of
	      the scan,	but since it starts to transfer	files during the scan,
	      it will display a	line with the text "ir-chk"  (for  incremental
	      recursion	 check)	 instead  of  "to-chk" until the point that it
	      knows the	full size of the list, at which	point it  will	switch
	      to using "to-chk".  Thus,	seeing "ir-chk"	lets you know that the
	      total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
	      (and  each  time	it does, the count of files left to check will
	      increase by the number of	the files added	to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to "--partial	--progress".  Its pur-
	      pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
	      a	long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs  statistics
	      based  on	the whole transfer, rather than	individual files.  Use
	      this flag	without	outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or	 spec-
	      ify  --info=name0)  if you want to see how the transfer is doing
	      without scrolling	the screen with	a lot  of  names.  (You	 don't
	      need   to	  specify  the	--progress  option  in	order  to  use

	      Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync
	      a	signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.	On BSD systems,	a SIG-
	      INFO is generated	by typing a Ctrl+T  (Linux  doesn't  currently
	      support  a  SIGINFO  signal).   When the client-side process re-
	      ceives one of those signals, it sets a flag to output  a	single
	      progress	report	which is output	when the current file transfer
	      finishes (so it may take a little	time if	a big  file  is	 being
	      handled  when  the  signal  arrives).   A	filename is output (if
	      needed) followed by  the	--info=progress2  format  of  progress
	      info.   If  you don't know which of the 3	rsync processes	is the
	      client process, it's OK to signal	all of them  (since  the  non-
	      client processes ignore the signal).

	      CAUTION:	sending	 SIGVTALRM  to an older	rsync (pre-3.2.0) will
	      kill it.

	      This option allows you to	provide	a password  for	 accessing  an
	      rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
	      file should contain just the password on	the  first  line  (all
	      other lines are ignored).	 Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
	      is world readable	or if a	root-run rsync command	finds  a  non-
	      root-owned file.

	      This  option does	not supply a password to a remote shell	trans-
	      port such	as ssh;	to learn how to	do that,  consult  the	remote
	      shell's  documentation.	When accessing an rsync	daemon using a
	      remote shell as the transport, this option only comes  into  ef-
	      fect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if
	      you have also specified a	password in the	daemon's config	file).

	      This option allows rsync to send up to 5K	of data	to the	"early
	      exec"  script on its stdin.  One possible	use of this data is to
	      give the script a	secret that can	be used	to mount an  encrypted
	      filesystem (which	you should unmount in the the "post-xfer exec"

	      The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

	      This option will cause the source	files to be listed instead  of
	      transferred.   This  option  is  inferred	 if  there is a	single
	      source arg and no	destination specified, so its main uses	are:

	      1.     to	turn a copy command that includes  a  destination  arg
		     into a file-listing command, or

	      2.     to	be able	to specify more	than one source	arg.  Note: be
		     sure to include the destination.

	      CAUTION: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is  ex-
	      panded  by  the shell into multiple args,	so it is never safe to
	      try to specify a single wild-card	arg to try to infer  this  op-
	      tion. A safe example is:

		  rsync	-av --list-only	foo* dest/

	      Starting	with  rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are
	      affected by the --human-readable option.	By default  they  will
	      contain  digit separators, but higher levels of readability will
	      output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the	column
	      width for	the size output	has increased from 11 to 14 characters
	      for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you	want just dig-
	      its in the sizes,	and the	old column width of 11 characters.

	      Compatibility  note:  when  requesting a remote listing of files
	      from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you	may  encounter
	      an  error	 if  you ask for a non-recursive listing.  This	is be-
	      cause a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o  --recursive,
	      and older	rsyncs don't have that option.	To avoid this problem,
	      either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't	need to	expand
	      a	 directory's  content),	 or  turn on recursion and exclude the
	      content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

	      This option allows you to	specify	the maximum transfer rate  for
	      the  data	 sent  over the	socket,	specified in units per second.
	      The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a  size
	      multiplier, and may be a fractional value	(e.g. --bwlimit=1.5m).
	      If no suffix is specified, the value will	be assumed  to	be  in
	      units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or	"KiB" had been appended).  See
	      the --max-size option for	a description  of  all	the  available
	      suffixes.	 A value of 0 specifies	no limit.

	      For  backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate	limit  will be
	      rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate  smaller  than  1024
	      bytes per	second is possible.

	      Rsync  writes  data  over	 the socket in blocks, and this	option
	      both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and	 tries
	      to  keep the average transfer rate at the	requested limit.  Some
	      burstiness may be	seen where rsync writes	out a  block  of  data
	      and then sleeps to bring the average rate	into compliance.

	      Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
	      not be an	accurate reflection on how  fast  the  data  is	 being
	      sent.   This  is because some files can show up as being rapidly
	      sent when	the data is quickly buffered, while other can show  up
	      as  very	slow  when  the	 flushing of the output	buffer occurs.
	      This may be fixed	in a future version.

	      See also the daemon version of the --bwlimit option.

       --stop-after=MINS, (--time-limit=MINS)
	      This option tells	rsync to stop copying when the specified  num-
	      ber of minutes has elapsed.

	      For  maximal flexibility,	rsync does not communicate this	option
	      to the remote rsync since	it is usually enough that one side  of
	      the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
	      even when	only one side of the connection	supports it.  You  can
	      tell  the	remote side about the time limit using --remote-option
	      (-M), should the need arise.

	      The --time-limit version of this option is deprecated.

	      This option tells	rsync to stop copying when the specified point
	      in time has been reached.	The date & time	can be fully specified
	      in  a  numeric  format   of   year-month-dayThour:minute	 (e.g.
	      2000-12-31T23:59)	in the local timezone.	You may	choose to sep-
	      arate the	date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

	      The value	can also be abbreviated	in a variety of	ways, such  as
	      specifying a 2-digit year	and/or leaving off various values.  In
	      all cases, the value will	be taken to be the next	possible point
	      in  time	where  the supplied information	matches.  If the value
	      specifies	the current time or a past time, rsync exits  with  an

	      For example, "1-30" specifies the	next January 30th (at midnight
	      local time), "14:00" specifies the next 2	 P.M.,	"1"  specifies
	      the  next	 1st of	the month at midnight, "31" specifies the next
	      month where we can stop on its 31st day, and ":59" specifies the
	      next 59th	minute after the hour.

	      For  maximal flexibility,	rsync does not communicate this	option
	      to the remote rsync since	it is usually enough that one side  of
	      the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
	      even when	only one side of the connection	supports it.  You  can
	      tell  the	remote side about the time limit using --remote-option
	      (-M), should the need arise.  Do keep in mind  that  the	remote
	      host may have a different	default	timezone than your local host.

	      Cause  the receiving side	to fsync each finished file.  This may
	      slow down	the transfer, but can help to provide  peace  of  mind
	      when updating critical files.

	      Record  a	 file  that  can later be applied to another identical
	      destination with --read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for
	      details, and also	the --only-write-batch option.

	      This  option  overrides the negotiated checksum &	compress lists
	      and always negotiates a choice based on old-school  md5/md4/zlib
	      choices.	 If you	want a more modern choice, use the --checksum-
	      choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc) options.

	      Works like --write-batch,	except that no updates are made	on the
	      destination  system  when	 creating  the	batch.	 This lets you
	      transport	the changes to the destination system via  some	 other
	      means and	then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note  that you can feel free to write the	batch directly to some
	      portable media: if this media fills to capacity before  the  end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer	to the
	      destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of  the
	      changes  (as long	as you don't mind a partially updated destina-
	      tion system while	the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note	that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote  system  because  this  allows the	batched	data to	be di-
	      verted from the sender into the batch  file  without  having  to
	      flow  over the wire to the receiver (when	pulling, the sender is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply all	of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously  gen-
	      erated  by  --write-batch.  If FILE is -,	the batch data will be
	      read from	standard input.	See the	"BATCH MODE" section  for  de-

	      Force  an	older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
	      creating a batch file that is compatible with an	older  version
	      of  rsync.   For instance, if rsync 2.6.4	is being used with the
	      --write-batch option, but	rsync 2.6.3 is what will  be  used  to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating the batch file to force the older protocol  version  to
	      be  used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync
	      on the reading system).

	      Rsync can	convert	filenames between character  sets  using  this
	      option.	Using a	CONVERT_SPEC of	"." tells rsync	to look	up the
	      default character-set via	the locale setting.  Alternately,  you
	      can  fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
	      remote charset separated by a comma  in  the  order  --iconv=LO-
	      CAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that
	      the option will stay the same whether you're pushing or  pulling
	      files.   Finally,	 you  can  specify either --no-iconv or	a CON-
	      VERT_SPEC	of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The	 default  set-
	      ting  of	this option is site-specific, and can also be affected
	      via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For a list of what charset names your local iconv	 library  sup-
	      ports, you can run "iconv	--list".

	      If you specify the --protect-args	(-s) option, rsync will	trans-
	      late the filenames you specify on	the command-line that are  be-
	      ing sent to the remote host.  See	also the --files-from option.

	      Note  that  rsync	 does not do any conversion of names in	filter
	      files (including include/exclude files).	It is up to you	to en-
	      sure  that  you're  specifying  matching rules that can match on
	      both sides of the	transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences	on the
	      two sides	that need to be	accounted for.

	      When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that	allows
	      it,  the daemon uses the charset specified in its	"charset" con-
	      figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you	 actu-
	      ally  pass.   Thus,  you may feel	free to	specify	just the local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running
	      ssh.   This  affects sockets that	rsync has direct control over,
	      such as the outgoing socket when directly	 contacting  an	 rsync
	      daemon,  as well as the forwarding of the	-4 or -6 option	to ssh
	      when rsync can deduce that ssh  is  being	 used  as  the	remote
	      shell.   For  other  remote  shells  you'll  need	to specify the
	      "--rsh SHELL -4" option directly (or whatever IPv4/IPv6 hint op-
	      tions it uses).

	      See also the daemon version of these options.

	      If  rsync	 was compiled without support for IPv6,	the --ipv6 op-
	      tion will	have no	effect.	 The rsync --version output will  con-
	      tain "no IPv6" if	is the case.

	      Set  the checksum	seed to	the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
	      seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
	      (the  more  modern MD5 file checksums don't use a	seed).	By de-
	      fault the	checksum seed is generated by the server and  defaults
	      to  the  current	time().	 This option is	used to	set a specific
	      checksum seed, which is useful for applications  that  want  re-
	      peatable	block checksums, or in the case	where the user wants a
	      more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync	to use
	      the default of time() for	checksum seed.

       The options allowed when	starting an rsync daemon are as	follows:

	      This  tells rsync	that it	is to run as a daemon.	The daemon you
	      start running may	be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If  standard input is a socket then rsync	will assume that it is
	      being run	via inetd, otherwise it	will detach from  the  current
	      terminal	and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
	      the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.

	      See the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon with the --daemon option.	The  --address	option	allows
	      you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
	      This makes virtual hosting  possible  in	conjunction  with  the
	      --config option.

	      See  also	 the  address global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage
	      and the client version of	the --address option.

	      This option allows you to	specify	the maximum transfer rate  for
	      the data the daemon sends	over the socket.  The client can still
	      specify a	smaller	--bwlimit value, but no	larger value  will  be

	      See  the	client	version	of the --bwlimit option	for some extra

	      This specifies an	alternate config file than the default.	  This
	      is  only	relevant  when	--daemon is specified.	The default is
	      /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon  is  running  over  a	remote
	      shell program and	the remote user	is not the super-user; in that
	      case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory	(typi-
	      cally $HOME).

       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M
	      This  option  can	 be used to set	a daemon-config	parameter when
	      starting up rsync	in daemon mode.	 It is	equivalent  to	adding
	      the  parameter  at  the  end of the global settings prior	to the
	      first module's definition.  The parameter	names can be specified
	      without spaces, if you so	desire.	 For instance:

		  rsync	--daemon -M pidfile=/path/

	      When running as a	daemon,	this option instructs rsync to not de-
	      tach itself and become a background process.  This option	is re-
	      quired when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be use-
	      ful when rsync is	supervised by a	program	such as	daemontools or
	      AIX's  System Resource Controller.   --no-detach	is also	recom-
	      mended when rsync	is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
	      effect if	rsync is run from inetd	or sshd.

	      This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
	      listen on	rather than the	default	of 873.

	      See also the client version of the --port	option	and  the  port
	      global setting in	the rsyncd.conf	manpage.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync daemon to	use the	given log-file
	      name instead of using the	"log file" setting in the config file.

	      See also the client version of the --log-file option.

	      This option tells	the rsync  daemon  to  use  the	 given	FORMAT
	      string  instead  of using	the "log format" setting in the	config
	      file.  It	also enables "transfer logging"	unless the  string  is
	      empty, in	which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      See also the client version of the --log-file-format option.

	      This  overrides  the  socket options  setting in the rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

	      See also the client version of the --sockopts option.

       --verbose, -v
	      This option increases the	amount of information the daemon  logs
	      during  its  startup phase.  After the client connects, the dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

	      See also the client version of the --verbose option.

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the	incoming sock-
	      ets  that	 the  rsync daemon will	use to listen for connections.
	      One of these options may be required in older versions of	 Linux
	      to work around an	IPv6 bug in the	kernel (if you see an "address
	      already in use" error when nothing else is using the  port,  try
	      specifying --ipv6	or --ipv4 when starting	the daemon).

	      See also the client version of these options.

	      If  rsync	 was compiled without support for IPv6,	the --ipv6 op-
	      tion will	have no	effect.	 The rsync --version output will  con-
	      tain "no IPv6" if	is the case.

       --help, -h
	      When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ-
	      ing the options available	for starting an	rsync daemon.

       The filter rules	allow for custom control of  several  aspects  of  how
       files are handled:

       o      Control  which  files  the  sending side puts into the file list
	      that describes the transfer hierarchy

       o      Control which files the receiving	side  protects	from  deletion
	      when the file is not in the sender's file	list

       o      Control  which extended attribute	names are skipped when copying

       The rules are either directly specified via option  arguments  or  they
       can  be read in from one	or more	files.	The filter-rule	files can even
       be a part of the	hierarchy of files being copied,  affecting  different
       parts of	the tree in different ways.

       We  will	 first	cover the basics of how	include	& exclude rules	affect
       what files are transferred, ignoring any	deletion side-effects.	Filter
       rules  mainly affect the	contents of directories	that rsync is "recurs-
       ing" into, but they can also affect a top-level item  in	 the  transfer
       that was	specified as a argument.

       The  default for	any unmatched file/dir is for it to be included	in the
       transfer, which puts the	file/dir into the sender's file	list.  The use
       of  an  exclude	rule causes one	or more	matching files/dirs to be left
       out of the sender's file	list.  An include rule can be  used  to	 limit
       the effect of an	exclude	rule that is matching too many files.

       The order of the	rules is important because the first rule that matches
       is the one that takes effect.  Thus, if an early	rule excludes a	 file,
       no  include  rule  that	comes after it can have	any effect. This means
       that you	must place any include overrides somewhere prior  to  the  ex-
       clude that it is	intended to limit.

       When  a	directory  is  excluded, all its contents and sub-contents are
       also excluded.  The sender doesn't scan through any of it at all, which
       can save	a lot of time when skipping large unneeded sub-trees.

       It  is  also important to understand that the include/exclude rules are
       applied to every	file and directory that	the sender is recursing	 into.
       Thus,  if  you  want a particular deep file to be included, you have to
       make sure that none of the directories that must	be  traversed  on  the
       way  down to that file are excluded or else the file will never be dis-
       covered to be included. As an example, if the  directory	 "a/path"  was
       given  as  a  transfer  argument	 and  you want to ensure that the file
       "a/path/down/deep/wanted.txt" is	a  part	 of  the  transfer,  then  the
       sender  must  not  exclude  the directories "a/path", "a/path/down", or
       "a/path/down/deep" as it	makes it way scanning through the file tree.

       When you	are working on the rules, it can be helpful to	ask  rsync  to
       tell  you  what	is  being excluded/included and	why.  Specifying --de-
       bug=FILTER or (when pulling files) -M--debug=FILTER turns on level 1 of
       the FILTER debug	information that will output a message any time	that a
       file or directory is included or	excluded and which  rule  it  matched.
       Beginning  in  3.2.4  it	 will  also warn if a filter rule has trailing
       whitespace, since an exclude of "foo " (with a trailing space) will not
       exclude a file named "foo".

       Exclude	and  include rules can specify wildcard	PATTERN	MATCHING RULES
       (similar	to shell wildcards) that allow you to match things like	a file
       suffix or a portion of a	filename.

       A rule can be limited to	only affecting a directory by putting a	trail-
       ing slash onto the filename.

       With the	following file tree created on the sending side:

	   mkdir x/
	   touch x/file.txt
	   mkdir x/y/
	   touch x/y/file.txt
	   touch x/y/zzz.txt
	   mkdir x/z/
	   touch x/z/file.txt

       Then the	following rsync	command	will transfer the file	"x/y/file.txt"
       and   the  directories  needed  to  hold	 it,  resulting	 in  the  path
       "/tmp/x/y/file.txt" existing on the remote host:

	   rsync -ai -f'+ x/' -f'+ x/y/' -f'+ x/y/file.txt' -f'- *' x host:/tmp/

       Aside: this copy	could also have	been accomplished using	the -R	option
       (though the 2 commands behave differently if deletions are enabled):

	   rsync -aiR x/y/file.txt host:/tmp/

       The following command does not need an include of the "x" directory be-
       cause it	is not a part of the  transfer	(note  the  traililng  slash).
       Running	this command would copy	just "/tmp/x/file.txt" because the "y"
       and "z" dirs get	excluded:

	   rsync -ai -f'+ file.txt' -f'- *' x/ host:/tmp/x/

       This command would omit the zzz.txt file	while copying "x"  and	every-
       thing else it contains:

	   rsync -ai -f'- zzz.txt' x host:/tmp/

       By  default  the	 include & exclude filter rules	affect both the	sender
       (as it creates its file list) and the receiver (as it creates its  file
       lists  for  calculating	deletions).  If	no delete option is in effect,
       the receiver skips creating the delete-related file lists.   This  two-
       sided  default can be manually overridden so that you are only specify-
       ing sender rules	or receiver rules, as described	in the FILTER RULES IN
       DEPTH section.

       When deleting, an exclude protects a file from being removed on the re-
       ceiving side while an include overrides that  protection	 (putting  the
       file  at	 risk of deletion). The	default	is for a file to be at risk --
       its safety depends on it	matching a corresponding file from the sender.

       An example of the two-sided exclude effect can be  illustrated  by  the
       copying	of  a C	development directory between 2	systems.  When doing a
       touch-up	copy, you might	want to	skip copying the built executable  and
       the  .o	files (sender hide) so that the	receiving side can build their
       own and not lose	any object files that are  already  correct  (receiver
       protect).  For instance:

	   rsync -ai --del -f'-	*.o' -f'- cmd' src host:/dest/

       Note  that using	-f'-p *.o' is even better than -f'- *.o' if there is a
       chance that the directory structure may have changed.  The "p" modifier
       is discussed in FILTER RULE MODIFIERS.

       One  final  note,  if your shell	doesn't	mind unexpanded	wildcards, you
       could simplify the typing of the	filter options by using	an  underscore
       in  place  of  the  space  and  leaving	off the	quotes.	 For instance,
       -f -_*.o	-f -_cmd (and similar) could be	used instead of	the filter op-
       tions above.

       Rsync  supports	old-style  include/exclude  rules and new-style	filter
       rules.  The older rules are specified using --include and --exclude  as
       well as the --include-from and --exclude-from. These are	limited	in be-
       havior but they don't require a "-" or "+" prefix.   An	old-style  ex-
       clude  rule  is	turned into a "- name" filter rule (with no modifiers)
       and an old-style	include	rule is	turned into  a	"+ name"  filter  rule
       (with no	modifiers).

       Rsync  builds  an ordered list of filter	rules as specified on the com-
       mand-line and/or	read-in	from files.  New style filter rules  have  the
       following syntax:


       You  have  your choice of using either short or long RULE names,	as de-
       scribed below.  If you use a short-named	rule, the ','  separating  the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows (when present) must	come after either a single space or an	under-
       score  (_).  Any	additional spaces and/or underscores are considered to
       be a part of the	pattern	name.  Here are	the available rule prefixes:

       exclude,	'-'
	      specifies	an exclude pattern that	(by default) is	 both  a  hide
	      and a protect.

       include,	'+'
	      specifies	 an  include  pattern that (by default)	is both	a show
	      and a risk.

       merge, '.'
	      specifies	a merge-file on	the  client  side  to  read  for  more

       dir-merge, ':'
	      specifies	a per-directory	merge-file.  Using this	kind of	filter
	      rule requires that you trust the sending side's filter checking,
	      so it has	the side-effect	mentioned under	the --trust-sender op-

       hide, 'H'
	      specifies	a pattern for hiding files from	the transfer.  Equiva-
	      lent to a	sender-only exclude, so	-f'H foo' could	also be	speci-
	      fied as -f'-s foo'.

       show, 'S'
	      files that match the pattern are not  hidden.  Equivalent	 to  a
	      sender-only  include,  so	 -f'S foo'  could also be specified as
	      -f'+s foo'.

       protect,	'P'
	      specifies	a pattern for protecting files from deletion.  Equiva-
	      lent  to	a  receiver-only  exclude,  so -f'P foo' could also be
	      specified	as -f'-r foo'.

       risk, 'R'
	      files that match the pattern are not protected. Equivalent to  a
	      receiver-only  include,  so -f'R foo' could also be specified as
	      -f'+r foo'.

       clear, '!'
	      clears the current include/exclude list (takes no	arg)

       When rules are being read from a	file (using merge or dir-merge), empty
       lines  are  ignored,  as	 are whole-line	comments that start with a '#'
       (filename rules that contain a hash character are unaffected).

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern each.  To add multiple ones, you can repeat	the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from / --exclude-from options.

       Most  of	the rules mentioned above take an argument that	specifies what
       the rule	should match.  If rsync	is recursing through a directory hier-
       archy,  keep  in	 mind that each	pattern	is matched against the name of
       every directory in the descent path as rsync  finds  the	 filenames  to

       The matching rules for the pattern argument take	several	forms:

       o      If  a  pattern contains a	/ (not counting	a trailing slash) or a
	      "**" (which can match a slash),  then  the  pattern  is  matched
	      against  the  full  pathname,  including any leading directories
	      within the transfer.  If the pattern  doesn't  contain  a	 (non-
	      trailing)	/ or a "**", then it is	matched	only against the final
	      component	of the filename	or pathname. For  example,  foo	 means
	      that  the	final path component must be "foo" while foo/bar would
	      match the	last 2 elements	of the path (as	long as	both  elements
	      are within the transfer).

       o      A	 pattern  that	ends  with a / only matches a directory, not a
	      regular file, symlink, or	device.

       o      A	pattern	that starts with a / is	anchored to the	start  of  the
	      transfer	path  instead  of  the	end.   For example, /foo/** or
	      /foo/bar/** match	only leading elements in  the  path.   If  the
	      rule is read from	a per-directory	filter file, the transfer path
	      being matched will begin at the level of the filter file instead
	      of  the  top  of the transfer.  See the section on ANCHORING IN-
	      CLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full	discussion of how to specify a
	      pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       Rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching
       by checking if the pattern contains one of these	three wildcard charac-
       ters: '*', '?', and '[' :

       o      a	'?' matches any	single character except	a slash	(/).

       o      a	'*' matches zero or more non-slash characters.

       o      a	'**' matches zero or more characters, including	slashes.

       o      a	 '['  introduces  a  character	class, such as [a-z] or	[[:al-
	      pha:]], that must	match one character.

       o      a	trailing *** in	the pattern is a shorthand that	allows you  to
	      match a directory	and all	its contents using a single rule.  For
	      example,	specifying  "dir_name/***"   will   match   both   the
	      "dir_name"  directory (as	if "dir_name/" had been	specified) and
	      everything in the	directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been	speci-

       o      a	 backslash  can	be used	to escape a wildcard character,	but it
	      is only interpreted as an	escape character if at least one wild-
	      card  character  is  present in the match	pattern. For instance,
	      the pattern "foo\bar" matches that single	 backslash  literally,
	      while  the  pattern  "foo\bar*"  would  need  to	be  changed to
	      "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       Here are	some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      Option -f'- *.o' would exclude all filenames ending with .o

       o      Option -f'- /foo'	would exclude a	file (or directory) named  foo
	      in the transfer-root directory

       o      Option -f'- foo/'	would exclude any directory named foo

       o      Option  -f'- foo/*/bar'  would  exclude  any  file/dir named bar
	      which is at two levels below a directory named foo (if foo is in
	      the transfer)

       o      Option  -f'- /foo/**/bar'	 would	exclude	any file/dir named bar
	      that was two or more levels below	a  top-level  directory	 named
	      foo (note	that /foo/bar is not excluded by this)

       o      Options -f'+ */' -f'+ *.c' -f'- *' would include all directories
	      and .c source files but nothing else

       o      Options -f'+ foo/' -f'+ foo/bar.c' -f'- *'  would	 include  only
	      the  foo	directory and foo/bar.c	(the foo directory must	be ex-
	      plicitly included	or it would be excluded	by the "- *")

       The following modifiers are accepted after an include  (+)  or  exclude
       (-) rule:

       o      A	 /  specifies  that the	include/exclude	rule should be matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      -f'-/ /etc/passwd'  would	 exclude  the passwd file any time the
	      transfer was sending files from the "/etc"  directory,  and  "-/
	      subdir/foo" would	always exclude "foo" when it is	in a dir named
	      "subdir",	even if	"foo" is at the	root of	the current transfer.

       o      A	! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect	if the
	      pattern  fails  to match.	 For instance, -f'-! */' would exclude
	      all non-directories.

       o      A	C is used to indicate that all the  global  CVS-exclude	 rules
	      should  be  inserted  as	excludes in place of the "-C".	No arg
	      should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the	rule applies  to  the  sending
	      side.   When  a  rule  affects the sending side, it affects what
	      files are	put into the sender's file list.  The default is for a
	      rule  to	affect	both sides unless --delete-excluded was	speci-
	      fied, in which case default rules	become sender-side only.   See
	      also the hide (H)	and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way
	      to specify sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the	rule applies to	the  receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it	prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the  protect  (P)	and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A	p indicates that a rule	is perishable, meaning that it is  ig-
	      nored  in	directories that are being deleted.  For instance, the
	      --cvs-exclude (-C) option's default rules	 that  exclude	things
	      like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not pre-
	      vent a directory that was	 removed  on  the  source  from	 being
	      deleted on the destination.

       o      An  x  indicates	that  a	 rule  affects	xattr  names  in xattr
	      copy/delete  operations  (and  is	 thus  ignored	when  matching
	      file/dir	names).	  If  no xattr-matching	rules are specified, a
	      default xattr filtering rule is used (see	the --xattrs option).

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules	by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a	dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.')  and  per-
       directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge file is read one time, and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.   For  per-directory merge	files, rsync will scan every directory
       that it traverses for the named file, merging  its  contents  when  the
       file exists into	the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory rule files must be created on the sending side because it  is  the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These rule files	may also need to be transferred	to the receiving  side
       if you want them	to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	   merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
	   . /etc/rsync/default.rules
	   dir-merge .per-dir-filter
	   dir-merge,n-	.non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	   :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	- specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-
	      compatible  manner.   This  turns	on 'n',	'w', and '-', but also
	      allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
	      name is provided,	".cvsignore" is	assumed.

       o      A	 e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the	transfer; e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are	not inherited  by  subdirecto-

       o      A	 w  specifies  that the	rules are word-split on	whitespace in-
	      stead of the normal line-splitting.  This	also  turns  off  com-
	      ments.   Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
	      is treated specially, so "- foo +	bar" is	parsed	as  two	 rules
	      (assuming	that prefix-parsing wasn't also	disabled).

       o      You  may	also  specify  any of the modifiers for	the "+"	or "-"
	      rules (above) in order to	have the rules that are	read  in  from
	      the  file	 default to having that	modifier set (except for the !
	      modifier,	which would not	be useful).  For  instance,  "merge,-/
	      .excl"  would  treat  the	contents of .excl as absolute-path ex-
	      cludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt"	and ":sC" would	each make  all
	      their  per-directory  rules  apply only on the sending side.  If
	      the merge	rule specifies sides to	affect (via the	s or  r	 modi-
	      fier or both), then the rules in the file	must not specify sides
	      (via a modifier or a rule	prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all	subdirectories of  the	direc-
       tory  where  the	merge-file was found unless the	'n' modifier was used.
       Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the  inherited	 per-directory
       rules  from its parents,	which gives the	newest rules a higher priority
       than the	inherited rules.   The	entire	set  of	 dir-merge  rules  are
       grouped	together in the	spot where the merge-file was specified, so it
       is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that	got  specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the  inherited	 rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another	way  to	prevent	a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a	leading	slash.	Anchored  rules	 in  a
       per-directory merge-file	are relative to	the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo"	would only match the file "foo"	in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's	an   example  filter  file  which  you'd  specify  via	--fil-
       ter=". file":

	   merge /home/user/.global-filter
	   - *.gz
	   dir-merge .rules
	   + *.[ch]
	   - *.o
	   - foo*

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
       the  start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into	a per-
       directory filter	file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the di-
       rectory	scan  follow  the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is	specified with a path that is a	parent
       directory of the	first transfer directory, rsync	will scan all the par-
       ent dirs	from that starting point to the	transfer directory for the in-
       dicated per-directory file.  For	instance, here is a common filter (see

	   --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to	scan for the file .rsync-filter	in all	direc-
       tories  from the	root down through the parent directory of the transfer
       prior to	the start of the normal	directory scan of the file in the  di-
       rectories  that are sent	as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an rsync
       daemon, the root	is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of	this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	   rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	   rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	   rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter'	/src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in  "/"  and
       "/src"	before	the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	 the  file  in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The	last command avoids  the  par-
       ent-dir	scan  and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each di-
       rectory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a	".cvsignore" in	your patterns,
       you  should use the rule	":C", which creates a dir-merge	of the .cvsig-
       nore file, but parsed in	a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this  to
       affect  where  the --cvs-exclude	(-C) option's inclusion	of the per-di-
       rectory .cvsignore file gets placed into	your rules by putting the ":C"
       wherever	 you like in your filter rules.	 Without this, rsync would add
       the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of	all your other
       rules  (giving  it a lower priority than	your command-line rules).  For

	   cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	   + foo.o
	   - *.old
	   rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands	are identical.	Each  one  will	 merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore	rules in the middle of the list	rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific	rules to supersede the
       rules  that  follow  the	 :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions,  the	contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIG-
       NORE) you should	omit the -C command-line option	and instead  insert  a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g.  "--filter=-C".

       You  can	clear the current include/exclude list by using	the "!"	filter
       rule (as	introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).	The  "current"
       list  is	 either	 the  global list of rules (if the rule	is encountered
       while parsing the filter	options)  or  a	 set  of  per-directory	 rules
       (which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so	a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
       the "root of the	transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file's	 directory).   If  you	think  of  the
       transfer	 as  a subtree of names	that are being sent from sender	to re-
       ceiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be	duplicated  in
       the destination directory.  This	root governs where patterns that start
       with a /	match.

       Because the matching is relative	to  the	 transfer-root,	 changing  the
       trailing	 slash on a source path	or changing your use of	the --relative
       option affects the path you need	to use in your matching	 (in  addition
       to  changing how	much of	the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with	a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	   Example cmd:	rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	   +/- pattern:	/me/foo/bar
	   +/- pattern:	/you/bar/baz
	   Target file:	/dest/me/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/you/bar/baz

	   Example cmd:	rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	   +/- pattern:	/foo/bar	       (note missing "me")
	   +/- pattern:	/bar/baz	       (note missing "you")
	   Target file:	/dest/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/bar/baz

	   Example cmd:	rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you	/dest
	   +/- pattern:	/home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
	   +/- pattern:	/home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
	   Target file:	/dest/home/me/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/home/you/bar/baz

	   Example cmd:	cd /home; rsync	-a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
	   +/- pattern:	/me/foo/bar	 (starts at specified path)
	   +/- pattern:	/you/bar/baz	 (ditto)
	   Target file:	/dest/me/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name	you should filter is to	just  look  at
       the  output  when using --verbose and put a / in	front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any	files).

       Without a delete	option,	per-directory rules are	only relevant  on  the
       sending	side,  so  you	can feel free to exclude the merge files them-
       selves without affecting	the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier  adds  this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent com-

	   rsync -av --filter=': .excl'	--exclude=.excl	host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you  want
       some  files  to	be excluded from being deleted,	you'll need to be sure
       that the	receiving side knows what files	to exclude.  The  easiest  way
       is  to  include	the  per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
       --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side  gets  all
       the  same  exclude  rules as the	sending	side before it tries to	delete

	   rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand line), or you'll need to maintain  your  own  per-directory	 merge
       files  on  the receiving	side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the	remote .rules files exclude themselves):

	   rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	      --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the	extra.rules file can affect both sides of  the
       transfer,  but  (on  the	sending	side) the rules	are subservient	to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they	were  specified	 after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In  one	final  example,	the remote side	is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer,	but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the	per-directory merge files (so that they	 don't
       get  deleted)  and  then	put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete	host:src/dir /dest

       In addition to the FILTER RULES that affect the	recursive  file	 scans
       that  generate the file list on the sending and (when deleting) receiv-
       ing sides, there	are transfer rules. These rules	affect which files the
       generator decides need to be transferred	without	the side effects of an
       exclude filter rule.  Transfer rules affect only	files and never	direc-

       Because	a  transfer  rule  does	not affect what	goes into the sender's
       (and receiver's)	file list, it cannot have any effect  on  which	 files
       get  deleted  on	the receiving side.  For example, if the file "foo" is
       present in the sender's list but	its size is such that  it  is  omitted
       due  to	a transfer rule, the receiving side does not request the file.
       However,	its presence in	the file list means that a  delete  pass  will
       not  remove  a matching file named "foo"	on the receiving side.	On the
       other hand, a server-side exclude (hide)	of the file "foo"  leaves  the
       file  out of the	server's file list, and	absent a receiver-side exclude
       (protect) the receiver will remove a matching file named	"foo" if dele-
       tions are requested.

       Given  that the files are still in the sender's file list, the --prune-
       empty-dirs option will not judge	a directory as being empty even	if  it
       contains	only files that	the transfer rules omitted.

       Similarly,  a  transfer	rule  does  not	have any extra effect on which
       files are deleted on the	receiving side,	so setting a maximum file size
       for the transfer	does not prevent big files from	being deleted.

       Examples	 of transfer rules include the default "quick check" algorithm
       (which compares size & modify time), the	--update  option,  the	--max-
       size option, the	--ignore-non-existing option, and a few	others.

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same	set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems.  Suppose one has a tree which is replicated	on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some	changes	have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be	propagated to the other	hosts.	In order to do
       this  using batch mode, rsync is	run with the write-batch option	to ap-
       ply the changes made to the source  tree	 to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.	The  write-batch  option causes	the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all	 the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical	destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block	generation more	than once when updating	multi-
       ple  destination	 trees.	  Multicast transport protocols	can be used to
       transfer	the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,  in-
       stead of	sending	the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded	changes	to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the	read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync	updates	the destination	tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For your	convenience, a script file is also  created  when  the	write-
       batch  option is	used: it will be named the same	as the batch file with
       ".sh" appended.	This script file contains a command-line suitable  for
       updating	a destination tree using the associated	batch file.  It	can be
       executed	using a	Bourne (or Bourne-like)	shell, optionally  passing  in
       an  alternate  destination  tree	pathname which is then used instead of
       the original destination	path.  This is	useful	when  the  destination
       tree  path  on the current host differs from the	one used to create the
       batch file.


	   $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a	host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	   $ scp foo* remote:
	   $ ssh remote	./ /bdest/dir/

	   $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a	/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	   $ ssh remote	rsync --read-batch=- -a	/bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is	used  to   update   /adest/dir/	  from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this	operation is stored in
       "foo" and "".  The	host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into	the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the	flexibility you	have in	how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first	example	shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host	 using
	      either  the  remote-shell	 syntax	or rsync daemon	syntax,	as de-

       o      The first	example	uses the created  ""  file  to  get  the
	      right  rsync  options when running the read-batch	command	on the
	      remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
	      that  the	batch file doesn't need	to be copied to	the remote ma-
	      chine first.  This example avoids	the script  because  it
	      needed to	use a modified --read-batch option, but	you could edit
	      the script file if you wished to make use	of it  (just  be  sure
	      that  no	other  option is trying	to use standard	input, such as
	      the --exclude-from=- option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that	was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference	between	the destination	 trees
       is  encountered	the  update  might be discarded	with a warning (if the
       file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update  may  be  at-
       tempted	and  then,  if	the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a	 read-
       batch  operation	 if the	command	got interrupted.  If you wish to force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and  date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an error oc-
       curs, the destination tree will probably	 be  in	 a  partially  updated
       state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one	used to	generate the batch file.  Rsync	will die with an error
       if the protocol version in the batch file is too	 new  for  the	batch-
       reading	rsync  to handle.  See also the	--protocol option for a	way to
       have the	creating rsync generate	a batch	file that an older  rsync  can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will	not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync	will force the value  of  certain  op-
       tions to	match the data in the batch file if you	didn't set them	to the
       same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)  be
       changed.	  For instance --write-batch changes to	--read-batch, --files-
       from is dropped,	and the	--filter / --include / --exclude  options  are
       not needed unless one of	the --delete options is	specified.

       The  code  that	creates	 the	file transforms	any filter/in-
       clude/exclude options into a single list	that is	appended as  a	"here"
       document	 to  the  shell	script file.  An advanced user can use this to
       modify the exclude list if a change in what gets	deleted	by --delete is
       desired.	  A  normal user can ignore this detail	and just use the shell
       script as an easy way to	run the	appropriate --read-batch  command  for
       the batched data.

       The  original batch mode	in rsync was based on "rsync+",	but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when	rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not	transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,	then symlinks are added	to the	transfer  (in-
       stead  of being noisily ignored), and the default handling is to	recre-
       ate them	with the same target on	the destination.  Note that  --archive
       implies --links.

       If  --copy-links	is specified, then symlinks are	"collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An  ex-
       ample  where this might be used is a web	site mirror that wishes	to en-
       sure that the rsync module that is copied  does	not  include  symbolic
       links  to /etc/passwd in	the public section of the site.	 Using --copy-
       unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file  they	 point
       to  on  the destination.	 Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links to
       be omitted by the receiver.  (Note  that	 you  must  specify  or	 imply
       --links for --safe-links	to have	any effect.)

       Symbolic	 links	are  considered	 unsafe	 if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough	".." components	to as-
       cend from the top of the	transfer.

       Here's  a summary of how	the symlink options are	interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if	your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn  all	symlinks into normal files and directories (leaving no
	      symlinks in the transfer for any other options to	affect).

	      Turn just	symlinks to directories	into real directories, leaving
	      all other	symlinks to be handled as described below.

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn  all	 unsafe	 symlinks  into	files and create all safe sym-

	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip	all safe  sym-

       --links --safe-links
	      The  receiver skips creating unsafe symlinks found in the	trans-
	      fer and creates the safe ones.

	      Create all symlinks.

       For the effect of --munge-links,	see the	discussion  in	that  option's

       Note  that  the	--keep-dirlinks	option does not	effect symlinks	in the
       transfer	but instead affects how	rsync treats a symlink to a  directory
       that  already  exists on	the receiving side.  See that option's section
       for a warning.

       Rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem	a little cryp-
       tic.   The one that seems to cause the most confusion is	"protocol ver-
       sion mismatch --	is your	shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote	 shell
       facility	 producing  unwanted garbage on	the stream that	rsync is using
       for its transport.  The way to diagnose this problem is to run your re-
       mote shell like this:

	   ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look at out.dat.  If everything is	working	correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero	length file.  If you are getting the above error  from
       rsync  then  you	 will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is	producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as	.cshrc or .profile) that contain output	statements for non-in-
       teractive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity	rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included	or excluded.

       o      0	- Success

       o      1	- Syntax or usage error

       o      2	- Protocol incompatibility

       o      3	- Errors selecting input/output	files, dirs


	      o	     4 - Requested action not supported. Either:

		     an	attempt	was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a plat-
		     form that cannot support them

	      o	     an	option was specified that is supported by  the	client
		     and not by	the server

       o      5	- Error	starting client-server protocol

       o      6	- Daemon unable	to append to log-file

       o      10 - Error in socket I/O

       o      11 - Error in file I/O

       o      12 - Error in rsync protocol data	stream

       o      13 - Errors with program diagnostics

       o      14 - Error in IPC	code

       o      20 - Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       o      21 - Some	error returned by waitpid()

       o      22 - Error allocating core memory	buffers

       o      23 - Partial transfer due	to error

       o      24 - Partial transfer due	to vanished source files

       o      25 - The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       o      30 - Timeout in data send/receive

       o      35 - Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The  CVSIGNORE  environment variable supplements any ignore pat-
	      terns in .cvsignore files.  See  the  --cvs-exclude  option  for
	      more details.

	      Specify  a  default --iconv setting using	this environment vari-
	      able. First supported in 3.0.0.

	      Specify a	"1" if you want	the --old-args option to be enabled by
	      default, a "2" (or more) if you want it to be enabled in the re-
	      peated-option state, or a	"0" to make sure that it  is  disabled
	      by  default. When	this environment variable is set to a non-zero
	      value, it	supersedes the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS variable.

	      This variable is ignored if --old-args, --no-old-args, or	--pro-
	      tect-args	is specified on	the command line.

	      First supported in 3.2.4.

	      Specify  a non-zero numeric value	if you want the	--protect-args
	      option to	be enabled by default, or a zero value	to  make  sure
	      that it is disabled by default.

	      This  variable  is ignored if --protect-args, --no-protect-args,
	      or --old-args is specified on the	command	line.

	      First supported in 3.1.0.	 Starting in 3.2.4, this  variable  is
	      ignored if RSYNC_OLD_ARGS	is set to a non-zero value.

	      This  environment	 variable  allows  you to override the default
	      shell used as the	transport for rsync.  Command line options are
	      permitted	 after the command name, just as in the	--rsh (-e) op-

	      This environment variable	allows	you  to	 redirect  your	 rsync
	      client  to  use  a web proxy when	connecting to an rsync daemon.
	      You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      This environment variable	allows you to set the password for  an
	      rsync daemon connection, which avoids the	password prompt.  Note
	      that this	does not supply	a password to a	remote shell transport
	      such as ssh (consult its documentation for how to	do that).

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The  USER	or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
	      the default username sent	to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
	      set,  the	 username defaults to "nobody".	 If both are set, USER
	      takes precedence.

	      This environment variable	specifies the directory	to use	for  a
	      --partial	 transfer  without  implying that partial transfers be
	      enabled.	See the	--partial-dir option for full details.

	      This environment variable	allows you to customize	 the  negotia-
	      tion of the compression algorithm	by specifying an alternate or-
	      der or a reduced list of names.  Use the command rsync --version
	      to  see the available compression	names.	See the	--compress op-
	      tion for full details.

	      This environment variable	allows you to customize	 the  negotia-
	      tion  of the checksum algorithm by specifying an alternate order
	      or a reduced list	of names.  Use the command rsync --version  to
	      see the available	checksum names.	 See the --checksum-choice op-
	      tion for full details.

	      This environment variable	sets an	allocation maximum as  if  you
	      had used the --max-alloc option.

	      This  environment	 variable is not read by rsync,	but is instead
	      set in its sub-environment when  rsync  is  running  the	remote
	      shell  in	 combination  with a daemon connection.	 This allows a
	      script such as rsync-ssl to be able to know the port number that
	      the user specified on the	command	line.

       HOME   This  environment	 variable  is  used to find the	user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

	      This environment variable	is mainly used in debug	setups to  set
	      the  program  to	use when making	a daemon connection.  See CON-
	      NECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON for full details.

	      This environment variable	is mainly used in debug	setups to  set
	      the  program  to	use to run the program specified by RSYNC_CON-
	      NECT_PROG.  See CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON for	full details.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf	or rsyncd.conf

       rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5), rrsync(1)

       o      Times are	transferred as *nix time_t values.

       o      When transferring	to FAT filesystems rsync may  re-sync  unmodi-
	      fied files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       o      File permissions,	devices, etc. are transferred as native	numer-
	      ical values.

       o      See also the comments on the --delete option.

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This manpage is current for version 3.2.5 of rsync.

       The options --server and	--sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed	 by  a	user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed	in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a login that can only	run an rsync command.  For in-
       stance, the support directory of	the rsync distribution has an  example
       script  named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that	can be used with a re-
       stricted	ssh login.

       Rsync is	distributed under the GNU General  Public  License.   See  the
       file COPYING for	details.

       An  rsync  web site is available	at  The site
       includes	an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions  unanswered  by  this
       manual page.

       The rsync github	project	is

       We  would  be  delighted	 to  hear  from	 you if	you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly	and Mark Adler.

       Special	thanks	go  out	 to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra,	Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,	 Martin	 Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre,	J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and	David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       Rsync  was  originally  written	by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have	later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by
       Wayne Davison.

       Mailing	 lists	 for   support	 and   development  are	 available  at

rsync 3.2.5			  14 Aug 2022			      rsync(1)


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