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rsync(1)			 User Commands			      rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

	   rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	       rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync	daemon:
	       rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

       Usages with just	one SRC	arg and	no DEST	arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       The online version of this manpage (that	includes cross-linking of top-
       ics) is available at

       Rsync  is  a  fast and extraordinarily versatile	file copying tool.  It
       can copy	locally, to/from  another  host	 over  any  remote  shell,  or
       to/from	a  remote  rsync  daemon.  It offers a large number of options
       that control every aspect of its	 behavior  and	permit	very  flexible
       specification  of  the set of files to be copied.  It is	famous for its
       delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of  data  sent  over
       the  network  by	 sending only the differences between the source files
       and the existing	files in the destination.  Rsync is  widely  used  for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved	copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" al-
       gorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size  or
       in  last-modified  time.	 Any changes in	the other preserved attributes
       (as requested by	options) are made on  the  destination	file  directly
       when the	quick check indicates that the file's data does	not need to be

       Some of the additional features of rsync	are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and  permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	 CVS  exclude  mode for	ignoring the same files	that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal  for

       Rsync  copies  files either to or from a	remote host, or	locally	on the
       current host (it	does not support  copying  files  between  two	remote

       There  are two different	ways for rsync to contact a remote system: us-
       ing a remote-shell program as the transport (such as  ssh  or  rsh)  or
       contacting  an  rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell	trans-
       port is used whenever the source	or destination path contains a	single
       colon  (:)  separator  after a host specification.  Contacting an rsync
       daemon directly happens when the	source or destination path contains  a
       double  colon  (::)  separator  after  a	host specification, OR when an
       rsync://	URL is specified (see also the USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA
       A  REMOTE-SHELL	CONNECTION  section  for  an  exception	to this	latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a	desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format	similar	to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a	remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the client and	the remote side	as the
       server.	Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is	always
       a server, but a server can be either a daemon or	a remote-shell spawned

       See the file for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,	 you  can use rsync to any machine that	you can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that	you can	access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).	 For remote transfers, a modern	rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can	also specify any remote	shell you like,	either by using	the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH	environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the  source  and  destination

       You  use	 rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best	way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	   rsync -t *.c	foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the	directory src on the machine foo.  If any of the files
       already exist on	the remote system then the rsync remote-update	proto-
       col  is	used to	update the file	by sending only	the differences	in the
       data.  Note that	the expansion of wildcards on the  command-line	 (*.c)
       into  a	list of	files is handled by the	shell before it	runs rsync and
       not by rsync itself (exactly the	same as	 all  other  Posix-style  pro-

	   rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the	/data/tmp/bar directory	on the local  machine.
       The  files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures that symbolic
       links, devices, attributes, permissions,	ownerships, etc. are preserved
       in  the transfer.  Additionally,	compression will be used to reduce the
       size of data portions of	the transfer.

	   rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash	on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You	can think of a
       trailing	/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the at-
       tributes	of the containing directory are	transferred to the  containing
       directory  on  the  destination.	 In other words, each of the following
       commands	copies the files in the	same way, including their  setting  of
       the attributes of /dest/foo:

	   rsync -av /src/foo /dest
	   rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that	 host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to	copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these	copy the remote	directory's contents into "/dest":

	   rsync -av host: /dest
	   rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can	 also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both	the source and
       destination don't have a	':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy	command.

       Finally,	 you can list all the (listable) modules available from	a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       When you	want to	copy a directory to a different	name, use  a  trailing
       slash on	the source directory to	put the	contents of the	directory into
       any destination directory you like:

	   rsync -ai foo/ bar/

       Rsync also has the ability to customize a destination file's name  when
       copying a single	item.  The rules for this are:

       o      The  transfer  list must consist of a single item	(either	a file
	      or an empty directory)

       o      The final	element	of the destination path	must not  exist	 as  a

       o      The  destination path must not have been specified with a	trail-
	      ing slash

       Under those circumstances, rsync	will set the name of the destination's
       single  item to the last	element	of the destination path.  Keep in mind
       that it is best to only use this	idiom when copying a file and use  the
       above trailing-slash idiom when copying a directory.

       The  following  example	copies the foo.c file as bar.c in the save dir
       (assuming that bar.c isn't a directory):

	   rsync -ai src/foo.c save/bar.c

       The single-item copy rule might accidentally bite you  if  you  unknow-
       ingly copy a single item	and specify a destination dir that doesn't ex-
       ist (without using a trailing slash).  For example, if src/*.c  matches
       one  file  and  save/dir	doesn't	exist, this will confuse you by	naming
       the destination file save/dir:

	   rsync -ai src/*.c save/dir

       To prevent such an accident, either make	sure the destination  dir  ex-
       ists or specify the destination path with a trailing slash:

	   rsync -ai src/*.c save/dir/

       Rsync  always  sorts the	specified filenames into its internal transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together	of the contents	of identically
       named directories, makes	it easy	to remove duplicate filenames. It can,
       however,	confuse	someone	when the files are transferred in a  different
       order than what was given on the	command-line.

       If  you	need a particular file to be transferred prior to another, ei-
       ther separate the files into different rsync calls, or  consider	 using
       --delay-updates	(which	doesn't	 affect	the sorted transfer order, but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more	rapidly).

       Rsync takes steps to ensure that	the file requests that are shared in a
       transfer	 are  protected	 against various security issues.  Most	of the
       potential problems arise	on the receiving side where rsync takes	 steps
       to  ensure  that	the list of files being	transferred remains within the
       bounds of what was requested.

       Toward this end,	rsync 3.1.2 and	later have aborted when	 a  file  list
       contains	 an  absolute or relative path that tries to escape out	of the
       top of the transfer.  Also, beginning with version  3.2.5,  rsync  does
       two  more  safety  checks  of the file list to (1) ensure that no extra
       source arguments	were added into	the transfer other than	those that the
       client  requested  and  (2) ensure that the file	list obeys the exclude
       rules that were sent to the sender.

       For those that don't yet	have a 3.2.5 client rsync (or those that  want
       to be extra careful), it	is safest to do	a copy into a dedicated	desti-
       nation directory	for the	remote files when you don't trust  the	remote
       host.   For  example, instead of	doing an rsync copy into your home di-

	   rsync -aiv host1:dir1 ~

       Dedicate	a "host1-files"	dir to the remote content:

	   rsync -aiv host1:dir1 ~/host1-files

       See the --trust-sender option for additional details.

       CAUTION:	it is not particularly safe to use rsync to copy files from  a
       case-preserving	filesystem to a	case-ignoring filesystem.  If you must
       perform such a copy, you	should either disable symlinks via  --no-links
       or  enable the munging of symlinks via --munge-links (and make sure you
       use the right local or remote option).  This will  prevent  rsync  from
       doing  potentially  dangerous  things if	a symlink name overlaps	with a
       file or directory. It does not, however,	ensure that  you  get  a  full
       copy  of	 all  the files	(since that may	not be possible	when the names
       overlap). A potentially better solution is to list all the source files
       and  create  a safe list	of filenames that you pass to the --files-from
       option.	Any files that conflict	in name	would need  to	be  copied  to
       different destination directories using more than one copy.

       While  a	copy of	a case-ignoring	filesystem to a	case-ignoring filesys-
       tem can work out	fairly well, if	no --delete-during or  --delete-before
       option  is active, rsync	can potentially	update an existing file	on the
       receiveing side without noticing	 that  the  upper-/lower-case  of  the
       filename	should be changed to match the sender.

       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a	remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style	as the	first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all	these work:

	   rsync -aiv host:file1 :file2	host:file{3,4} /dest/
	   rsync -aiv host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/extra /dest/
	   rsync -aiv host::modname/first ::extra-file{1,2} /dest/

       Note  that  a  daemon connection	only supports accessing	one module per
       copy command, so	if the start of	a follow-up path  doesn't  begin  with
       the modname of the first	path, it is assumed to be a path in the	module
       (such as	the extra-file1	& extra-file2 that are grabbed above).

       Really old versions of rsync (2.6.9 and before) only allowed specifying
       one  remote-source  arg,	 so some people	have instead relied on the re-
       mote-shell performing space splitting to	break up an arg	into  multiple
       paths.  Such  unintuitive  behavior  is	no longer supported by default
       (though you can request it, as described	below).

       Starting	in 3.2.4, filenames are	passed to a remote shell in such a way
       as  to preserve the characters you give it. Thus, if you	ask for	a file
       with spaces in the name,	that's what the	remote rsync looks for:

	   rsync -aiv host:'a simple file.pdf' /dest/

       If you use scripts that have been written to manually apply extra quot-
       ing  to the remote rsync	args (or to require remote arg splitting), you
       can ask rsync to	let your script	handle the extra  escaping.   This  is
       done  by	 either	 adding	the --old-args option to the rsync runs	in the
       script (which requires a	new rsync) or exporting	 RSYNC_OLD_ARGS=1  and
       RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS=0 (which works with old or new rsync versions).

       It  is  also possible to	use rsync without a remote shell as the	trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to	a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port	873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be
       running on the remote system, so	refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC	DAEMON
       TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell ex-
       cept that:

       o      Use either double-colon syntax or	rsync:// URL syntax instead of
	      the single-colon (remote shell) syntax.

       o      The first	element	of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      Additional remote	source args can	use an abbreviated syntax that
	      omits the	hostname and/or	the module name, as discussed  in  AD-

       o      The remote daemon	may print a "message of	the day" when you con-

       o      If you specify only the host (with no module  or	path)  then  a
	      list of accessible modules on the	daemon is output.

       o      If  you specify a	remote source path but no destination, a list-
	      ing of the matching files	on the remote daemon is	output.

       o      The --rsh	(-e) option must be omitted to avoid changing the con-
	      nection style from using a socket	connection to USING RSYNC-DAE-

       An example that copies all the files in a remote	module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication.   If  so,
       you will	receive	a password prompt when you connect.  You can avoid the
       password	prompt by setting the environment variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to
       the password you	want to	use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	On some	systems	 environment  variables	 are  visible  to  all
       users.  On those	systems	using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may	 establish the connection via a	web proxy by setting the envi-
       ronment variable	RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing  to  your
       web proxy.  Note	that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a	daemon connection using	a program as  a	 proxy
       by  setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
       you wish	to run in place	of making a  direct  socket  connection.   The
       string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent	the hostname specified
       in the rsync command (so	use "%%" if you	need  a	 single	 "%"  in  your
       string).	 For example:

	   export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
	   rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	   rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses	ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards all data to port 873 (the	rsync daemon) on the  targeth-
       ost (%H).

       Note  also  that	 if  the RSYNC_SHELL environment variable is set, that
       program will be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command  instead  of
       using the default shell of the system() call.

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named	modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into  a	system	(other	than what is already required to allow remote-
       shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to  a	host  using  a	remote
       shell  and  then	 spawning a single-use "daemon"	server that expects to
       read its	config file in the home	dir of the remote user.	 This  can  be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the daemon is started up	fresh by the remote user, you may not be  able
       to  use	features  such as chroot or change the uid used	by the daemon.
       (For another way	to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider	using  ssh  to
       tunnel  a  local	 port to a remote machine and configure	a normal rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow	connections from "localhost".)

       From the	user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax	as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that	 you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line	with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option. (Setting	the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
       functionality.) For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a	different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix	in front of the	 host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based	authentication).  This
       means that you must give	the '-l	user' option to	 ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short	version	of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e	"ssh -l	ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In this setup, the daemon is started by the ssh command that is access-
       ing the system (which can  be  forced  via  the	~/.ssh/authorized_keys
       file, if	desired).  However, when accessing a daemon directly, it needs
       to be started beforehand.

       In order	to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon	already	running	(or it needs to	have configured	something like
       inetd to	spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).	For  full  information on how to start a daemon	that will han-
       dling incoming socket connections, see  the  rsyncd.conf(5)  manpage --
       that  is	 the  config file for the daemon, and it contains the full de-
       tails for how to	run the	daemon (including stand-alone and  inetd  con-

       If  you're  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is	no need	to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Here are	some examples of how rsync can be used.

       To backup a home	directory, which consists of large MS Word  files  and
       mail folders, a per-user	cron job can be	used that runs this each day:

	   rsync -aiz .	bkhost:backup/joe/

       To move some files from a remote	host to	the local host,	you could run:

	   rsync -aiv --remove-source-files rhost:/tmp/{file1,file2}.c ~/src/

       Here is a short summary of the options available	in rsync.  Each	option
       also has	its own	detailed description later in this manpage.

       --verbose, -v		increase verbosity
       --info=FLAGS		fine-grained informational verbosity
       --debug=FLAGS		fine-grained debug verbosity
       --stderr=e|a|c		change stderr output mode (default: errors)
       --quiet,	-q		suppress non-error messages
       --no-motd		suppress daemon-mode MOTD
       --checksum, -c		skip based on checksum,	not mod-time & size
       --archive, -a		archive	mode is	-rlptgoD (no -A,-X,-U,-N,-H)
       --no-OPTION		turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
       --recursive, -r		recurse	into directories
       --relative, -R		use relative path names
       --no-implied-dirs	don't send implied dirs	with --relative
       --backup, -b		make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
       --backup-dir=DIR		make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
       --suffix=SUFFIX		backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
       --update, -u		skip files that	are newer on the receiver
       --inplace		update destination files in-place
       --append			append data onto shorter files
       --append-verify		--append w/old data in file checksum
       --dirs, -d		transfer directories without recursing
       --old-dirs, --old-d	works like --dirs when talking to old rsync
       --mkpath			create destination's missing path components
       --links,	-l		copy symlinks as symlinks
       --copy-links, -L		transform symlink into referent	file/dir
       --copy-unsafe-links	only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
       --safe-links		ignore symlinks	that point outside the tree
       --munge-links		munge symlinks to make them safe & unusable
       --copy-dirlinks,	-k	transform symlink to dir into referent dir
       --keep-dirlinks,	-K	treat symlinked	dir on receiver	as dir
       --hard-links, -H		preserve hard links
       --perms,	-p		preserve permissions
       --fileflags		preserve file-flags (aka chflags)
       --executability,	-E	preserve executability
       --chmod=CHMOD		affect file and/or directory permissions
       --acls, -A		preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
       --xattrs, -X		preserve extended attributes
       --owner,	-o		preserve owner (super-user only)
       --group,	-g		preserve group
       --devices		preserve device	files (super-user only)
       --copy-devices		copy device contents as	a regular file
       --write-devices		write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
       --specials		preserve special files
       -D			same as	--devices --specials
       --times,	-t		preserve modification times
       --atimes, -U		preserve access	(use) times
       --open-noatime		avoid changing the atime on opened files
       --crtimes, -N		preserve create	times (newness)
       --omit-dir-times, -O	omit directories from --times
       --omit-link-times, -J	omit symlinks from --times
       --super			receiver attempts super-user activities
       --fake-super		store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
       --sparse, -S		turn sequences of nulls	into sparse blocks
       --preallocate		allocate dest files before writing them
       --dry-run, -n		perform	a trial	run with no changes made
       --whole-file, -W		copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
       --checksum-choice=STR	choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
       --one-file-system, -x	don't cross filesystem boundaries
       --block-size=SIZE, -B	force a	fixed checksum block-size
       --rsh=COMMAND, -e	specify	the remote shell to use
       --rsync-path=PROGRAM	specify	the rsync to run on remote machine
       --existing		skip creating new files	on receiver
       --ignore-existing	skip updating files that exist on receiver
       --remove-source-files	sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
       --del			an alias for --delete-during
       --delete			delete extraneous files	from dest dirs
       --delete-before		receiver deletes before	xfer, not during
       --delete-during		receiver deletes during	the transfer
       --delete-delay		find deletions during, delete after
       --delete-after		receiver deletes after transfer, not during
       --delete-excluded	also delete excluded files from	dest dirs
       --ignore-missing-args	ignore missing source args without error
       --delete-missing-args	delete missing source args from	destination
       --ignore-errors		delete even if there are I/O errors
       --force-delete		force deletion of directories even if not empty
       --force-change		affect user-/system-immutable files/dirs
       --force-uchange		affect user-immutable files/dirs
       --force-schange		affect system-immutable	files/dirs
       --max-delete=NUM		don't delete more than NUM files
       --max-size=SIZE		don't transfer any file	larger than SIZE
       --min-size=SIZE		don't transfer any file	smaller	than SIZE
       --max-alloc=SIZE		change a limit relating	to memory alloc
       --partial		keep partially transferred files
       --partial-dir=DIR	put a partially	transferred file into DIR
       --delay-updates		put all	updated	files into place at end
       --prune-empty-dirs, -m	prune empty directory chains from file-list
       --numeric-ids		don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
       --usermap=STRING		custom username	mapping
       --groupmap=STRING	custom groupname mapping
       --chown=USER:GROUP	simple username/groupname mapping
       --timeout=SECONDS	set I/O	timeout	in seconds
       --contimeout=SECONDS	set daemon connection timeout in seconds
       --ignore-times, -I	don't skip files that match size and time
       --size-only		skip files that	match in size
       --modify-window=NUM, -@	set the	accuracy for mod-time comparisons
       --temp-dir=DIR, -T	create temporary files in directory DIR
       --fuzzy,	-y		find similar file for basis if no dest file
       --compare-dest=DIR	also compare destination files relative	to DIR
       --copy-dest=DIR		... and	include	copies of unchanged files
       --link-dest=DIR		hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
       --compress, -z		compress file data during the transfer
       --compress-choice=STR	choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
       --compress-level=NUM	explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
       --skip-compress=LIST	skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
       --cvs-exclude, -C	auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
       --filter=RULE, -f	add a file-filtering RULE
       -F			same as	--filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
				repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
       --exclude=PATTERN	exclude	files matching PATTERN
       --exclude-from=FILE	read exclude patterns from FILE
       --include=PATTERN	don't exclude files matching PATTERN
       --include-from=FILE	read include patterns from FILE
       --files-from=FILE	read list of source-file names from FILE
       --from0,	-0		all *-from/filter files	are delimited by 0s
       --old-args		disable	the modern arg-protection idiom
       --secluded-args,	-s	use the	protocol to safely send	the args
       --trust-sender		trust the remote sender's file list
       --copy-as=USER[:GROUP]	specify	user & optional	group for the copy
       --address=ADDRESS	bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
       --port=PORT		specify	double-colon alternate port number
       --sockopts=OPTIONS	specify	custom TCP options
       --blocking-io		use blocking I/O for the remote	shell
       --outbuf=N|L|B		set out	buffering to None, Line, or Block
       --stats			give some file-transfer	stats
       --8-bit-output, -8	leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
       --human-readable, -h	output numbers in a human-readable format
       --progress		show progress during transfer
       -P			same as	--partial --progress
       --itemize-changes, -i	output a change-summary	for all	updates
       --remote-option=OPT, -M	send OPTION to the remote side only
       --out-format=FORMAT	output updates using the specified FORMAT
       --log-file=FILE		log what we're doing to	the specified FILE
       --log-file-format=FMT	log updates using the specified	FMT
       --password-file=FILE	read daemon-access password from FILE
       --early-input=FILE	use FILE for daemon's early exec input
       --list-only		list the files instead of copying them
       --bwlimit=RATE		limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --stop-after=MINS	Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m	Stop rsync at the specified point in time
       --fsync			fsync every written file
       --write-batch=FILE	write a	batched	update to FILE
       --only-write-batch=FILE	like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
       --read-batch=FILE	read a batched update from FILE
       --protocol=NUM		force an older protocol	version	to be used
       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC	request	charset	conversion of filenames
       --checksum-seed=NUM	set block/file checksum	seed (advanced)
       --ipv4, -4		prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6		prefer IPv6
       --version, -V		print the version + other info and exit
       --help, -h (*)		show this help (* -h is	help only on its own)

       Rsync can also be run as	a daemon, in which case	the following  options
       are accepted:

       --daemon			run as an rsync	daemon
       --address=ADDRESS	bind to	the specified address
       --bwlimit=RATE		limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --config=FILE		specify	alternate rsyncd.conf file
       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M	override global	daemon config parameter
       --no-detach		do not detach from the parent
       --port=PORT		listen on alternate port number
       --log-file=FILE		override the "log file"	setting
       --log-file-format=FMT	override the "log format" setting
       --sockopts=OPTIONS	specify	custom TCP options
       --verbose, -v		increase verbosity
       --ipv4, -4		prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6		prefer IPv6
       --help, -h		show this help (when used with --daemon)

       Rsync  accepts  both long (double-dash +	word) and short	(single-dash +
       letter) options.	 The full list of the available	options	are  described
       below.  If an option can	be specified in	more than one way, the choices
       are comma-separated.  Some options only have  a	long  variant,	not  a

       If the option takes a parameter,	the parameter is only listed after the
       long variant, even though it must also  be  specified  for  the	short.
       When  specifying	 a  parameter,	you  can  either  use  the  form --op-
       tion=param, --option param, -o=param, -o	param, or -oparam (the	latter
       choices assume that your	option has a short variant).

       The  parameter  may  need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive
       the shell's command-line	parsing.  Also keep in	mind  that  a  leading
       tilde (~) in a pathname is substituted by your shell, so	make sure that
       you separate the	option name from the pathname using  a	space  if  you
       want the	local shell to expand it.

       --help Print  a	short  help  page  describing the options available in
	      rsync and	exit.  You can also use	-h for --help when it is  used
	      without any other	options	(since it normally means --human-read-

       --version, -V
	      Print the	rsync version plus other  info	and  exit.   When  re-
	      peated, the information is output	is a JSON format that is still
	      fairly readable (client side only).

	      The output includes a list of compiled-in	capabilities,  a  list
	      of  optimizations,  the default list of checksum algorithms, the
	      default list of compression algorithms, the default list of dae-
	      mon  auth	digests, a link	to the rsync web site, and a few other

       --verbose, -v
	      This option increases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the transfer.  By	default, rsync works silently.	A sin-
	      gle -v will give you information	about  what  files  are	 being
	      transferred and a	brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
	      give you	information  on	 what  files  are  being  skipped  and
	      slightly	more information at the	end.  More than	two -v options
	      should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

	      The end-of-run summary tells you the number of bytes sent	to the
	      remote  rsync (which is the receiving side on a local copy), the
	      number of	bytes received from the	remote host, and  the  average
	      bytes  per  second of the	transferred data computed over the en-
	      tire length of the rsync run. The	second line  shows  the	 total
	      size  (in	 bytes),  which	 is the	sum of all the file sizes that
	      rsync considered transferring.  It also shows a "speedup"	value,
	      which  is	 a  ratio of the total file size divided by the	sum of
	      the sent and received bytes (which is really  just  a  feel-good
	      bigger-is-better	number).   Note	 that these byte values	can be
	      made more	(or less) human-readable by using the --human-readable
	      (or --no-human-readable) options.

	      In a modern rsync, the -v	option is equivalent to	the setting of
	      groups of	--info and --debug options.  You  can  choose  to  use
	      these  newer options in addition to, or in place of using	--ver-
	      bose, as any fine-grained	settings override the implied settings
	      of  -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that
	      tells you	exactly	what flags are set for each increase  in  ver-

	      However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
	      will limit how high of a level the various individual flags  can
	      be  set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the	max is 2, then
	      any info and/or debug flag that is set to	a  higher  value  than
	      what  would be set by -vv	will be	downgraded to the -vv level in
	      the daemon's logging.

	      This option lets you have	fine-grained control over the informa-
	      tion  output  you	 want  to see.	An individual flag name	may be
	      followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that  out-
	      put,  1  being  the default output level,	and higher numbers in-
	      creasing the output of that flag (for those that support	higher
	      levels).	 Use  --info=help to see all the available flag	names,
	      what they	output,	and what flag names are	 added	for  each  in-
	      crease in	the verbose level.  Some examples:

		  rsync	-a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
		  rsync	-avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0	src/ dest/

	      Note  that  --info=name's	output is affected by the --out-format
	      and --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for  more
	      information on what is output and	when.

	      This  option was added to	3.1.0, so an older rsync on the	server
	      side might reject	your attempts at fine-grained control (if  one
	      or more flags needed to be send to the server and	the server was
	      too old to  understand  them).   See  also  the  "max verbosity"
	      caveat above when	dealing	with a daemon.

	      This  option  lets  you have fine-grained	control	over the debug
	      output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
	      by  a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 be-
	      ing the default output level, and	higher numbers increasing  the
	      output of	that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
	      --debug=help to see all the available flag names,	what they out-
	      put, and what flag names are added for each increase in the ver-
	      bose level.  Some	examples:

		  rsync	-avvv --debug=none src/	dest/
		  rsync	-avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

	      Note that	some debug messages  will  only	 be  output  when  the
	      --stderr=all option is specified,	especially those pertaining to
	      I/O and buffer debugging.

	      Beginning	in 3.2.0, this option is no longer  auto-forwarded  to
	      the server side in order to allow	you to specify different debug
	      values for each side of the transfer, as well as	to  specify  a
	      new  debug  option that is only present in one of	the rsync ver-
	      sions.  If you want to duplicate the same	option on both	sides,
	      using  brace  expansion  is an easy way to save you some typing.
	      This works in zsh	and bash:

		  rsync	-aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

	      This option controls which processes output  to  stderr  and  if
	      info  messages are also changed to stderr.  The mode strings can
	      be abbreviated, so feel free to use a single letter value.   The
	      3	possible choices are:

	      o	     errors  - (the default) causes all	the rsync processes to
		     send an error directly to stderr, even if the process  is
		     on	 the  remote  side of the transfer.  Info messages are
		     sent to the client	side  via  the	protocol  stream.   If
		     stderr  is	 not  available	(i.e. when directly connecting
		     with a daemon via a socket) errors	 fall  back  to	 being
		     sent via the protocol stream.

	      o	     all  -  causes all	rsync messages (info and error)	to get
		     written directly to stderr	from all (possible) processes.
		     This  causes  stderr  to become line-buffered (instead of
		     raw) and eliminates the ability to	divide up the info and
		     error messages by file handle.  For those doing debugging
		     or	using several levels of	 verbosity,  this  option  can
		     help  to  avoid  clogging	up  the	transfer stream	(which
		     should prevent any	 chance	 of  a	deadlock  bug  hanging
		     things  up).  It also allows --debug to enable some extra
		     I/O related messages.

	      o	     client - causes all rsync messages	 to  be	 sent  to  the
		     client  side via the protocol stream.  One	client process
		     outputs all messages, with	errors on stderr and info mes-
		     sages  on	stdout.	  This	was the	default	in older rsync
		     versions, but can cause error delays when a lot of	trans-
		     fer  data	is  ahead  of the messages.  If	you're pushing
		     files to an older rsync, you may want to use --stderr=all
		     since that	idiom has been around for several releases.

	      This  option  was	added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version also began
	      the forwarding of	a non-default  setting	to  the	 remote	 side,
	      though  rsync uses the backward-compatible options --msgs2stderr
	      and --no-msgs2stderr to represent	the all	and  client  settings,
	      respectively.  A newer rsync will	continue to accept these older
	      option names to maintain compatibility.

       --quiet,	-q
	      This option decreases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the  transfer,  notably suppressing information messages
	      from the remote server.  This option  is	useful	when  invoking
	      rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the	client
	      at the start of a	daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
	      of-the-day  (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
	      that the daemon sends in response	to the "rsync host::"  request
	      (due to a	limitation in the rsync	protocol), so omit this	option
	      if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       --ignore-times, -I
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
	      size  and	 have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This	option
	      turns off	this "quick check" behavior, causing all files	to  be

	      This  option  can	be confusing compared to --ignore-existing and
	      --ignore-non-existing in that that they cause rsync to  transfer
	      fewer  files,  while  this  option causes	rsync to transfer more

	      This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for	finding	 files
	      that  need  to  be  transferred, changing	it from	the default of
	      transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
	      modified	time  to  just	looking	for files that have changed in
	      size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using an-
	      other  mirroring	system	which  may not preserve	timestamps ex-

       --modify-window=NUM, -@
	      When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats  the	timestamps  as
	      being  equal  if	they  differ by	no more	than the modify-window
	      value.  The default is 0,	which matches  just  integer  seconds.
	      If  you  specify	a negative value (and the receiver is at least
	      version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also	be taken into account.
	      Specifying  1  is	 useful	 for  copies  to/from  MS  Windows FAT
	      filesystems, because FAT represents times	with a 2-second	 reso-
	      lution  (allowing	 times	to differ from the original by up to 1

	      If you want all your transfers to	default	to comparing  nanosec-
	      onds, you	can create a ~/.popt file and put these	lines in it:

		  rsync	alias -a -a@-1
		  rsync	alias -t -t@-1

	      With  that  as  the default, you'd need to specify --modify-win-
	      dow=0 (aka -@0) to override it and ignore	nanoseconds,  e.g.  if
	      you're  copying between ext3 and ext4, or	if the receiving rsync
	      is older than 3.1.3.

       --checksum, -c
	      This changes the way rsync checks	if the files have been changed
	      and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
	      a	"quick check" that (by default)	checks if each file's size and
	      time of last modification	match between the sender and receiver.
	      This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
	      file  that  has a	matching size.	Generating the checksums means
	      that both	sides will expend a lot	of disk	I/O  reading  all  the
	      data  in the files in the	transfer, so this can slow things down
	      significantly (and this is prior to any  reading	that  will  be
	      done to transfer changed files)

	      The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
	      file-system scan that builds the list of	the  available	files.
	      The  receiver  generates	its  checksums when it is scanning for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file	that has the same size
	      as  the corresponding sender's file: files with either a changed
	      size or a	changed	checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that	rsync always verifies that each	transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	 receiving  side by checking a
	      whole-file checksum that is generated  as	 the  file  is	trans-
	      ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
	      nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
	      file need	to be updated?"	check.

	      The  checksum used is auto-negotiated between the	client and the
	      server, but can be overridden using either the --checksum-choice
	      (--cc)  option  or  an environment variable that is discussed in
	      that option's section.

       --archive, -a
	      This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you
	      want recursion and want to preserve almost everything.  Be aware
	      that it does not include	preserving  ACLs  (-A),	 xattrs	 (-X),
	      atimes  (-U),  crtimes  (-N),  nor the finding and preserving of
	      hardlinks	(-H).  It also does not	imply --fileflags.

	      The only exception to the	above equivalence is when --files-from
	      is specified, in which case -r is	not implied.

	      You  may	turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the
	      option name with "no-".  Not all positive	options	have a negated
	      opposite,	but a lot do, including	those that can be used to dis-
	      able an implied option (e.g.  --no-D, --no-perms)	or  have  dif-
	      ferent  defaults in various circumstances	(e.g. --no-whole-file,
	      --no-blocking-io,	--no-dirs).  Every valid  negated  option  ac-
	      cepts  both  the	short and the long option name after the "no-"
	      prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

	      As an example, if	you want to use	--archive (-a) but don't  want
	      --owner  (-o),  instead  of  converting -a into -rlptgD, you can
	      specify -a --no-o	(aka --archive --no-owner).

	      The order	of the options is important: if	you specify --no-r -a,
	      the  -r  option  would  end  up being turned on, the opposite of
	      -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
	      option  are  NOT	positional, as it affects the default state of
	      several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       --recursive, -r
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories	recursively.  See also
	      --dirs (-d) for an option	that allows the	scanning of  a	single

	      See the --inc-recursive option for a discussion of the incremen-
	      tal recursion for	creating the list of files to transfer.

       --inc-recursive,	--i-r
	      This option explicitly enables  on  incremental  recursion  when
	      scanning	for  files, which is enabled by	default	when using the
	      --recursive option and both sides	of the	transfer  are  running
	      rsync 3.0.0 or newer.

	      Incremental  recursion  uses much	less memory than non-incremen-
	      tal, while also beginning	the transfer more  quickly  (since  it
	      doesn't  need  to	 scan  the entire transfer hierarchy before it
	      starts transferring files).  If no recursion is enabled  in  the
	      source files, this option	has no effect.

	      Some  options require rsync to know the full file	list, so these
	      options disable the incremental recursion	mode.  These include:

	      o	     --delete-before (the old default of --delete)

	      o	     --delete-after

	      o	     --prune-empty-dirs

	      o	     --delay-updates

	      In order to make --delete	compatible with	incremental recursion,
	      rsync  3.0.0 made	--delete-during	the default delete mode	(which
	      was first	added in 2.6.4).

	      One side-effect of incremental recursion	is  that  any  missing
	      sub-directories  inside  a recursively-scanned directory are (by
	      default) created prior to	recursing  into	 the  sub-dirs.	  This
	      earlier creation point (compared to a non-incremental recursion)
	      allows rsync to then set the modify time of the finished	direc-
	      tory  right  away	(without having	to delay that until a bunch of
	      recursive	copying	has finished).	However, these early  directo-
	      ries  don't  yet	have their completed mode, mtime, or ownership
	      set -- they have more restrictive	 rights	 until	the  subdirec-
	      tory's  copying  actually	begins.	 This early-creation idiom can
	      be avoided by using the --omit-dir-times option.

	      Incremental recursion can	be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
	      sive (--no-i-r) option.

       --no-inc-recursive, --no-i-r
	      Disables the new incremental recursion algorithm of the --recur-
	      sive option.  This makes rsync scan the full file	list before it
	      begins to	transfer files.	 See --inc-recursive for more info.

       --relative, -R
	      Use  relative paths.  This means that the	full path names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent	to the server rather than just
	      the  last	 parts	of the filenames.  This	is particularly	useful
	      when you want to send several different directories at the  same
	      time.  For example, if you used this command:

		  rsync	-av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      would  create a file named baz.c in /tmp/	on the remote machine.
	      If instead you used

		  rsync	-avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then a file named	/tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the re-
	      mote  machine,  preserving its full path.	 These extra path ele-
	      ments are	called "implied	directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
	      "foo/bar"	directories in the above example).

	      Beginning	with rsync 3.0.0, rsync	always sends these implied di-
	      rectories	as real	directories in the file	list, even if  a  path
	      element  is really a symlink on the sending side.	 This prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the	full path of a
	      file  that you didn't realize had	a symlink in its path.	If you
	      want to duplicate	a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
	      link via its path, and referent directory	via its	real path.  If
	      you're dealing with an older rsync on the	sending	side, you  may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs	option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.	  With
	      a	 modern	 rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into	the source path, like this:

		  rsync	-avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create	/tmp/bar/baz.c on the  remote  machine.	 (Note
	      that  the	dot must be followed by	a slash, so "/foo/." would not
	      be abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need	to use
	      a	 chdir	to  limit  the source path.  For example, when pushing

		  (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put	the two	commands into a	sub-shell,  so
	      that  the	 "cd" command doesn't remain in	effect for future com-
	      mands.) If you're	pulling	files from an older  rsync,  use  this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		       remote:bar/baz.c	/tmp/

	      This  option  affects the	default	behavior of the	--relative op-
	      tion.  When it is	specified, the attributes of the  implied  di-
	      rectories	 from  the source names	are not	included in the	trans-
	      fer.  This means that the	corresponding  path  elements  on  the
	      destination  system  are	left  unchanged	if they	exist, and any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even	allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences, such as being a symlink to	a directory on	the  receiving

	      For  instance,  if a command-line	arg or a files-from entry told
	      rsync to transfer	 the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
	      "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
	      "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
	      receiving	 rsync would ordinarily	delete "path/foo", recreate it
	      as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
	      With    --no-implied-dirs,    the	   receiving   rsync   updates
	      "path/foo/file" using the	existing path  elements,  which	 means
	      that  the	file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
	      to accomplish this link  preservation  is	 to  use  the  --keep-
	      dirlinks	option (which will also	affect symlinks	to directories
	      in the rest of the transfer).

	      When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
	      to use this option if the	sending	side has a symlink in the path
	      you request and you wish the implied directories	to  be	trans-
	      ferred as	normal directories.

       --backup, -b
	      With  this  option, preexisting destination files	are renamed as
	      each file	is transferred or deleted.  You	can control where  the
	      backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets	appended using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      If you don't specify --backup-dir:

	      1.     the --omit-dir-times option will be forced	on

	      2.     the use of	--delete (without  --delete-excluded),	causes
		     rsync  to add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup suf-
		     fix to the	end of all your	existing  filters  that	 looks
		     like  this:  -f "P	*~".   This  rule  prevents previously
		     backed-up files from being	deleted.

	      Note that	if you are supplying your own filter  rules,  you  may
	      need  to manually	insert your own	exclude/protect	rule somewhere
	      higher up	in the list so that it has a high enough  priority  to
	      be  effective  (e.g.  if	your  rules  specify a trailing	inclu-
	      sion/exclusion  of  *,  the  auto-added  rule  would  never   be

	      This  implies  the --backup option, and tells rsync to store all
	      backups in the specified directory on the	receiving side.	  This
	      can be used for incremental backups.  You	can additionally spec-
	      ify a backup suffix using	the  --suffix  option  (otherwise  the
	      files backed up in the specified directory will keep their orig-
	      inal filenames).

	      Note that	if you specify a relative path,	the  backup  directory
	      will  be	relative to the	destination directory, so you probably
	      want to specify either an	absolute path or a  path  that	starts
	      with  "../".  If an rsync	daemon is the receiver,	the backup dir
	      cannot go	outside	the module's path  hierarchy,  so  take	 extra
	      care not to delete it or copy into it.

	      This  option  allows  you	 to override the default backup	suffix
	      used with	the --backup (-b) option.  The default suffix is  a  ~
	      if  no  --backup-dir  was	 specified,  otherwise	it is an empty

       --update, -u
	      This forces rsync	to skip	any files which	exist on the  destina-
	      tion  and	 have  a  modified  time that is newer than the	source
	      file. (If	an existing destination	file has a  modification  time
	      equal  to	the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are

	      Note that	this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
	      other  special files.  Also, a difference	of file	format between
	      the sender and receiver is always	 considered  to	 be  important
	      enough for an update, no matter what date	is on the objects.  In
	      other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
	      has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-

	      This option is a TRANSFER	RULE, so don't expect any exclude side

	      A	 caution for those that	choose to combine --inplace with --up-
	      date: an interrupted transfer will leave behind a	 partial  file
	      on  the  receiving side that has a very recent modified time, so
	      re-running the transfer will probably not	 continue  the	inter-
	      rupted  file.   As  such,	 it is usually best to avoid combining
	      this with	--inplace unless you have implemented manual steps  to
	      handle any interrupted in-progress files.

	      This  option  changes  how  rsync	transfers a file when its data
	      needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
	      new  copy	 of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
	      plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
	      destination file.

	      This has several effects:

	      o	     Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
		     be	visible	through	other hard links  to  the  destination
		     file.   Moreover, attempts	to copy	differing source files
		     onto a multiply-linked destination	file will result in  a
		     "tug  of war" with	the destination	data changing back and

	      o	     In-use binaries cannot be updated	(either	 the  OS  will
		     prevent  this from	happening, or binaries that attempt to
		     swap-in their data	will misbehave or crash).

	      o	     The file's	data will be in	an inconsistent	 state	during
		     the transfer and will be left that	way if the transfer is
		     interrupted or if an update fails.

	      o	     A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
		     While  a  super  user  can	update any file, a normal user
		     needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
		     file for writing to be successful.

	      o	     The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm	may be
		     reduced if	some data in the destination file is overwrit-
		     ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later	in the
		     file.  This does not apply	if  you	 use  --backup,	 since
		     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
		     file for the transfer.

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update	files that are
	      being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing	to use
	      this for a copy.

	      This option is useful for	transferring large files  with	block-
	      based  changes  or  appended  data, and also on systems that are
	      disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-on-
	      write  filesystem	snapshot from diverging	the entire contents of
	      a	file that only has minor changes.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the file), but	conflicts with --partial-dir and --de-
	      lay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incompati-
	      ble with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  special  copy  mode	only works to efficiently update files
	      that are known to	be growing larger where	any  existing  content
	      on  the  receiving side is also known to be the same as the con-
	      tent on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous	if you
	      aren't  100% sure	that all the files in the transfer are shared,
	      growing files.  You should thus use filter rules to ensure  that
	      you weed out any files that do not fit this criteria.

	      Rsync  updates these growing file	in-place without verifying any
	      of the existing content in the file (it only verifies  the  con-
	      tent that	it is appending).  Rsync skips any files that exist on
	      the receiving side that are not shorter than the associated file
	      on  the  sending	side  (which  means  that new files are	trans-
	      ferred).	It also	skips any files	whose size on the sending side
	      gets  shorter  during the	send negotiations (rsync warns about a
	      "diminished" file	when this happens).

	      This does	not interfere with the updating	of a  file's  non-con-
	      tent  attributes	(e.g.	permissions, ownership,	etc.) when the
	      file does	not need to be transferred, nor	does it	affect the up-
	      dating of	any directories	or non-regular files.

	      This  special  copy mode works like --append except that all the
	      data in the file is included in the checksum verification	 (mak-
	      ing  it less efficient but also potentially safer).  This	option
	      can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that all	the  files  in
	      the transfer are shared, growing files.  See the --append	option
	      for more details.

	      Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the	--append  option  worked  like
	      --append-verify,	so  if you are interacting with	an older rsync
	      (or the transfer is using	a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
	      either append option will	initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       --dirs, -d
	      Tell  the	 sending  side to include any directories that are en-
	      countered.  Unlike --recursive, a	directory's contents  are  not
	      copied unless the	directory name specified is "."	or ends	with a
	      trailing slash (e.g.  ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
	      option  or  the --recursive option, rsync	will skip all directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The --dirs option	is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
	      --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
	      --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories	 are  seen  in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

	      There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
	      (--old-d)	 that tells rsync to use a hack	of -r --exclude='/*/*'
	      to get an	older rsync to list a single directory without recurs-

	      Create all missing path components of the	destination path.

	      By  default, rsync allows	only the final component of the	desti-
	      nation path to not exist,	which is an attempt  to	 help  you  to
	      validate your destination	path.  With this option, rsync creates
	      all  the	missing	 destination-path  components,	just   as   if
	      mkdir -p $DEST_PATH had been run on the receiving	side.

	      When  specifying	a destination path, including a	trailing slash
	      ensures that the whole path is treated as	directory names	to  be
	      created,	even  when  the	 file  list has	a single item. See the
	      COPYING TO A DIFFERENT NAME section  for	full  details  on  how
	      rsync  decides  if  a final destination-path component should be
	      created as a directory or	not.

	      If you would like	the newly-created destination  dirs  to	 match
	      the  dirs	 on  the  sending side,	you should be using --relative
	      (-R) instead of --mkpath.	 For instance, the following two  com-
	      mands  result  in	the same destination tree, but only the	second
	      command ensures that the "some/extra/path" components match  the
	      dirs on the sending side:

		  rsync	-ai --mkpath host:some/extra/path/*.c some/extra/path/
		  rsync	-aiR host:some/extra/path/*.c ./

       --links,	-l
	      Add  symlinks to the transferred files instead of	noisily	ignor-
	      ing them with a "non-regular file" warning for each symlink  en-
	      countered.   You can alternately silence the warning by specify-
	      ing --info=nonreg0.

	      The default handling of symlinks is to recreate  each  symlink's
	      unchanged	value on the receiving side.

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --copy-links, -L
	      The  sender  transforms each symlink encountered in the transfer
	      into the referent	item, following	the symlink chain to the  file
	      or  directory that it references.	 If a symlink chain is broken,
	      an error is output and the file is dropped from the transfer.

	      This option supersedes any other options that affect symlinks in
	      the transfer, since there	are no symlinks	left in	the transfer.

	      This option does not change the handling of existing symlinks on
	      the receiving side, unlike versions  of  rsync  prior  to	 2.6.3
	      which  had the side-effect of telling the	receiving side to also
	      follow symlinks.	A modern rsync won't forward this option to  a
	      remote  receiver (since only the sender needs to know about it),
	      so this caveat should only affect	someone	using an rsync	client
	      older  than  2.6.7  (which is when -L stopped being forwarded to
	      the receiver).

	      See the --keep-dirlinks (-K) if you need a symlink to  a	direc-
	      tory to be treated as a real directory on	the receiving side.

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent	of symbolic links that
	      point outside the	 copied	 tree.	 Absolute  symlinks  are  also
	      treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks	in the
	      source path itself when --relative is used.

	      Note that	the cut-off point is the top of	the transfer, which is
	      the  part	of the path that rsync isn't mentioning	in the verbose
	      output.  If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then the "subdir"
	      directory	is a name inside the transfer tree, not	the top	of the
	      transfer (which is /src) so it is	 legal	for  created  relative
	      symlinks	to  refer to other names inside	the /src and /dest di-
	      rectories.  If you instead copy "/src/subdir/" (with a  trailing
	      slash)  to  "/dest/subdir"  that would not allow symlinks	to any
	      files outside of "subdir".

	      Note that	safe symlinks are only	copied	if  --links  was  also
	      specified	 or implied. The --copy-unsafe-links option has	no ex-
	      tra effect when combined with --copy-links.

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

	      This tells the receiving rsync to	ignore any symbolic  links  in
	      the  transfer which point	outside	the copied tree.  All absolute
	      symlinks are also	ignored.

	      Since this ignoring is happening on the receiving	side, it  will
	      still  be	 effective  even when the sending side has munged sym-
	      links (when it is	using --munge-links). It  also	affects	 dele-
	      tions, since the file being present in the transfer prevents any
	      matching file on the receiver from being deleted when  the  sym-
	      link is deemed to	be unsafe and is skipped.

	      This option must be combined with	--links	(or --archive) to have
	      any symlinks in the transfer to conditionally ignore. Its	effect
	      is superseded by --copy-unsafe-links.

	      Using  this option in conjunction	with --relative	may give unex-
	      pected results.

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

	      This option affects just one side	 of  the  transfer  and	 tells
	      rsync  to	munge symlink values when it is	receiving files	or un-
	      munge symlink values when	it is sending files.  The munged  val-
	      ues  make	 the symlinks unusable on disk but allows the original
	      contents of the symlinks to be recovered.

	      The server-side rsync often  enables  this  option  without  the
	      client's	knowledge,  such as in an rsync	daemon's configuration
	      file or by an option given  to  the  rrsync  (restricted	rsync)
	      script.	When  specified	on the client side, specify the	option
	      normally if it is	the client side	that has/needs the munged sym-
	      links,  or  use -M--munge-links to give the option to the	server
	      when it has/needs	the munged symlinks.  Note  that  on  a	 local
	      transfer,	the client is the sender, so specifying	the option di-
	      rectly unmunges symlinks while specifying	it as a	remote	option
	      munges symlinks.

	      This option has no effect	when sent to a daemon via --remote-op-
	      tion because the daemon configures whether it wants munged  sym-
	      links via	its "munge symlinks" parameter.

	      The symlink value	is munged/unmunged once	it is in the transfer,
	      so any option that transforms symlinks into non-symlinks	occurs
	      prior to the munging/unmunging except for	--safe-links, which is
	      a	choice that the	receiver makes,	so it bases  its  decision  on
	      the  munged/unmunged  value.   This does mean that if a receiver
	      has munging enabled, that	using --safe-links will	cause all sym-
	      links to be ignored (since they are all absolute).

	      The  method  that	 rsync uses to munge the symlinks is to	prefix
	      each one's value with the	string "/rsyncd-munged/".   This  pre-
	      vents  the  links	 from being used as long as the	directory does
	      not exist.  When this option is enabled, rsync  will  refuse  to
	      run  if  that  path  is  a directory or a	symlink	to a directory
	      (though it only checks at	startup).  See	also  the  "munge-sym-
	      links" python script in the support directory of the source code
	      for a way	to munge/unmunge one or	more symlinks in-place.

       --copy-dirlinks,	-k
	      This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to	a  di-
	      rectory  as  though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you don't	want symlinks to non-directories to  be	 affected,  as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without  this  option, if	the sending side has replaced a	direc-
	      tory with	a symlink to a	directory,  the	 receiving  side  will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the	new symlink, including
	      a	directory hierarchy (as	long as	--force-delete or --delete  is
	      in effect).

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

	      --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to  directories  in  the
	      source.	If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
	      trick you	can use	is to pass them	as additional source args with
	      a	 trailing  slash,  using --relative to make the	paths match up
	      right.  For example:

		  rsync	-r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

	      This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on  the  source  arg  as
	      given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
	      giving rise to a directory in the	file-list which	overrides  the
	      symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --keep-dirlinks,	-K
	      This  option  causes  the	receiving side to treat	a symlink to a
	      directory	as though it were a real directory,  but  only	if  it
	      matches  a real directory	from the sender.  Without this option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with	a real

	      For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
	      tains a file "file", but "foo" is	a symlink to  directory	 "bar"
	      on  the receiver.	 Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
	      symlink "foo", recreates it as a	directory,  and	 receives  the
	      file into	the new	directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the	symlink	and "file" ends	up in "bar".

	      One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must	 trust
	      all  the symlinks	in the copy or enable the --munge-links	option
	      on the receiving side!  If it is possible	for an untrusted  user
	      to  create  their	 own  symlink  to any real directory, the user
	      could then (on a subsequent copy)	replace	 the  symlink  with  a
	      real  directory and affect the content of	whatever directory the
	      symlink references.  For backup copies, you are better off using
	      something	 like a	bind mount instead of a	symlink	to modify your
	      receiving	hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the sending

	      See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

       --hard-links, -H
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in	the source and
	      link together the	corresponding files on the destination.	 With-
	      out  this	option,	hard-linked files in the source	are treated as
	      though they were separate	files.

	      This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
	      links  on	 the  destination  exactly matches that	on the source.
	      Cases in which the destination may end up	with extra hard	 links
	      include the following:

	      o	     If	 the  destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
		     linking than what is present in the  source  file	list),
		     the  copying  algorithm  will  not	break them explicitly.
		     However, if one or	more of	the paths have content differ-
		     ences,  the  normal  file-update process will break those
		     extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

	      o	     If	you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
		     links,  the  linking of the destination files against the
		     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
		     to	become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

	      Note that	rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
	      are  inside  the transfer	set.  If rsync updates a file that has
	      extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to	avoid this breakage, be	very careful that you know how
	      your files are being updated so that you are certain that	no un-
	      intended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see the
	      --inplace	option for more	caveats).

	      If  incremental recursion	is active (see --inc-recursive), rsync
	      may transfer a missing hard-linked file before it	finds that an-
	      other  link for that contents exists elsewhere in	the hierarchy.
	      This does	not affect the accuracy	of the	transfer  (i.e.	 which
	      files are	hard-linked together), just its	efficiency (i.e. copy-
	      ing the data for a new, early copy of a  hard-linked  file  that
	      could have been found later in the transfer in another member of
	      the hard-linked set of files).  One way to  avoid	 this  ineffi-
	      ciency  is  to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-
	      recursive	option.

       --perms,	-p
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to	 set  the  destination
	      permissions  to be the same as the source	permissions. (See also
	      the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync	 considers  to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this	option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing files (including updated files) retain their ex-
		     isting permissions,  though  the  --executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New  files	 get their "normal" permission bits set	to the
		     source file's permissions masked with the	receiving  di-
		     rectory's	 default  permissions  (either	the  receiving
		     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
		     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
		     permission	bits disabled except in	the case where	a  new
		     directory	inherits  a  setgid bit	from its parent	direc-

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's  behavior	 is the	same as	that of	other file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In summary: to give destination files (both  old	and  new)  the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give	new files the destina-
	      tion-default  permissions	 (while	 leaving  existing  files  un-
	      changed),	 make  sure  that  the	--perms	 option	is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get  en-
	      abled).	If  you'd  care	to make	this latter behavior easier to
	      type, you	could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line  in	the file ~/.popt (the following	defines	the -Z option,
	      and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination

		  rsync	alias -Z --no-p	--no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You  could  then	use  this new option in	a command such as this

		  rsync	-avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or	it will	re-en-
	      able the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

	      The  preservation	 of the	destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
	      ated directories when --perms is off was added in	 rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
	      permission bits for newly-created	files when  --perms  was  off,
	      while  overriding	 the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
	      newly-created directory.	Default	ACL observance	was  added  to
	      the  ACL	patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even	if default ACLs	are present.  (Keep in
	      mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
	      these behaviors.)

       --executability,	-E
	      This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or  non-
	      executability)  of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
	      regular file is considered to be executable if at	least one  'x'
	      is  turned  on in	its permissions.  When an existing destination
	      file's executability differs  from  that	of  the	 corresponding
	      source  file,  rsync modifies the	destination file's permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	make a file non-executable, rsync turns	 off  all  its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To	 make  a file executable, rsync	turns on each 'x' per-
		     mission that has a	corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       --acls, -A
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs	to  be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The	option also implies --perms.

	      The  source and destination systems must have compatible ACL en-
	      tries for	this option to work properly.	See  the  --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       --xattrs, -X
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination extended  at-
	      tributes to be the same as the source ones.

	      For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces,	a copy
	      being done by a super-user copies	 all  namespaces  except  sys-
	      tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.	 To be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as	a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

	      The  above name filtering	can be overridden by using one or more
	      filter options with the x	modifier.  When	you specify an	xattr-
	      affecting	 filter	rule, rsync requires that you do your own sys-
	      tem/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for what
	      xattr names are copied and what names are	allowed	to be deleted.
	      For example, to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

		  --filter='-x system.*'

	      To skip all namespaces except  the  user	namespace,  you	 could
	      specify a	negated-user match:

		  --filter='-x!	user.*'

	      To  prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could specify
	      a	receiver-only rule that	excludes all names:

		  --filter='-xr	*'

	      Note that	the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr val-
	      ues (e.g.	 those used by --fake-super) unless you	repeat the op-
	      tion (e.g. -XX).	This "copy all xattrs"	mode  cannot  be  used
	      with --fake-super.

	      This option causes rsync to update the file-flags	to be the same
	      as the source files and directories (if  your  OS	 supports  the
	      chflags(2) system	call).	 Some flags can	only be	altered	by the
	      super-user and some might	only be	unset below a certain  secure-
	      level  (usually single-user mode). It will not make files	alter-
	      able that	are set	to immutable on	the receiver.  To do that, see
	      --force-change, --force-uchange, and --force-schange.

	      This option causes rsync to disable both user-immutable and sys-
	      tem-immutable flags on files and directories that	are being  up-
	      dated  or	 deleted on the	receiving side.	 This option overrides
	      --force-uchange and --force-schange.

	      This option causes rsync	to  disable  user-immutable  flags  on
	      files  and  directories that are being updated or	deleted	on the
	      receiving	side.  It does not try to affect system	 flags.	  This
	      option overrides --force-change and --force-schange.

	      This  option  causes  rsync to disable system-immutable flags on
	      files and	directories that are being updated or deleted  on  the
	      receiving	side.  It does not try to affect user flags.  This op-
	      tion overrides --force-change and	--force-uchange.

	      This option tells	rsync to apply	one  or	 more  comma-separated
	      "chmod"  modes  to  the permission of the	files in the transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as	though it were the permissions
	      that  the	 sending  side supplied	for the	file, which means that
	      this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In  addition  to	the  normal  parsing  rules  specified	in the
	      chmod(1) manpage,	you can	specify	an item	that should only apply
	      to  a  directory	by prefixing it	with a 'D', or specify an item
	      that should only apply to	a file by prefixing  it	 with  a  'F'.
	      For  example, the	following will ensure that all directories get
	      marked set-gid, that no files are	other-writable,	that both  are
	      user-writable  and group-writable, and that both have consistent
	      executability across all bits:


	      Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


	      It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
	      additional  option  is  just  appended to	the list of changes to

	      See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
	      ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the	trans-

       --owner,	-o
	      This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
	      file  to be the same as the source file, but only	if the receiv-
	      ing rsync	is being run as	the super-user (see also  the  --super
	      and  --fake-super	 options).   Without this option, the owner of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The  preservation	 of ownership will associate matching names by
	      default, but may fall back to using the ID number	in  some  cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full discus-

       --group,	-g
	      This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
	      file  to	be the same as the source file.	 If the	receiving pro-
	      gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
	      specified),  only	groups that the	invoking user on the receiving
	      side is a	member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group  is	 set  to the default group of the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The preservation of group	information  will  associate  matching
	      names  by	 default,  but may fall	back to	using the ID number in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full

	      This  option causes rsync	to transfer character and block	device
	      files to the remote system to recreate these  devices.   If  the
	      receiving	 rsync	is  not	 being	run  as	 the super-user, rsync
	      silently skips creating the device files (see also  the  --super
	      and --fake-super options).

	      By  default,  rsync  generates  a	"non-regular file" warning for
	      each device file encountered when	this option is not  set.   You
	      can silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0.

	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  transfer	special	files, such as
	      named sockets and	fifos.	If the receiving rsync	is  not	 being
	      run as the super-user, rsync silently skips creating the special
	      files (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

	      By default, rsync	generates a  "non-regular  file"  warning  for
	      each  special file encountered when this option is not set.  You
	      can silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to "--devices	--specials".

	      This tells rsync to treat	a device on the	sending	side as	a reg-
	      ular file, allowing it to	be copied to a normal destination file
	      (or another device if --write-devices was	also specified).

	      This option is refused by	default	by an rsync daemon.

	      This tells rsync to treat	a device on the	receiving  side	 as  a
	      regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device.

	      This option implies the --inplace	option.

	      Be  careful  using  this,	 as  you  should know what devices are
	      present on the receiving side of the transfer,  especially  when
	      running rsync as root.

	      This option is refused by	default	by an rsync daemon.

       --times,	-t
	      This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times	along with the
	      files and	update them on the remote system.  Note	that  if  this
	      option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
	      have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
	      missing  -t (or -a) will cause the next transfer to behave as if
	      it used --ignore-times (-I), causing all	files  to  be  updated
	      (though  rsync's	delta-transfer	algorithm will make the	update
	      fairly efficient if the files haven't actually  changed,	you're
	      much better off using -t).

	      A	 modern	rsync that is using transfer protocol 30 or 31 conveys
	      a	modify time using up to	8-bytes. If rsync is forced  to	 speak
	      an  older	 protocol (perhaps due to the remote rsync being older
	      than 3.0.0) a modify time	is conveyed using  4-bytes.  Prior  to
	      3.2.7,  these  shorter  values  could  convey  a	date  range of
	      13-Dec-1901 to 19-Jan-2038.  Beginning with 3.2.7, these	4-byte
	      values  now convey a date	range of 1-Jan-1970 to 7-Feb-2106.  If
	      you have files dated older than 1970, make sure your rsync  exe-
	      cutables	are  upgraded  so  that	the full range of dates	can be

       --atimes, -U
	      This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of	 the  destina-
	      tion files to the	same value as the source files.

	      If  repeated,  it	also sets the --open-noatime option, which can
	      help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the same
	      access  times  on	 the  transferred files	without	needing	to run
	      rsync an extra time after	a file is transferred.

	      Note that	some older rsync versions (prior to  3.2.0)  may  have
	      been built with a	pre-release --atimes patch that	does not imply
	      --open-noatime when this option is repeated.

	      This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME	flag (on  sys-
	      tems  that  support it) to avoid changing	the access time	of the
	      files that are being transferred.	 If your OS does  not  support
	      the  O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option.
	      Note also	that some filesystems are mounted  to  avoid  updating
	      the  atime  on read access even without the O_NOATIME flag being

       --crtimes, -N,
	      This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the	desti-
	      nation files to the same value as	the source files.

       --omit-dir-times, -O
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when	it is preserving modi-
	      fication,	access,	and create times.  If NFS is sharing  the  di-
	      rectories	 on  the  receiving side, it is	a good idea to use -O.
	      This option is inferred if you use  --backup  without  --backup-

	      This  option also	has the	side-effect of avoiding	early creation
	      of missing sub-directories when  incremental  recursion  is  en-
	      abled, as	discussed in the --inc-recursive section.

       --omit-link-times, -J
	      This  tells rsync	to omit	symlinks when it is preserving modifi-
	      cation, access, and create times.

	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by	the super-user.	 These
	      activities include: preserving users  via	 the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just	the current user's groups) via
	      the --group option, and copying devices via  the	--devices  op-
	      tion.   This  is	useful	for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the	super-user, and	also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will get errors if the receiving side isn't being	run as the su-
	      per-user.	 To turn off super-user	activities, the	super-user can
	      use --no-super.

	      When  this option	is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
	      ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
	      extended	attributes that	are attached to	each file (as needed).
	      This includes the	file's owner and group (if it is not  the  de-
	      fault),  the file's device info (device &	special	files are cre-
	      ated as empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't
	      allow to be set on the real file (e.g. the real file gets	u-s,g-
	      s,o-t for	safety)	or that	would limit the	owner's	access	(since
	      the  real	 super-user can	always access/change a file, the files
	      we create	can always be accessed/changed by the creating	user).
	      This option also handles ACLs (if	--acls was specified) and non-
	      user extended attributes (if --xattrs was	specified).

	      This is a	good way to backup data	without	 using	a  super-user,
	      and to store ACLs	from incompatible systems.

	      The  --fake-super	 option	only affects the side where the	option
	      is used.	To affect the remote side of  a	 remote-shell  connec-
	      tion, use	the --remote-option (-M) option:

		  rsync	-av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

	      For  a  local  copy, this	option affects both the	source and the
	      destination.  If you wish	a local	copy  to  enable  this	option
	      just  for	the destination	files, specify -M--fake-super.	If you
	      wish a local copy	to enable this	option	just  for  the	source
	      files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

	      This option is overridden	by both	--super	and --no-super.

	      See  also	 the  fake super  setting  in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       --sparse, -S
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they	take  up  less
	      space  on	 the destination.  If combined with --inplace the file
	      created might not	end up with sparse blocks with	some  combina-
	      tions of kernel version and/or filesystem	type.  If --whole-file
	      is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then	it  will  always  work
	      because  rsync  truncates	 the file prior	to writing out the up-
	      dated version.

	      Note that	versions of rsync older	than  3.1.3  will  reject  the
	      combination of --sparse and --inplace.

	      This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file	to its
	      eventual size before writing data	to the file.  Rsync will  only
	      use  the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by
	      Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
	      not  the	slow glibc implementation that writes a	null byte into
	      each block.

	      Without this option, larger files	may not	be entirely contiguous
	      on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
	      more slowly.  If the destination	is  not	 an  extent-supporting
	      filesystem (such as ext4,	xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
	      no positive effect at all.

	      If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse	blocks
	      (as  opposed to allocated	sequences of null bytes) if the	kernel
	      version and filesystem type support creating holes in the	 allo-
	      cated data.

       --dry-run, -n
	      This  makes  rsync  perform  a  trial  run that doesn't make any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a	real run).  It
	      is  most	commonly  used	in combination with the	--verbose (-v)
	      and/or --itemize-changes (-i) options to see what	an rsync  com-
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The  output  of  --itemize-changes is supposed to	be exactly the
	      same on a	dry run	and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery	and  system call failures); if it isn't, that's	a bug.
	      Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in  some
	      areas.   Notably,	 a  dry	 run does not send the actual data for
	      file transfers, so --progress has	no effect, the	"bytes	sent",
	      "bytes  received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics
	      are too small, and the "speedup" value is	equivalent  to	a  run
	      where no file transfers were needed.

       --whole-file, -W
	      This  option  disables  rsync's  delta-transfer algorithm, which
	      causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer may
	      be  faster if this option	is used	when the bandwidth between the
	      source and destination machines is higher	than the bandwidth  to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).  This is the	default	when both the source and  des-
	      tination	are  specified	as  local paths, but only if no	batch-
	      writing option is	in effect.

       --no-whole-file,	--no-W
	      Disable whole-file updating when it is enabled by	default	for  a
	      local  transfer.	 This  usually slows rsync down, but it	can be
	      useful if	you are	trying to minimize the writes to the  destina-
	      tion file	(if combined with --inplace) or	for testing the	check-
	      sum-based	update algorithm.

	      See also the --whole-file	option.

       --checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
	      This option overrides the	checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm
	      name  is	specified,  it is used for both	the transfer checksums
	      and (assuming --checksum is specified) the  pre-transfer	check-
	      sums.  If	two comma-separated names are supplied,	the first name
	      affects the transfer checksums, and the second name affects  the
	      pre-transfer checksums (-c).

	      The checksum options that	you may	be able	to use are:

	      o	     auto (the default automatic choice)

	      o	     xxh128

	      o	     xxh3

	      o	     xxh64 (aka	xxhash)

	      o	     md5

	      o	     md4

	      o	     sha1

	      o	     none

	      Run  rsync --version  to	see the	default	checksum list compiled
	      into your	version	(which may differ from the list	above).

	      If "none"	is  specified  for  the	 first	(or  only)  name,  the
	      --whole-file option is forced on and no checksum verification is
	      performed	on the transferred data.  If "none" is	specified  for
	      the second (or only) name, the --checksum	option cannot be used.

	      The  "auto"  option  is the default, where rsync bases its algo-
	      rithm choice on a	negotiation between the	client and the	server
	      as follows:

	      When  both  sides	 of  the  transfer  are	 at least 3.2.0, rsync
	      chooses the first	algorithm in the client's list of choices that
	      is  also in the server's list of choices.	 If no common checksum
	      choice is	found, rsync exits with	an error.  If the remote rsync
	      is  too  old  to support checksum	negotiation, a value is	chosen
	      based on the protocol version (which  chooses  between  MD5  and
	      various flavors of MD4 based on protocol age).

	      The  default  order can be customized by setting the environment
	      variable RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST to a	space-separated	 list  of  ac-
	      ceptable	checksum  names.  If the string	contains a "&" charac-
	      ter, it is separated into	the "client string &  server  string",
	      otherwise	 the  same  string applies to both.  If	the string (or
	      string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters,  the  de-
	      fault  checksum list is used.  This method does not allow	you to
	      specify the transfer checksum separately from  the  pre-transfer
	      checksum,	and it discards	"auto" and all unknown checksum	names.
	      A	list with only invalid names results in	a failed negotiation.

	      The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides	this  environ-
	      ment list.

       --one-file-system, -x
	      This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
	      recursing.  This does not	limit the user's  ability  to  specify
	      items  to	copy from multiple filesystems,	just rsync's recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and  also	 the  analogous	recursion on the receiving side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that	rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is	repeated, rsync	omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries from	the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
	      at  each	mount-point it encounters (using the attributes	of the
	      mounted directory	because	those of  the  underlying  mount-point
	      directory	are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been	told to	collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on	another	device
	      is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks	to non-directories are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --ignore-non-existing, --existing
	      This tells rsync to skip creating	files (including  directories)
	      that  do	not  exist  yet	on the destination.  If	this option is
	      combined with the	--ignore-existing option, no files will	be up-
	      dated  (which  can be useful if all you want to do is delete ex-
	      traneous files).

	      This option is a TRANSFER	RULE, so don't expect any exclude side

	      This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
	      the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or
	      nothing would get	done).	See also --ignore-non-existing.

	      This option is a TRANSFER	RULE, so don't expect any exclude side

	      This option can be useful	for  those  doing  backups  using  the
	      --link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
	      got interrupted.	Since a	--link-dest run	is copied into	a  new
	      directory	hierarchy (when	it is used properly), using [--ignore-
	      existing will ensure that	the already-handled  files  don't  get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in	permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).  This does mean that this	option is only looking at  the
	      existing files in	the destination	hierarchy itself.

	      When  --info=skip2  is  used  rsync will output "FILENAME	exists
	      (INFO)" messages where the INFO indicates	one of "type  change",
	      "sum  change"  (requires	-c), "file change" (based on the quick
	      check), "attr change", or	"uptodate".  Using --info=skip1	(which
	      is  also	implied	 by  2	-v options) outputs the	exists message
	      without the INFO suffix.

	      This tells rsync to remove  from	the  sending  side  the	 files
	      (meaning	non-directories)  that	are a part of the transfer and
	      have been	successfully duplicated	on the receiving side.

	      Note that	you should only	use this option	on source  files  that
	      are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
	      in a particular directory	over to	another	host, make  sure  that
	      the  finished  files  get	renamed	into the source	directory, not
	      directly written into it,	so that	rsync can't possibly  transfer
	      a	 file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write
	      the files	into a different directory, you	should	use  a	naming
	      idiom  that lets rsync avoid transferring	files that are not yet
	      finished (e.g. name the file "" when it is	 written,  re-
	      name  it to "foo"	when it	is done, and then use the option --ex-
	      clude='*.new' for	the rsync transfer).

	      Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will  skip  the  sender-side  removal
	      (and  output an error) if	the file's size	or modify time has not
	      stayed unchanged.

	      Starting with 3.2.6, a local rsync copy  will  ensure  that  the
	      sender  does  not	remove a file the receiver just	verified, such
	      as when the user accidentally makes the source  and  destination
	      directory	the same path.

	      This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
	      side (ones that aren't on	the sending side), but	only  for  the
	      directories  that	 are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
	      rsync to send the	whole directory	(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using  a	wildcard  for  the directory's contents	(e.g. "dir/*")
	      since the	wildcard is expanded by	the shell and rsync thus  gets
	      a	 request  to  transfer individual files, not the files'	parent
	      directory.  Files	that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option or	mark the rules as only matching	on  the	 sending  side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the	FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior  to	 rsync	2.6.7, this option would have no effect	unless
	      --recursive was enabled.	Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!	It is  a  very
	      good  idea to first try a	run using the --dry-run	(-n) option to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
	      This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures	(such  as  NFS
	      errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
	      files on the destination.	 You can override this with the	 --ig-
	      nore-errors option.

	      The  --delete  option  may be combined with one of the --delete-
	      WHEN options without conflict,  as  well	as  --delete-excluded.
	      However,	if  none  of  the --delete-WHEN	options	are specified,
	      rsync will choose	the --delete-during algorithm when talking  to
	      rsync  3.0.0  or	newer,	or  the	--delete-before	algorithm when
	      talking  to  an  older  rsync.   See  also  --delete-delay   and

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete	(which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting	before	the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
	      tight for	space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the  transfer  possible.	However, it does introduce a delay be-
	      fore the start of	the transfer, and this delay might  cause  the
	      transfer	to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that  requires  rsync to scan all	the files in the transfer into
	      memory at	once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during,	--del
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory	delete
	      scan is done right before	each directory is checked for updates,
	      so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
	      doing the	deletions prior	to any per-directory filter files  be-
	      ing  updated.   This  option  was	 first	added in rsync version
	      2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)	for  more  details  on

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be com-
	      puted during the transfer	(like --delete-during),	and  then  re-
	      moved  after  the	 transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or	--fuzzy, and is	more efficient
	      than  using  --delete-after  (but	 can behave differently, since
	      --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass	 after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an internal buffer, a temporary file will	be created on the  re-
	      ceiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open,	so you
	      shouldn't	see it during the transfer).  If the creation  of  the
	      temporary	 file  fails,  rsync  will  try	 to fall back to using
	      --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive	 is  doing  an
	      incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied) for more de-
	      tails on file-deletion.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      after  the  transfer  has	 completed.  This is useful if you are
	      sending new per-directory	merge files as a part of the  transfer
	      and  you	want  their  exclusions	 to take effect	for the	delete
	      phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
	      old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm	that requires rsync to
	      scan all the files in the	transfer  into	memory	at  once  (see
	      --recursive).  See  --delete (which is implied) for more details
	      on file-deletion.

	      See also the --delete-delay option that might be a faster	choice
	      for  those  that	just want the deletions	to occur at the	end of
	      the transfer.

	      This option turns	any  unqualified  exclude/include  rules  into
	      server-side rules	that do	not affect the receiver's deletions.

	      By  default, an exclude or include has both a server-side	effect
	      (to "hide" and "show" files  when	 building  the	server's  file
	      list)  and a receiver-side effect	(to "protect" and "risk" files
	      when deletions are occurring).  Any rule that has	no modifier to
	      specify  what sides it is	executed on will be instead treated as
	      if it were a server-side rule only, avoiding any	"protect"  ef-
	      fects of the rules.

	      A	rule can still apply to	both sides even	with this option spec-
	      ified if the rule	is given both the sender &  receiver  modifier
	      letters  (e.g.,  -f'-sr foo').  Receiver-side protect/risk rules
	      can also be explicitly specified to limit	the  deletions.	  This
	      saves  you  from	having to edit a bunch of -f'- foo' rules into
	      -f'-s foo' (aka -f'H foo') rules (not to mention the correspond-
	      ing includes).

	      See the FILTER RULES section for more information.  See --delete
	      (which is	implied) for more details on deletion.

	      When rsync is first processing the explicitly  requested	source
	      files (e.g.  command-line	arguments or --files-from entries), it
	      is normally an error if the file cannot be found.	  This	option
	      suppresses  that	error,	and does not try to transfer the file.
	      This does	not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if  a  file
	      was initially found to be	present	and later is no	longer there.

	      This  option  takes the behavior of the (implied)	--ignore-miss-
	      ing-args option a	step farther: each missing arg will  become  a
	      deletion	request	 of  the corresponding destination file	on the
	      receiving	side (should it	exist).	 If the	destination file is  a
	      non-empty	 directory,  it	 will  only be successfully deleted if
	      --force-delete or	--delete are in	effect.	 Other than that, this
	      option is	independent of any other type of delete	processing.

	      The  missing  source  files are represented by special file-list
	      entries which display as a "*missing" entry in  the  --list-only

	      Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even	when there are
	      I/O errors.

       --force-delete, --force
	      This option tells	rsync to delete	a non-empty directory when  it
	      is  to be	replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
	      deletions	are not	active (see --delete for details).

	      Note that	some older rsync versions used to require --force when
	      using  --delete-after,  and  it used to be non-functional	unless
	      the --recursive option was also enabled.

	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
	      ries.   If  that	limit  is  exceeded, all further deletions are
	      skipped through the end of the transfer.	At the end, rsync out-
	      puts  a warning (including a count of the	skipped	deletions) and
	      exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
	      condition	also occurred).

	      Beginning	 with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
	      be warned	about any extraneous files in the destination  without
	      removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
	      ited", so	if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
	      use  the	less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
	      way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
	      versions didn't warn when	the limit was exceeded).

	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file	that is	larger
	      than the specified SIZE.	A numeric value	can be suffixed	with a
	      string  to  indicate  the	 numeric  units	or left	unqualified to
	      specify bytes.  Feel free	to use a fractional value  along  with
	      the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

	      This option is a TRANSFER	RULE, so don't expect any exclude side

	      The first	letter of a units string can be	B (bytes), K (kilo), M
	      (mega),  G  (giga),  T  (tera), or P (peta).  If the string is a
	      single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g.	"G" or "GiB") then the
	      units  are  multiples  of	 1024.	If you use a two-letter	suffix
	      that ends	with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you	 get  units  that  are
	      multiples	of 1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper
	      and lower-case that you want to use.

	      Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is off-
	      set  by one byte in the indicated	direction.  The	largest	possi-
	      ble value	is usually 8192P-1.

	      Examples:	 --max-size=1.5mb-1  is	 1499999  bytes,  and	--max-
	      size=2g+1	is 2147483649 bytes.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 3.1.0 did not allow	--max-

	      This tells rsync to avoid	transferring any file that is  smaller
	      than  the	 specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
	      small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for	a  description
	      of SIZE and other	info.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 3.1.0 did not allow	--min-

	      By default rsync limits an individual  malloc/realloc  to	 about
	      1GB  in  size.   For  most people	this limit works just fine and
	      prevents a protocol  error  causing  rsync  to  request  massive
	      amounts  of memory.  However, if you have	many millions of files
	      in a transfer, a large amount of server memory,  and  you	 don't
	      want  to split up	your transfer into multiple parts, you can in-
	      crease the per-allocation	limit to something  larger  and	 rsync
	      will consume more	memory.

	      Keep in mind that	this is	not a limit on the total size of allo-
	      cated memory.  It	is a sanity-check value	 for  each  individual

	      See  the	--max-size option for a	description of how SIZE	can be
	      specified.  The default suffix if	none is	given is bytes.

	      Beginning	in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

	      You can set a  default  value  using  the	 environment  variable
	      RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC  using the same SIZE values as supported by this
	      option.  If the remote rsync doesn't understand the  --max-alloc
	      option,  you  can	 override an environmental value by specifying
	      --max-alloc=1g, which will make rsync avoid sending  the	option
	      to the remote side (because "1G" is the default).

       --block-size=SIZE, -B
	      This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
	      rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected	based  on  the
	      size  of	each file being	updated.  See the technical report for

	      Beginning	in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with	 a  suffix  as
	      detailed in the --max-size option.  Older	versions only accepted
	      a	byte count.

       --rsh=COMMAND, -e
	      This option allows you to	choose	an  alternative	 remote	 shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and	remote
	      copies of	rsync.	Typically, rsync is configured to use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on	a local	network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will	be used	to run an rsync	daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and all data will be transmitted through that re-
	      mote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket  con-
	      nection  to  a running rsync daemon on the remote	host.  See the
	      tion above.

	      Beginning	 with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable
	      will be set when a daemon	connection is being made via a remote-
	      shell  connection.  It is	set to 0 if the	default	daemon port is
	      being assumed, or	it is set to the value of the rsync port  that
	      was  specified  via either the --port option or a	non-empty port
	      value in an rsync:// URL.	 This allows the script	to discern  if
	      a	 non-default port is being requested, allowing for things such
	      as an SSL	or stunnel helper script to connect to	a  default  or
	      alternate	port.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single	 argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not	tabs or	other whitespace) to separate the com-
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to	 preserve spaces in an argument	(but not back-
	      slashes).	 Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
	      quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
	      quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes	rsync is parsing).  Some exam-

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h	%p"'

	      (Note that ssh users  can	 alternately  customize	 site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

	      See  also	the --blocking-io option which is affected by this op-

	      Use this to specify what program is to be	run on the remote  ma-
	      chine  to	 start-up  rsync.  Often used when rsync is not	in the
	      default	remote-shell's	 path	(e.g.	 --rsync-path=/usr/lo-
	      cal/bin/rsync).	Note  that  PROGRAM  is	run with the help of a
	      shell, so	it can be any program,	script,	 or  command  sequence
	      you'd  care to run, so long as it	does not corrupt the standard-
	      in & standard-out	that rsync is using to communicate.

	      One tricky example is to set a different	default	 directory  on
	      the  remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For in-

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       --remote-option=OPTION, -M
	      This option is used for more advanced situations where you  want
	      certain  effects to be limited to	one side of the	transfer only.
	      For instance, if you want	to pass	--log-file=FILE	and --fake-su-
	      per to the remote	system,	specify	it like	this:

		  rsync	-av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

	      If  you  want  to	have an	option affect only the local side of a
	      transfer when it normally	affects	both sides, send its  negation
	      to the remote side.  Like	this:

		  rsync	-av -x -M--no-x	src/ dest/

	      Be  cautious  using  this, as it is possible to toggle an	option
	      that will	cause rsync to have a different	idea about  what  data
	      to  expect next over the socket, and that	will make it fail in a
	      cryptic fashion.

	      Note that	you should use a separate -M option  for  each	remote
	      option  you want to pass.	 On older rsync	versions, the presence
	      of any spaces in the remote-option arg  could  cause  it	to  be
	      split  into  separate  remote args, but this requires the	use of
	      --old-args in a modern rsync.

	      When performing a	local transfer,	the "local" side is the	sender
	      and the "remote" side is the receiver.

	      Note some	versions of the	popt option-parsing library have a bug
	      in them that prevents you	from using an  adjacent	 arg  with  an
	      equal  in	 it  next  to  a  short	 option	 letter	(e.g. -M--log-
	      file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your	version	of  popt,  you
	      can use the version of popt that is included with	rsync.

       --cvs-exclude, -C
	      This  is a useful	shorthand for excluding	a broad	range of files
	      that you often don't want	to transfer between systems.  It  uses
	      a	 similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should	be ig-

	      The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following	 items
	      (these  initial items are	marked as perishable --	see the	FILTER
	      RULES section):

		  RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*	tags TAGS  .make.state
		  .nse_depinfo	*~  #*	.#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK	*.orig
		  *.rej	.del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so	*.exe *.Z  *.elc  *.ln
		  core .svn/ .git/ .hg/	.bzr/

	      then,  files  listed in a	$HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
	      and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment	variable  (all
	      cvsignore	names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file	is ignored if it is in the same	directory as a
	      .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If you're	combining -C with your own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that	these CVS excludes are appended	at the end of your own
	      rules, regardless	of where the -C	was  placed  on	 the  command-
	      line.  This makes	them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
	      ified explicitly.	 If you	want to	control	where  these  CVS  ex-
	      cludes  get inserted into	your filter rules, you should omit the
	      -C as a command-line option and use a combination	of --filter=:C
	      and  --filter=-C	(either	on your	command-line or	by putting the
	      ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter	file with your	other  rules).
	      The  first  option  turns	 on the	per-directory scanning for the
	      .cvsignore file.	The second option does a  one-time  import  of
	      the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       --filter=RULE, -f
	      This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
	      tain files from the list of files	to be  transferred.   This  is
	      most useful in combination with a	recursive transfer.

	      You  may use as many --filter options on the command line	as you
	      like to build up the list	of files to exclude.   If  the	filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the rule to rsync	as a single argument.	The  text  below  also
	      mentions	that  you  can	use an underscore to replace the space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		  --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
	      that have	been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use	 their
	      rules  to	 filter	the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
	      it is a shorthand	for this rule:

		  --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter  files	 themselves  from  the

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES  section for detailed information	on how
	      these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      specifies	an exclude rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.  This is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying -f'- PATTERN'.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to	the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  exclude patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	are ignored, as	are whole-line	comments  that
	      start with ';' or	'#' (filename rules that contain those charac-
	      ters are unaffected).

	      If a line	begins with "- " (dash,	space) or "+ " (plus,  space),
	      then  the	 type  of rule is being	explicitly specified as	an ex-
	      clude or an include (respectively).  Any rules  without  such  a
	      prefix are taken to be an	exclude.

	      If  a  line  consists of just "!", then the current filter rules
	      are cleared before adding	any further rules.

	      If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      specifies	an include rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.  This is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying -f'+ PATTERN'.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to	the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  include patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	are ignored, as	are whole-line	comments  that
	      start with ';' or	'#' (filename rules that contain those charac-
	      ters are unaffected).

	      If a line	begins with "- " (dash,	space) or "+ " (plus,  space),
	      then  the	 type  of rule is being	explicitly specified as	an ex-
	      clude or an include (respectively).  Any rules  without  such  a
	      prefix are taken to be an	include.

	      If  a  line  consists of just "!", then the current filter rules
	      are cleared before adding	any further rules.

	      If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

	      Using this option	allows you to specify the exact	list of	 files
	      to transfer (as read from	the specified FILE or '-' for standard
	      input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
	      transferring just	the specified files and	directories easier:

	      o	     The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
		     the path information that is specified for	each  item  in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The --dirs	(-d) option is implied,	which will create  di-
		     rectories specified in the	list on	the destination	rather
		     than noisily skipping them	(use --no-dirs	or  --no-d  if
		     you want to turn that off).

	      o	     The --archive (-a)	option's behavior does not imply --re-
		     cursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if	you want it.

	      o	     These side-effects	change the default state of rsync,  so
		     the  position  of the --files-from	option on the command-
		     line has no bearing on how	other options are parsed (e.g.
		     -a	 works	the same before	or after --files-from, as does
		     --no-R and	all other options).

	      The filenames that are read from the FILE	are  all  relative  to
	      the  source  dir --  any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
	      references are allowed to	go higher than the  source  dir.   For
	      example, take this command:

		  rsync	-a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

	      If  /tmp/foo  contains  the  string  "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
	      /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin	on the	remote
	      host.   If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the im-
	      mediate contents of the directory	would also  be	sent  (without
	      needing  to be explicitly	mentioned in the file -- this began in
	      version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r	 option	 was  enabled,
	      that  dir's  entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in
	      mind that	-r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since it is not implied by -a.  Also note	that the effect	of the
	      (enabled by default) -r option is	to  duplicate  only  the  path
	      info  that is read from the file -- it does not force the	dupli-
	      cation of	the source-spec	path (/usr in this case).

	      In addition, the --files-from file can be	read from  the	remote
	      host instead of the local	host if	you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a	prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the	transfer".  For	example:

		  rsync	-a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This would copy all the files specified in  the  /path/file-list
	      file that	was located on the remote "src"	host.

	      If the --iconv and --secluded-args options are specified and the
	      --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the	sending	host's charset
	      to the receiving host's charset.

	      NOTE: sorting the	list of	files in the --files-from input	 helps
	      rsync  to	 be  more  efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the
	      path elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If  the
	      input  is	 not  sorted, some path	elements (implied directories)
	      may end up being scanned multiple	times, and rsync will  eventu-
	      ally  unduplicate	them after they	get turned into	file-list ele-

       --from0,	-0
	      This tells rsync that the	rules/filenames	it reads from  a  file
	      are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL,	CR, or
	      CR+LF.  This affects  --exclude-from,  --include-from,  --files-
	      from,  and  any  merged  files specified in a --filter rule.  It
	      does not affect --cvs-exclude  (since  all  names	 read  from  a
	      .cvsignore file are split	on whitespace).

	      This option tells	rsync to stop trying to	protect	the arg	values
	      on the remote side from unintended word-splitting	or other  mis-
	      interpretation.  It also allows the client to treat an empty arg
	      as a "." instead of generating an	error.

	      The default in a modern rsync is for  "shell-active"  characters
	      (including  spaces) to be	backslash-escaped in the args that are
	      sent to the remote shell.	 The wildcard characters *, ?, [, &  ]
	      are  not	escaped	in filename args (allowing them	to expand into
	      multiple filenames) while	being protected	in option  args,  such
	      as --usermap.

	      If  you  have a script that wants	to use old-style arg splitting
	      in its filenames,	specify	this option once.  If the remote shell
	      has  a  problem  with any	backslash escapes at all, specify this
	      option twice.

	      You may also control this	setting	via the	 RSYNC_OLD_ARGS	 envi-
	      ronment  variable.   If it has the value "1", rsync will default
	      to a single-option setting.  If it has the value "2" (or	more),
	      rsync  will default to a repeated-option setting.	 If it is "0",
	      you'll get the default escaping behavior.	  The  environment  is
	      always overridden	by manually specified positive or negative op-
	      tions (the negative is --no-old-args).

	      Note that	this option also disables the extra safety check added
	      in 3.2.5 that ensures that a remote sender isn't including extra
	      top-level	items in the file-list that you	didn't request.	  This
	      side-effect  is  necessary  because  we can't know for sure what
	      names to expect when the remote shell is interpreting the	args.

	      This option conflicts with the --secluded-args option.

       --secluded-args,	-s
	      This option sends	all filenames and most options to  the	remote
	      rsync via	the protocol (not the remote shell command line) which
	      avoids letting the remote	shell modify them.  Wildcards are  ex-
	      panded on	the remote host	by rsync instead of a shell.

	      This  is	similar	to the default backslash-escaping of args that
	      was added	in 3.2.4 (see --old-args) in that it  prevents	things
	      like  space  splitting  and  unwanted special-character side-ef-
	      fects. However, it has the drawbacks of being incompatible  with
	      older  rsync  versions  (prior to	3.0.0) and of being refused by
	      restricted shells	that want to be	able to	inspect	all the	option
	      values for safety.

	      This  option  is	useful for those times that you	need the argu-
	      ment's character set to be converted for the remote host,	if the
	      remote shell is incompatible with	the default backslash-escpaing
	      method, or there is some other reason that you want the majority
	      of  the  options and arguments to	bypass the command-line	of the
	      remote shell.

	      If you combine this option with --iconv, the args	related	to the
	      remote  side  will  be  translated  from the local to the	remote
	      character-set.  The translation happens  before  wild-cards  are
	      expanded.	 See also the --files-from option.

	      You may also control this	setting	via the	RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS en-
	      vironment	variable.  If it has a non-zero	 value,	 this  setting
	      will be enabled by default, otherwise it will be disabled	by de-
	      fault.  Either state is overridden by a manually specified posi-
	      tive  or	negative  version of this option (note that --no-s and
	      --no-secluded-args are the negative versions).  This environment
	      variable is also superseded by a non-zero	RSYNC_OLD_ARGS export.

	      This option conflicts with the --old-args	option.

	      This  option used	to be called --protect-args (before 3.2.6) and
	      that older name can still	be used	(though	specifying it as -s is
	      always the easiest and most compatible choice).

	      This  option  disables  two extra	validation checks that a local
	      client performs on the file list generated by a  remote  sender.
	      This  option  should only	be used	if you trust the sender	to not
	      put something malicious in the file list (something  that	 could
	      possibly be done via a modified rsync, a modified	shell, or some
	      other similar manipulation).

	      Normally,	the rsync client (as of	version	3.2.5) runs two	 extra
	      validation checks	when pulling files from	a remote rsync:

	      o	     It	verifies that additional arg items didn't get added at
		     the top of	the transfer.

	      o	     It	verifies that none of the items	in the file  list  are
		     names  that  should  have	been excluded (if filter rules
		     were specified).

	      Note that	various	options	can turn off  one  or  both  of	 these
	      checks  if  the  option interferes with the validation.  For in-

	      o	     Using a per-directory filter file reads filter rules that
		     only  the	server	knows about, so	the filter checking is

	      o	     Using the --old-args option allows	the sender to  manipu-
		     late the requested	args, so the arg checking is disabled.

	      o	     Reading  the  files-from  list from the server side means
		     that the client doesn't know the arg  list,  so  the  arg
		     checking is disabled.

	      o	     Using  --read-batch  disables both	checks since the batch
		     file's contents will have been verified when it was  cre-

	      This option may help an under-powered client server if the extra
	      pattern matching is slowing things down on a huge	transfer.   It
	      can  also	 be used to work around	a currently-unknown bug	in the
	      verification logic for a transfer	from a trusted sender.

	      When using this option it	is a good idea to specify a  dedicated
	      destination  directory,  as discussed in the MULTI-HOST SECURITY

	      This option instructs rsync to use the USER  and	(if  specified
	      after  a	colon)	the  GROUP for the copy	operations.  This only
	      works if the user	that is	 running  rsync	 has  the  ability  to
	      change users.  If	the group is not specified then	the user's de-
	      fault groups are used.

	      This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being	run as
	      root  into  or  out  of a	directory that might have live changes
	      happening	to it and you want to make sure	that  root-level  read
	      or  write	 actions  of system files are not possible.  While you
	      could alternatively run all of  rsync  as	 the  specified	 user,
	      sometimes	 you need the root-level host-access credentials to be
	      used, so this allows rsync to drop root for the copying part  of
	      the operation after the remote-shell or daemon connection	is es-

	      The option only affects one side	of  the	 transfer  unless  the
	      transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides.  Use the
	      --remote-option to affect	the remote  side,  such	 as  -M--copy-
	      as=joe.	For a local transfer, the lsh (or support file
	      provides a local-shell helper script that	can be used to allow a
	      "localhost:"  or "lh:" host-spec to be specified without needing
	      to setup any remote shells, allowing you to specify  remote  op-
	      tions  that  affect  the	side of	the transfer that is using the
	      host-spec	(and using hostname "lh" avoids	the overriding of  the
	      remote directory to the user's home dir).

	      For  example, the	following rsync	writes the local files as user

		  sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe	host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

	      This makes all files owned by user "joe",	limits the  groups  to
	      those  that  are available to that user, and makes it impossible
	      for the joe user to do a timed exploit of	the path to  induce  a
	      change to	a file that the	joe user has no	permissions to change.

	      The  following command does a local copy into the	"dest/"	dir as
	      user "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh	into a dir  on
	      your $PATH):

		  sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/

       --temp-dir=DIR, -T
	      This  option  instructs  rsync to	use DIR	as a scratch directory
	      when creating temporary copies of	the files transferred  on  the
	      receiving	 side.	 The default behavior is to create each	tempo-
	      rary file	in the same directory as  the  associated  destination
	      file.   Beginning	 with  rsync 3.1.1, the	temp-file names	inside
	      the specified DIR	will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
	      they will	still have a random suffix added).

	      This option is most often	used when the receiving	disk partition
	      does not have enough free	space to hold a	copy  of  the  largest
	      file  in	the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch di-
	      rectory is on a different	disk partition),  rsync	 will  not  be
	      able  to rename each received temporary file over	the top	of the
	      associated destination file,  but	 instead  must	copy  it  into
	      place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over	the top	of the
	      destination file,	which means that  the  destination  file  will
	      contain  truncated data during this copy.	 If this were not done
	      this way (even if	the destination	file were first	 removed,  the
	      data  locally  copied to a temporary file	in the destination di-
	      rectory, and then	renamed	into place) it would be	 possible  for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if	someone	had it
	      open), and thus there might not be enough	room to	 fit  the  new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
	      of disk space, you may wish to combine it	with  the  --delay-up-
	      dates  option,  which  will ensure that all copied files get put
	      into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy,	 awaiting  the
	      end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate
	      all the arriving files on	the destination	partition, another way
	      to  tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space
	      is to use	the --partial-dir option with a	relative path; because
	      this  tells  rsync that it is OK to stash	off a copy of a	single
	      file in a	subdir in the destination hierarchy,  rsync  will  use
	      the partial-dir as a staging area	to bring over the copied file,
	      and then rename it into place from there.	(Specifying  a	--par-
	      tial-dir with an absolute	path does not have this	side-effect.)

       --fuzzy,	-y
	      This option tells	rsync that it should look for a	basis file for
	      any destination file that	is  missing.   The  current  algorithm
	      looks in the same	directory as the destination file for either a
	      file that	has an identical size and modified-time,  or  a	 simi-
	      larly-named  file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan	will also be  done  in
	      any  matching  alternate destination directories that are	speci-
	      fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

	      Note that	the use	of the --delete	option might get  rid  of  any
	      potential	 fuzzy-match  files,  so  either use --delete-after or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR on	 the  destination  ma-
	      chine  as	 an  additional	hierarchy to compare destination files
	      against doing transfers (if the files are	missing	in the	desti-
	      nation  directory).  If a	file is	found in DIR that is identical
	      to the sender's file, the	file will NOT be  transferred  to  the
	      destination  directory.	This  is  useful for creating a	sparse
	      backup of	just files that	have changed from an  earlier  backup.
	      This  option  is	typically used to copy into an empty (or newly
	      created) directory.

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest  directories
	      may  be  provided,  which	will cause rsync to search the list in
	      the order	specified for an exact match.  If  a  match  is	 found
	      that  differs  only  in attributes, a local copy is made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a	match is not found, a basis file  from
	      one  of  the DIRs	will be	selected to try	to speed up the	trans-

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      NOTE:  beginning	with  version  3.1.0, rsync will remove	a file
	      from a non-empty destination hierarchy  if  an  exact  match  is
	      found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end re-
	      sult more	closely	match a	fresh copy).

	      This option behaves like --compare-dest,	but  rsync  will  also
	      copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
	      using a local copy.  This	is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination  while leaving existing files	intact,	and then doing
	      a	flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully	trans-

	      Multiple	--copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
	      cause rsync to search the	list in	the order specified for	an un-
	      changed file.  If	a match	is not found, a	basis file from	one of
	      the DIRs will be selected	to try to speed	up the transfer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --link-dest.

	      This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
	      hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The	 files
	      must be identical	in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly ownership) in order for the  files  to  be  linked  to-
	      gether.  An example:

		  rsync	-av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If  files	 aren't	 linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
	      check if some attributes are getting forced outside  of  rsync's
	      control,	such  a	 mount	option	that squishes root to a	single
	      user, or mounts a	removable drive	with generic  ownership	 (such
	      as OS X's	"Ignore	ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be provided, which will cause rsync to search the	 list  in  the
	      order  specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20 such
	      directories).  If	a match	is found  that	differs	 only  in  at-
	      tributes,	a local	copy is	made and the attributes	updated.  If a
	      match is not found, a basis file from one	of the	DIRs  will  be
	      selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      This  option  works  best	when copying into an empty destination
	      hierarchy, as existing files may get their  attributes  tweaked,
	      and  that	can affect alternate destination files via hard-links.
	      Also, itemizing of changes can get a  bit	 muddled.   Note  that
	      prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
	      never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
	      tion file	already	exists.

	      Note  that if you	combine	this option with --ignore-times, rsync
	      will not link any	files together because it only links identical
	      files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --copy-dest.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a	bug that could
	      prevent --link-dest from working properly	for  a	non-super-user
	      when  --owner  (-o)  was	specified (or implied).	 You can work-
	      around this bug by avoiding the -o option	(or using --no-o) when
	      sending to an old	rsync.

       --compress, -z
	      With  this  option, rsync	compresses the file data as it is sent
	      to the destination machine, which	reduces	the amount of data be-
	      ing  transmitted -- something that is useful over	a slow connec-

	      Rsync supports multiple compression methods and will choose  one
	      for  you unless you force	the choice using the --compress-choice
	      (--zc) option.

	      Run rsync	--version to see the default  compress	list  compiled
	      into your	version.

	      When  both  sides	 of  the  transfer  are	 at least 3.2.0, rsync
	      chooses the first	algorithm in the client's list of choices that
	      is  also in the server's list of choices.	 If no common compress
	      choice is	found, rsync exits with	an error.  If the remote rsync
	      is  too old to support checksum negotiation, its list is assumed
	      to be "zlib".

	      The default order	can be customized by setting  the  environment
	      variable	RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST  to	 a space-separated list	of ac-
	      ceptable compression names.  If the string contains a "&"	 char-
	      acter, it	is separated into the "client string & server string",
	      otherwise	the same string	applies	to both.  If  the  string  (or
	      string  portion)	contains no non-whitespace characters, the de-
	      fault compress list is used.  Any	unknown	compression names  are
	      discarded	 from the list,	but a list with	only invalid names re-
	      sults in a failed	negotiation.

	      There are	some older rsync versions that were configured to  re-
	      ject  a  -z option and require the use of	-zz because their com-
	      pression library was not compatible with the default  zlib  com-
	      pression	method.	  You can usually ignore this weirdness	unless
	      the rsync	server complains and tells you to specify -zz.

       --compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
	      This option can be used to override the automatic	negotiation of
	      the  compression	algorithm that occurs when --compress is used.
	      The option implies --compress unless "none" was specified, which
	      instead implies --no-compress.

	      The compression options that you may be able to use are:

	      o	     zstd

	      o	     lz4

	      o	     zlibx

	      o	     zlib

	      o	     none

	      Run  rsync --version  to	see the	default	compress list compiled
	      into your	version	(which may differ from the list	above).

	      Note that	if you see an error about an option  named  --old-com-
	      press or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send the	--com-
	      press-choice=zlib	or --compress-choice=zlibx option in  a	 back-
	      ward-compatible  manner  that  more  rsync  versions understand.
	      This error indicates that	the older rsync	version	on the	server
	      will not allow you to force the compression type.

	      Note  that  the "zlibx" compression algorithm is just the	"zlib"
	      algorithm	with matched data excluded from	the compression	stream
	      (to  try to make it more compatible with an external zlib	imple-

       --compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
	      Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z)
	      instead of letting it default.  The --compress option is implied
	      as long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress" level  for
	      the  compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib compres-
	      sion treats level	0 as "off").

	      The level	values vary depending on the checksum in effect.   Be-
	      cause  rsync  will  negotiate a checksum choice by default (when
	      the remote rsync is new enough), it can be good to combine  this
	      option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option unless you're sure
	      of the choice in effect.	For example:

		  rsync	-aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

	      For zlib & zlibx compression the valid values are	from  1	 to  9
	      with  6  being the default.  Specifying --zl=0 turns compression
	      off, and specifying --zl=-1 chooses the default level of 6.

	      For zstd compression the valid values are	 from  -131072	to  22
	      with 3 being the default.	Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3.

	      For  lz4 compression there are no	levels,	so the value is	always

	      If you specify a too-large or too-small  value,  the  number  is
	      silently	limited	 to a valid value.  This allows	you to specify
	      something	like --zl=999999999 and	be assured that	you'll end  up
	      with  the	maximum	compression level no matter what algorithm was

	      If you want to know the compression level	 that  is  in  effect,
	      specify  --debug=nstr  to	 see  the "negotiated string" results.
	      This     will	report	   something	 like	  "Client com-
	      press: zstd (level 3)"  (along  with  the	checksum choice	in ef-

	      NOTE: no compression method currently supports per-file compres-
	      sion changes, so this option has no effect.

	      Override	the  list  of file suffixes that will be compressed as
	      little as	possible.  Rsync sets the compression level on a  per-
	      file basis based on the file's suffix.  If the compression algo-
	      rithm has	an "off" level,	then no	compression occurs  for	 those
	      files.   Other  algorithms  that	support	changing the streaming
	      level on-the-fly will have the level minimized  to  reduces  the
	      CPU usage	as much	as possible for	a matching file.

	      The  LIST	 should	be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
	      separated	by slashes (/).	 You may specify an  empty  string  to
	      indicate that no files should be skipped.

	      Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
	      of a list	of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are	supported, and '-' has no spe-
	      cial meaning).

	      The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?)	have  no  spe-
	      cial meaning.

	      Here's  an example that specifies	6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


	      The default file suffixes	in the skip-compress list in this ver-
	      sion of rsync are:

		  3g2  3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv gpg
		  gz iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v
		  m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg
		  mpv mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv  ogx
		  opus	otg  oth  otp  ots  ott	oxt png	qt rar rpm rz rzip spx
		  squashfs sxc sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz  tzo
		  vob war webm webp xz z zip zst

	      This  list  will be replaced by your --skip-compress list	in all
	      but one situation: a copy	from a	daemon	rsync  will  add  your
	      skipped  suffixes	 to its	list of	non-compressing	files (and its
	      list may be configured to	a different default).

	      With this	option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
	      rather  than using user and group	names and mapping them at both

	      By default rsync will use	the username and groupname  to	deter-
	      mine  what  ownership  to	give files.  The special uid 0 and the
	      special group 0 are never	mapped via user/group  names  even  if
	      the --numeric-ids	option is not specified.

	      If a user	or group has no	name on	the source system or it	has no
	      match on the destination system, then the	numeric	 ID  from  the
	      source  system is	used instead.  See also	the use	chroot setting
	      in the rsyncd.conf manpage for some comments on how  the	chroot
	      setting  affects	rsync's	 ability  to  look up the names	of the
	      users and	groups and what	you can	do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
	      These options allow you to specify users and groups that	should
	      be  mapped to other values by the	receiving side.	 The STRING is
	      one or more FROM:TO pairs	of values separated  by	 commas.   Any
	      matching	FROM value from	the sender is replaced with a TO value
	      from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or	user  IDs  for
	      the  FROM	 and TO	values,	and the	FROM value may also be a wild-
	      card string, which will be matched against  the  sender's	 names
	      (wild-cards  do  NOT  match against ID numbers, though see below
	      for why a	'*' matches everything).  You may  instead  specify  a
	      range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For exam-

		  --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

	      The first	match in the list is the one that is used.  You	should
	      specify  all your	user mappings using a single --usermap option,
	      and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

	      Note that	the sender's name for the 0 user  and  group  are  not
	      transmitted  to  the  receiver, so you should either match these
	      values using a 0,	or use the names in effect  on	the  receiving
	      side  (typically	"root").   All other FROM names	match those in
	      use on the sending side.	All TO names match those in use	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      Any  IDs that do not have	a name on the sending side are treated
	      as having	an empty name for the purpose of matching.   This  al-
	      lows  them  to be	matched	via a "*" or using an empty name.  For

		  --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

	      When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender	does not  send
	      any  names,  so all the IDs are treated as having	an empty name.
	      This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values  if
	      you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

	      For  the	--usermap option to work, the receiver will need to be
	      running as a super-user (see also	the --super  and  --fake-super
	      options).	  For the --groupmap option to work, the receiver will
	      need to have permissions to set that group.

	      Starting with rsync 3.2.4,  the  --usermap  option  implies  the
	      --owner  (-o)  option  while  the	 --groupmap option implies the
	      --group (-g) option (since rsync needs to	have those options en-
	      abled for	the mapping options to work).

	      An  older	 rsync	client may need	to use -s to avoid a complaint
	      about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync handles this auto-

	      This  option  forces  all	 files	to be owned by USER with group
	      GROUP.  This is a	 simpler  interface  than  using  --usermap  &
	      --groupmap  directly,  but it is implemented using those options
	      internally so they cannot	be mixed.  If either the USER or GROUP
	      is  empty, no mapping for	the omitted user/group will occur.  If
	      GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be	omitted, but  if  USER
	      is empty,	a leading colon	must be	supplied.

	      If  you  specify	"--chown=foo:bar", this	is exactly the same as
	      specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier  (and
	      with the same implied --owner and/or --group options).

	      An  older	 rsync	client may need	to use -s to avoid a complaint
	      about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync handles this auto-

	      This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
	      If no data is transferred	for the	specified time then rsync will
	      exit.  The default is 0, which means no timeout.

	      This option allows you to	set the	amount of time that rsync will
	      wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.   If  the
	      timeout is reached, rsync	exits with an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when connect-
	      ing to an	rsync daemon.  The  --address  option  allows  you  to
	      specify a	specific IP address (or	hostname) to bind to.

	      See also the daemon version of the --address option.

	      This  specifies  an alternate TCP	port number to use rather than
	      the default of 873.  This	is only	needed if you  are  using  the
	      double-colon  (::) syntax	to connect with	an rsync daemon	(since
	      the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a	 part  of  the

	      See also the daemon version of the --port	option.

	      This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
	      their systems to the utmost degree.  You can set	all  sorts  of
	      socket  options  which  may  make	transfers faster (or slower!).
	      Read the manpage for the setsockopt() system call	for details on
	      some  of the options you may be able to set.  By default no spe-
	      cial socket options are set.  This only  affects	direct	socket
	      connections to a remote rsync daemon.

	      See also the daemon version of the --sockopts option.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a	remote
	      shell transport.	If the remote shell is either  rsh  or	remsh,
	      rsync  defaults  to using	blocking I/O, otherwise	it defaults to
	      using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh	 prefers  non-blocking

	      This  sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka
	      Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
	      tle  as  a  single  letter  for the mode,	and use	upper or lower

	      The main use of this option is to	change Full buffering to  Line
	      buffering	when rsync's output is going to	a file or pipe.

       --itemize-changes, -i
	      Requests	a  simple  itemized list of the	changes	that are being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the  same	 as  specifying	--out-format='%i %n%L'.	 If you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only	if the
	      receiving	 rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
	      older versions of	rsync, but that	also turns on  the  output  of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The  "%i"	 escape	 has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
	      The general format is like the string YXcstpoguaxf, where	 Y  is
	      replaced	by the type of update being done, X is replaced	by the
	      file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
	      be output	if they	are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the	Y are as follows:

	      o	     A	< means	that a file is being transferred to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A > means that a file is being transferred	to  the	 local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A	c  means that a	local change/creation is occurring for
		     the item (such as the creation  of	 a  directory  or  the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A	h  means  that the item	is a hard link to another item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A . means that the	item is	not being updated  (though  it
		     might have	attributes that	are being modified).

	      o	     A	* means	that the rest of the itemized-output area con-
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The file-types that replace the X	are: f for a file, a d	for  a
	      directory,  an  L	for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The other	letters	in the string indicate if some	attributes  of
	      the file have changed, as	follows:

	      o	     "." - the attribute is unchanged.

	      o	     "+" - the file is newly created.

	      o	     " "  - all	the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn to

	      o	     "?" - the change is unknown (when	the  remote  rsync  is

	      o	     A letter indicates	an attribute is	being updated.

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter	is as follows:

	      o	     A	c  means  either  that	a regular file has a different
		     checksum (requires	--checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or	 special  file	has a changed value.  Note that	if you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this	change
		     flag  will	be present only	for checksum-differing regular

	      o	     A s means the size	of a regular  file  is	different  and
		     will be updated by	the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification	time is	different and is being
		     updated to	the sender's value (requires --times).	An al-
		     ternate  value of T means that the	modification time will
		     be	set  to	 the  transfer	time,  which  happens  when  a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and	when a
		     symlink is	changed	and the	receiver can't set  its	 time.
		     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
		     the s flag	combined with t	instead	of the proper  T  flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A p means the permissions are different and are being up-
		     dated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An	o means	the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --owner and super-user priv-

	      o	     A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
		     the sender's value	(requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).


		     o	    A u|n|b indicates the following information:

			    u  means the access	(use) time is different	and is
			    being  updated  to	the  sender's  value (requires

		     o	    n means the	create time (newness) is different and
			    is	being  updated to the sender's value (requires

		     o	    b means that both the access and create times  are
			    being updated

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

	      o	     The  x  means  that the extended attribute	information is
		     being changed.

	      One other	output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will
	      output  the  string  "*deleting" for each	item that is being re-
	      moved (assuming that you are talking to a	 recent	 enough	 rsync
	      that  it	logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync	client outputs
	      to  the user on a	per-update basis.  The format is a text	string
	      containing embedded single-character escape  sequences  prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.  A default format of "%n%L"	is as-
	      sumed if either --info=name or -v	is specified (this  tells  you
	      just  the	 name of the file and, if the item is a	link, where it
	      points).	For a full list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the log format setting in	the rsyncd.conf	manpage.

	      Specifying  the  --out-format option implies the --info=name op-
	      tion, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets  updated
	      in  a  significant  way  (a  transferred	file, a	recreated sym-
	      link/device, or a	touched	directory).  In	addition, if the item-
	      ize-changes  escape  (%i)	is included in the string (e.g.	if the
	      --itemize-changes	option was used), the  logging	of  names  in-
	      creases  to mention any item that	is changed in any way (as long
	      as the receiving side is at least	2.6.4).	  See  the  --itemize-
	      changes option for a description of the output of	"%i".

	      Rsync will output	the out-format string prior to a file's	trans-
	      fer unless one of	the transfer-statistic escapes	is  requested,
	      in  which	 case  the  logging  is	 done at the end of the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late	logging	is in effect and --progress is
	      also  specified, rsync will also output the name of the file be-
	      ing transferred prior to its progress information	(followed,  of
	      course, by the out-format	output).

	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what	it is doing to a file.
	      This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
	      requested	 for  the client side and/or the server	side of	a non-
	      daemon transfer.	If specified as	a client option, transfer log-
	      ging  will  be  enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's an	example	command	that requests the remote side  to  log
	      what is happening:

		  rsync	-av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

	      This  is	very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      See also the daemon version of the --log-file option.

	      This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
	      put into the file	specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also be specified	for this option	to have	any effect).   If  you
	      specify  an empty	string,	updated	files will not be mentioned in
	      the log file.  For a list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the log format setting in	the rsyncd.conf	manpage.

	      The  default FORMAT used if --log-file is	specified and this op-
	      tion is not is '%i %n%L'.

	      See also the daemon version of the --log-file-format option.

	      This tells rsync to print	a verbose set  of  statistics  on  the
	      file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective	rsync's	delta-
	      transfer algorithm is for	your data.  This option	is  equivalent
	      to  --info=stats2	 if  combined  with  0	or  1  -v  options, or
	      --info=stats3 if combined	with 2 or more -v options.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number of files is	the  count  of	all  "files"  (in  the
		     generic  sense),  which  includes	directories, symlinks,
		     etc.  The total count will	 be  followed  by  a  list  of
		     counts by filetype	(if the	total is non-zero).  For exam-
		     ple: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link:  2,  dev:  1,	 special:  1)"
		     lists  the	 totals	 for  regular files, directories, sym-
		     links, devices, and special files.	 If any	of value is 0,
		     it	is completely omitted from the list.

	      o	     Number of created files  is the count of how many "files"
		     (generic sense) were created  (as	opposed	 to  updated).
		     The  total	 count will be followed	by a list of counts by
		     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

	      o	     Number of deleted files is	the count of how many  "files"
		     (generic  sense)  were  deleted.  The total count will be
		     followed by a list	of counts by filetype (if the total is
		     non-zero).	  Note	that this line is only output if dele-
		     tions are in effect, and only if  protocol	 31  is	 being
		     used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

	      o	     Number of regular files transferred  is the count of nor-
		     mal files that were updated  via  rsync's	delta-transfer
		     algorithm,	 which	does  not include dirs,	symlinks, etc.
		     Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into  this

	      o	     Total file	size is	the total sum of all file sizes	in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any	size  for  directories
		     or	special	files, but does	include	the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the	total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the	transferred files.

	      o	     Literal data is how much unmatched	 file-update  data  we
		     had  to  send  to the receiver for	it to recreate the up-
		     dated files.

	      o	     Matched data is how much data the	receiver  got  locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory	size for the file list due to some compressing
		     of	duplicated data	when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File list generation time is the number of	 seconds  that
		     the sender	spent creating the file	list.  This requires a
		     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer	time is	the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list	to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync	 received  by the client side from the
		     server side. "Non-message"	 bytes	means  that  we	 don't
		     count  the	 bytes	for  a verbose message that the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       --8-bit-output, -8
	      This tells rsync to leave	all high-bit characters	 unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test	them to	see if they're
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is	to  output  a  literal
	      backslash	 (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
	      its.  For	example, a newline would output	as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash	that is	in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       --human-readable, -h
	      Output numbers in	a more human-readable  format.	 There	are  3
	      possible levels:

	      1.     output  numbers  with  a  separator between each set of 3
		     digits (either a comma or a period, depending on  if  the
		     decimal point is represented by a period or a comma).

	      2.     output  numbers in	units of 1000 (with a character	suffix
		     for larger	units -- see below).

	      3.     output numbers in units of	1024.

	      The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
	      the  level  by one.  You can take	the level down to 0 (to	output
	      numbers as pure digits) by  specifying  the  --no-human-readable
	      (--no-h) option.

	      The  unit	 letters  that	are  appended in levels	2 and 3	are: K
	      (kilo), M	(mega),	G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For example,
	      a	 1234567-byte  file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
	      that a period is your local decimal point).

	      Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do
	      not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0.
	      Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a compara-
	      ble manner in old	and new	versions as long as you	didn't specify
	      a	--no-h option prior to	one  or	 more  -h  options.   See  the
	      --list-only option for one difference.

	      By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
	      the transfer is interrupted.  In some circumstances it  is  more
	      desirable	to keep	partially transferred files.  Using the	--par-
	      tial option tells	rsync to keep the partial  file	 which	should
	      make a subsequent	transfer of the	rest of	the file much faster.

	      This  option modifies the	behavior of the	--partial option while
	      also implying that it be enabled.	  This	enhanced  partial-file
	      method  puts  any	partially transferred files into the specified
	      DIR instead of writing the partial file out to  the  destination
	      file.  On	the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this
	      dir as data to speed up the resumption of	the transfer and  then
	      delete it	after it has served its	purpose.

	      Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified	(or implied), any par-
	      tial-dir files that are found for	a file that is	being  updated
	      will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without us-
	      ing rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create	the DIR	if it is missing, but  just  the  last
	      dir -- not the whole path.  This makes it	easy to	use a relative
	      path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync cre-
	      ate  the	partial-directory  in the destination file's directory
	      when it is needed, and then remove it  again  when  the  partial
	      file  is deleted.	 Note that this	directory removal is only done
	      for a relative pathname, as it is	expected that an absolute path
	      is to a directory	that is	reserved for partial-dir work.

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path,	rsync will add
	      an exclude rule at the end of all	your existing excludes.	  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files	that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving	side.  An example: the
	      above --partial-dir option would	add  the  equivalent  of  this
	      "perishable"  exclude  at	 the  end  of  any other filter	rules:
	      -f '-p .rsync-partial/'

	      If you are supplying your	own exclude rules, you may need	to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because:

	      1.     the auto-added rule may be	ineffective at the end of your
		     other rules, or

	      2.     you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice.

	      For instance, if you want	to make	rsync clean-up	any  left-over
	      partial-dirs  that  may  be  lying  around,  you	should specify
	      --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R .rsync-
	      partial/'. Avoid using --delete-before or	--delete-during	unless
	      you don't	need rsync to use any  of  the	left-over  partial-dir
	      data during the current run.

	      IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not be writable by other
	      users or it is a security	risk!  E.g. AVOID "/tmp"!

	      You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR en-
	      vironment	 variable.   Setting  this in the environment does not
	      force --partial to be enabled, but rather	it affects where  par-
	      tial  files  go  when --partial is specified.  For instance, in-
	      stead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along  with  --progress,
	      you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
	      and then use the -P option to turn on the	use of the  .rsync-tmp
	      dir  for	partial	 transfers.  The only times that the --partial
	      option does not look for this environment	value are:

	      1.     when --inplace was	specified (since  --inplace  conflicts
		     with --partial-dir), and

	      2.     when --delay-updates was specified	(see below).

	      When  a  modern rsync resumes the	transfer of a file in the par-
	      tial-dir,	that partial file is now updated in-place  instead  of
	      creating	yet  another  tmp-file copy (so	it maxes out at	dest +
	      tmp instead of dest + partial + tmp).  This requires  both  ends
	      of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0.

	      For  the	purposes  of the daemon-config's "refuse options" set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so	that a
	      refusal  of  the	--partial  option  can be used to disallow the
	      overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,	 while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This  option puts	the temporary file from	each updated file into
	      a	holding	directory until	the end	of the transfer, at which time
	      all  the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in
	      each file's destination directory, but if	you've	specified  the
	      --partial-dir  option, that directory will be used instead.  See
	      the comments in the --partial-dir	section	for  a	discussion  of
	      how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from	the transfer, and what
	      you can do if you	want rsync to cleanup  old  .~tmp~  dirs  that
	      might be lying around.  Conflicts	with --inplace and --append.

	      This  option  implies --no-inc-recursive since it	needs the full
	      file list	in memory in order to be able to iterate  over	it  at
	      the end.

	      This  option uses	more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
	      file transferred)	and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.  Note also	that you should	not use	an  absolute  path  to
	      --partial-dir unless:

	      1.     there  is	no  chance of any of the files in the transfer
		     having the	same name (since all the updated files will be
		     put into a	single directory if the	path is	absolute), and

	      2.     there are no mount	points in the hierarchy	(since the de-
		     layed updates will	fail if	they  can't  be	 renamed  into

	      See  also	the "atomic-rsync" python script in the	"support" sub-
	      dir for an update	algorithm that is even more  atomic  (it  uses
	      --link-dest and a	parallel hierarchy of files).

       --prune-empty-dirs, -m
	      This option tells	the receiving rsync to get rid of empty	direc-
	      tories from the file-list,  including  nested  directories  that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation of a bunch of  useless  directories  when  the  sending
	      rsync  is	 recursively  scanning	a hierarchy of files using in-
	      clude/exclude/filter rules.

	      This option can still leave empty	directories on	the  receiving
	      side if you make use of TRANSFER_RULES.

	      Because the file-list is actually	being pruned, this option also
	      affects what directories get deleted when	a  delete  is  active.
	      However,	keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
	      prevent existing items from being	deleted	due to an exclude both
	      hiding  source  files and	protecting destination files.  See the
	      perishable filter-rule option for	how to avoid this.

	      You can prevent the pruning of certain  empty  directories  from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect"	filter.	 For instance,
	      this option would	ensure that the	directory "emptydir" was  kept
	      in the file-list:

		  --filter 'protect emptydir/'

	      Here's  an  example  that	 copies	all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
	      only creating the	necessary destination directories to hold  the
	      .pdf  files, and ensures that any	superfluous files and directo-
	      ries in the destination are removed (note	 the  hide  filter  of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

		  rsync	-avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f	'hide,!	*/' src/ dest

	      If  you didn't want to remove superfluous	destination files, the
	      more time-honored	options	of --include='*/' --exclude='*'	 would
	      work  fine  in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural
	      to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress	of the transfer.  This gives a bored user something to
	      watch.  With a modern rsync  this	 is  the  same	as  specifying
	      --info=flist2,name,progress,  but	any user-supplied settings for
	      those	 info	   flags      takes	 precedence	 (e.g.
	      --info=flist0 --progress).

	      While  rsync  is	transferring  a	 regular  file,	 it  updates a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		  782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has	reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
	      63% of the sender's file,	which is being reconstructed at	a rate
	      of 110.64	kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
	      4	seconds	if the current rate is maintained until	the end.

	      These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer al-
	      gorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's	file  consists
	      of the basis file	followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will probably drop dramatically when the receiver	 gets  to  the
	      literal data, and	the transfer will probably take	much longer to
	      finish than the receiver	estimated  as  it  was	finishing  the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When  the	 file  transfer	 finishes, rsync replaces the progress
	      line with	a summary line that looks like this:

		  1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s	0:00:08	 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

	      In this example, the file	was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during	the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and	there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see  if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out	of the 396 to-
	      tal files	in the file-list.

	      In an incremental	recursion scan,	rsync  won't  know  the	 total
	      number  of  files	 in the	file-list until	it reaches the ends of
	      the scan,	but since it starts to transfer	files during the scan,
	      it  will	display	a line with the	text "ir-chk" (for incremental
	      recursion	check) instead of "to-chk" until  the  point  that  it
	      knows  the  full size of the list, at which point	it will	switch
	      to using "to-chk".  Thus,	seeing "ir-chk"	lets you know that the
	      total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
	      (and each	time it	does, the count	of files left  to  check  will
	      increase by the number of	the files added	to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to "--partial	--progress".  Its pur-
	      pose is to make it much easier to	specify	these two options  for
	      a	long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      There  is	also a --info=progress2	option that outputs statistics
	      based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.   Use
	      this  flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or spec-
	      ify --info=name0)	if you want to see how the transfer  is	 doing
	      without  scrolling  the  screen  with a lot of names. (You don't
	      need  to	specify	 the  --progress  option  in  order   to   use

	      Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync
	      a	signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.	On BSD systems,	a SIG-
	      INFO  is	generated  by typing a Ctrl+T (Linux doesn't currently
	      support a	SIGINFO	signal).  When	the  client-side  process  re-
	      ceives  one  of those signals, it	sets a flag to output a	single
	      progress report which is output when the current	file  transfer
	      finishes	(so  it	 may take a little time	if a big file is being
	      handled when the signal arrives).	  A  filename  is  output  (if
	      needed)  followed	 by  the  --info=progress2  format of progress
	      info.  If	you don't know which of	the 3 rsync processes  is  the
	      client  process,	it's  OK to signal all of them (since the non-
	      client processes ignore the signal).

	      CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older  rsync  (pre-3.2.0)  will
	      kill it.

	      This  option  allows  you	to provide a password for accessing an
	      rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
	      file  should  contain  just  the password	on the first line (all
	      other lines are ignored).	 Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
	      is  world	 readable  or if a root-run rsync command finds	a non-
	      root-owned file.

	      This option does not supply a password to	a remote shell	trans-
	      port  such  as  ssh; to learn how	to do that, consult the	remote
	      shell's documentation.  When accessing an	rsync daemon  using  a
	      remote  shell  as	the transport, this option only	comes into ef-
	      fect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if
	      you have also specified a	password in the	daemon's config	file).

	      This  option allows rsync	to send	up to 5K of data to the	"early
	      exec" script on its stdin.  One possible use of this data	is  to
	      give  the	script a secret	that can be used to mount an encrypted
	      filesystem (which	you should unmount in the the "post-xfer exec"

	      The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

	      This  option will	cause the source files to be listed instead of
	      transferred.  This option	is  inferred  if  there	 is  a	single
	      source arg and no	destination specified, so its main uses	are:

	      1.     to	 turn  a  copy command that includes a destination arg
		     into a file-listing command, or

	      2.     to	be able	to specify more	than one source	arg.  Note: be
		     sure to include the destination.

	      CAUTION:	keep in	mind that a source arg with a wild-card	is ex-
	      panded by	the shell into multiple	args, so it is never  safe  to
	      try  to  specify a single	wild-card arg to try to	infer this op-
	      tion. A safe example is:

		  rsync	-av --list-only	foo* dest/

	      This option always uses an output	format that looks  similar  to

		  drwxrwxr-x	      4,096 2022/09/30 12:53:11	support
		  -rw-rw-r--		 80 2005/01/11 10:37:37	support/Makefile

	      The  only	option that affects this output	style is (as of	3.1.0)
	      the --human-readable (-h)	option.	  The  default	is  to	output
	      sizes  as	 byte counts with digit	separators (in a 14-character-
	      width column).  Specifying at least  one	-h  option  makes  the
	      sizes  output  with  unit	suffixes.  If you want old-style byte-
	      count sizes without digit	separators (and	an  11-character-width
	      column) use --no-h.

	      Compatibility  note:  when  requesting a remote listing of files
	      from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you	may  encounter
	      an  error	 if  you ask for a non-recursive listing.  This	is be-
	      cause a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o  --recursive,
	      and older	rsyncs don't have that option.	To avoid this problem,
	      either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't	need to	expand
	      a	 directory's  content),	 or  turn on recursion and exclude the
	      content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

	      This option allows you to	specify	the maximum transfer rate  for
	      the  data	 sent  over the	socket,	specified in units per second.
	      The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a  size
	      multiplier, and may be a fractional value	(e.g. --bwlimit=1.5m).
	      If no suffix is specified, the value will	be assumed  to	be  in
	      units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or	"KiB" had been appended).  See
	      the --max-size option for	a description  of  all	the  available
	      suffixes.	 A value of 0 specifies	no limit.

	      For  backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate	limit  will be
	      rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate  smaller  than  1024
	      bytes per	second is possible.

	      Rsync  writes  data  over	 the socket in blocks, and this	option
	      both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and	 tries
	      to  keep the average transfer rate at the	requested limit.  Some
	      burstiness may be	seen where rsync writes	out a  block  of  data
	      and then sleeps to bring the average rate	into compliance.

	      Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
	      not be an	accurate reflection on how  fast  the  data  is	 being
	      sent.   This  is because some files can show up as being rapidly
	      sent when	the data is quickly buffered, while other can show  up
	      as  very	slow  when  the	 flushing of the output	buffer occurs.
	      This may be fixed	in a future version.

	      See also the daemon version of the --bwlimit option.

       --stop-after=MINS, (--time-limit=MINS)
	      This option tells	rsync to stop copying when the specified  num-
	      ber of minutes has elapsed.

	      For  maximal flexibility,	rsync does not communicate this	option
	      to the remote rsync since	it is usually enough that one side  of
	      the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
	      even when	only one side of the connection	supports it.  You  can
	      tell  the	remote side about the time limit using --remote-option
	      (-M), should the need arise.

	      The --time-limit version of this option is deprecated.

	      This option tells	rsync to stop copying when the specified point
	      in time has been reached.	The date & time	can be fully specified
	      in  a  numeric  format   of   year-month-dayThour:minute	 (e.g.
	      2000-12-31T23:59)	in the local timezone.	You may	choose to sep-
	      arate the	date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

	      The value	can also be abbreviated	in a variety of	ways, such  as
	      specifying a 2-digit year	and/or leaving off various values.  In
	      all cases, the value will	be taken to be the next	possible point
	      in  time	where  the supplied information	matches.  If the value
	      specifies	the current time or a past time, rsync exits  with  an

	      For example, "1-30" specifies the	next January 30th (at midnight
	      local time), "14:00" specifies the next 2	 P.M.,	"1"  specifies
	      the  next	 1st of	the month at midnight, "31" specifies the next
	      month where we can stop on its 31st day, and ":59" specifies the
	      next 59th	minute after the hour.

	      For  maximal flexibility,	rsync does not communicate this	option
	      to the remote rsync since	it is usually enough that one side  of
	      the connection quits as specified.  This allows the option's use
	      even when	only one side of the connection	supports it.  You  can
	      tell  the	remote side about the time limit using --remote-option
	      (-M), should the need arise.  Do keep in mind  that  the	remote
	      host may have a different	default	timezone than your local host.

	      Cause  the receiving side	to fsync each finished file.  This may
	      slow down	the transfer, but can help to provide  peace  of  mind
	      when updating critical files.

	      Record  a	 file  that  can later be applied to another identical
	      destination with --read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for
	      details, and also	the --only-write-batch option.

	      This  option  overrides the negotiated checksum &	compress lists
	      and always negotiates a choice based on old-school  md5/md4/zlib
	      choices.	 If you	want a more modern choice, use the --checksum-
	      choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc) options.

	      Works like --write-batch,	except that no updates are made	on the
	      destination  system  when	 creating  the	batch.	 This lets you
	      transport	the changes to the destination system via  some	 other
	      means and	then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note  that you can feel free to write the	batch directly to some
	      portable media: if this media fills to capacity before  the  end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer	to the
	      destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of  the
	      changes  (as long	as you don't mind a partially updated destina-
	      tion system while	the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note	that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote  system  because  this  allows the	batched	data to	be di-
	      verted from the sender into the batch  file  without  having  to
	      flow  over the wire to the receiver (when	pulling, the sender is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply all	of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously  gen-
	      erated  by  --write-batch.  If FILE is -,	the batch data will be
	      read from	standard input.	See the	"BATCH MODE" section  for  de-

	      Force  an	older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
	      creating a batch file that is compatible with an	older  version
	      of  rsync.   For instance, if rsync 2.6.4	is being used with the
	      --write-batch option, but	rsync 2.6.3 is what will  be  used  to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating the batch file to force the older protocol  version  to
	      be  used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync
	      on the reading system).

	      Rsync can	convert	filenames between character  sets  using  this
	      option.	Using a	CONVERT_SPEC of	"." tells rsync	to look	up the
	      default character-set via	the locale setting.  Alternately,  you
	      can  fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
	      remote charset separated by a comma  in  the  order  --iconv=LO-
	      CAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that
	      the option will stay the same whether you're pushing or  pulling
	      files.   Finally,	 you  can  specify either --no-iconv or	a CON-
	      VERT_SPEC	of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The	 default  set-
	      ting  of	this option is site-specific, and can also be affected
	      via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For a list of what charset names your local iconv	 library  sup-
	      ports, you can run "iconv	--list".

	      If  you  specify	the  --secluded-args  (-s)  option, rsync will
	      translate	the filenames you specify on the command-line that are
	      being  sent  to  the remote host.	 See also the --files-from op-

	      Note that	rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in	filter
	      files (including include/exclude files).	It is up to you	to en-
	      sure that	you're specifying matching rules  that	can  match  on
	      both sides of the	transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude rules if there are filename differences  on  the
	      two sides	that need to be	accounted for.

	      When  you	 pass an --iconv option	to an rsync daemon that	allows
	      it, the daemon uses the charset specified	in its "charset"  con-
	      figuration  parameter regardless of the remote charset you actu-
	      ally pass.  Thus,	you may	feel free to specify  just  the	 local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running
	      ssh.  This affects sockets that rsync has	direct	control	 over,
	      such  as	the  outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync
	      daemon, as well as the forwarding	of the -4 or -6	option to  ssh
	      when  rsync  can	deduce	that  ssh  is being used as the	remote
	      shell.  For other	remote	shells	you'll	need  to  specify  the
	      "--rsh SHELL -4" option directly (or whatever IPv4/IPv6 hint op-
	      tions it uses).

	      See also the daemon version of these options.

	      If rsync was compiled without support for	IPv6, the  --ipv6  op-
	      tion  will have no effect.  The rsync --version output will con-
	      tain "no IPv6" if	is the case.

	      Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.	 This 4	byte  checksum
	      seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
	      (the more	modern MD5 file	checksums don't	use a seed).   By  de-
	      fault  the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults
	      to the current time().  This option is used to  set  a  specific
	      checksum	seed,  which  is useful	for applications that want re-
	      peatable block checksums,	or in the case where the user wants  a
	      more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync	to use
	      the default of time() for	checksum seed.

       The options allowed when	starting an rsync daemon are as	follows:

	      This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
	      start  running  may  be accessed using an	rsync client using the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If standard input	is a socket then rsync will assume that	it  is
	      being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
	      terminal and become a background daemon.	The daemon  will  read
	      the  config  file	(rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.

	      See the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon  with  the	 --daemon option.  The --address option	allows
	      you to specify a specific	IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
	      This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
	      --config option.

	      See also the address global option in  the  rsyncd.conf  manpage
	      and the client version of	the --address option.

	      This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
	      the data the daemon sends	over the socket.  The client can still
	      specify  a  smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be

	      See the client version of	the --bwlimit option  for  some	 extra

	      This  specifies an alternate config file than the	default.  This
	      is only relevant when --daemon is	 specified.   The  default  is
	      /etc/rsyncd.conf	unless	the  daemon  is	 running over a	remote
	      shell program and	the remote user	is not the super-user; in that
	      case  the	default	is rsyncd.conf in the current directory	(typi-
	      cally $HOME).

       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M
	      This option can be used to set a	daemon-config  parameter  when
	      starting	up  rsync  in daemon mode.  It is equivalent to	adding
	      the parameter at the end of the global  settings	prior  to  the
	      first module's definition.  The parameter	names can be specified
	      without spaces, if you so	desire.	 For instance:

		  rsync	--daemon -M pidfile=/path/

	      When running as a	daemon,	this option instructs rsync to not de-
	      tach itself and become a background process.  This option	is re-
	      quired when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be use-
	      ful when rsync is	supervised by a	program	such as	daemontools or
	      AIX's System Resource Controller.	 --no-detach  is  also	recom-
	      mended  when  rsync is run under a debugger.  This option	has no
	      effect if	rsync is run from inetd	or sshd.

	      This specifies an	alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
	      listen on	rather than the	default	of 873.

	      See  also	 the  client version of	the --port option and the port
	      global setting in	the rsyncd.conf	manpage.

	      This option tells	the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
	      name instead of using the	"log file" setting in the config file.

	      See also the client version of the --log-file option.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync  daemon  to use the given	FORMAT
	      string instead of	using the "log format" setting in  the	config
	      file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
	      empty, in	which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      See also the client version of the --log-file-format option.

	      This overrides the socket	options	 setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

	      See also the client version of the --sockopts option.

       --verbose, -v
	      This  option increases the amount	of information the daemon logs
	      during its startup phase.	 After the client connects,  the  dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

	      See also the client version of the --verbose option.

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the	incoming sock-
	      ets that the rsync daemon	will use to  listen  for  connections.
	      One  of these options may	be required in older versions of Linux
	      to work around an	IPv6 bug in the	kernel (if you see an "address
	      already  in  use"	error when nothing else	is using the port, try
	      specifying --ipv6	or --ipv4 when starting	the daemon).

	      See also the client version of these options.

	      If rsync was compiled without support for	IPv6, the  --ipv6  op-
	      tion  will have no effect.  The rsync --version output will con-
	      tain "no IPv6" if	is the case.

       --help, -h
	      When specified after --daemon, print a short help	page  describ-
	      ing the options available	for starting an	rsync daemon.

       The  filter  rules  allow  for custom control of	several	aspects	of how
       files are handled:

       o      Control which files the sending side puts	 into  the  file  list
	      that describes the transfer hierarchy

       o      Control  which  files  the receiving side	protects from deletion
	      when the file is not in the sender's file	list

       o      Control which extended attribute names are skipped when  copying

       The  rules  are	either directly	specified via option arguments or they
       can be read in from one or more files.  The filter-rule files can  even
       be  a  part of the hierarchy of files being copied, affecting different
       parts of	the tree in different ways.

       We will first cover the basics of how include &	exclude	 rules	affect
       what files are transferred, ignoring any	deletion side-effects.	Filter
       rules mainly affect the contents	of directories that rsync is  "recurs-
       ing"  into,  but	 they can also affect a	top-level item in the transfer
       that was	specified as a argument.

       The default for any unmatched file/dir is for it	to be included in  the
       transfer, which puts the	file/dir into the sender's file	list.  The use
       of an exclude rule causes one or	more matching files/dirs  to  be  left
       out  of	the  sender's file list.  An include rule can be used to limit
       the effect of an	exclude	rule that is matching too many files.

       The order of the	rules is important because the first rule that matches
       is  the one that	takes effect.  Thus, if	an early rule excludes a file,
       no include rule that comes after	it can have  any  effect.  This	 means
       that  you  must	place any include overrides somewhere prior to the ex-
       clude that it is	intended to limit.

       When a directory	is excluded, all its  contents	and  sub-contents  are
       also excluded.  The sender doesn't scan through any of it at all, which
       can save	a lot of time when skipping large unneeded sub-trees.

       It is also important to understand that the include/exclude  rules  are
       applied	to every file and directory that the sender is recursing into.
       Thus, if	you want a particular deep file	to be included,	 you  have  to
       make  sure  that	 none of the directories that must be traversed	on the
       way down	to that	file are excluded or else the file will	never be  dis-
       covered	to  be	included. As an	example, if the	directory "a/path" was
       given as	a transfer argument and	you  want  to  ensure  that  the  file
       "a/path/down/deep/wanted.txt"  is  a  part  of  the  transfer, then the
       sender must not exclude the  directories	 "a/path",  "a/path/down",  or
       "a/path/down/deep" as it	makes it way scanning through the file tree.

       When  you  are  working on the rules, it	can be helpful to ask rsync to
       tell you	what is	being excluded/included	 and  why.   Specifying	 --de-
       bug=FILTER or (when pulling files) -M--debug=FILTER turns on level 1 of
       the FILTER debug	information that will output a message any time	that a
       file  or	 directory  is included	or excluded and	which rule it matched.
       Beginning in 3.2.4 it will also warn if	a  filter  rule	 has  trailing
       whitespace, since an exclude of "foo " (with a trailing space) will not
       exclude a file named "foo".

       Exclude and include rules can specify wildcard PATTERN  MATCHING	 RULES
       (similar	to shell wildcards) that allow you to match things like	a file
       suffix or a portion of a	filename.

       A rule can be limited to	only affecting a directory by putting a	trail-
       ing slash onto the filename.

       With the	following file tree created on the sending side:

	   mkdir x/
	   touch x/file.txt
	   mkdir x/y/
	   touch x/y/file.txt
	   touch x/y/zzz.txt
	   mkdir x/z/
	   touch x/z/file.txt

       Then  the following rsync command will transfer the file	"x/y/file.txt"
       and  the	 directories  needed  to  hold	it,  resulting	in  the	  path
       "/tmp/x/y/file.txt" existing on the remote host:

	   rsync -ai -f'+ x/' -f'+ x/y/' -f'+ x/y/file.txt' -f'- *' x host:/tmp/

       Aside:  this copy could also have been accomplished using the -R	option
       (though the 2 commands behave differently if deletions are enabled):

	   rsync -aiR x/y/file.txt host:/tmp/

       The following command does not need an include of the "x" directory be-
       cause  it  is  not  a  part of the transfer (note the traililng slash).
       Running this command would copy just "/tmp/x/file.txt" because the  "y"
       and "z" dirs get	excluded:

	   rsync -ai -f'+ file.txt' -f'- *' x/ host:/tmp/x/

       This  command  would omit the zzz.txt file while	copying	"x" and	every-
       thing else it contains:

	   rsync -ai -f'- zzz.txt' x host:/tmp/

       By default the include &	exclude	filter rules affect  both  the	sender
       (as  it creates its file	list) and the receiver (as it creates its file
       lists for calculating deletions).  If no	delete option  is  in  effect,
       the  receiver  skips creating the delete-related	file lists.  This two-
       sided default can be manually overridden	so that	you are	only  specify-
       ing sender rules	or receiver rules, as described	in the FILTER RULES IN
       DEPTH section.

       When deleting, an exclude protects a file from being removed on the re-
       ceiving	side  while  an	include	overrides that protection (putting the
       file at risk of deletion). The default is for a file to be  at  risk --
       its safety depends on it	matching a corresponding file from the sender.

       An  example  of	the two-sided exclude effect can be illustrated	by the
       copying of a C development directory between 2 systems.	When  doing  a
       touch-up	 copy, you might want to skip copying the built	executable and
       the .o files (sender hide) so that the receiving	side can  build	 their
       own  and	 not  lose any object files that are already correct (receiver
       protect).  For instance:

	   rsync -ai --del -f'-	*.o' -f'- cmd' src host:/dest/

       Note that using -f'-p *.o' is even better than -f'- *.o'	if there is  a
       chance that the directory structure may have changed.  The "p" modifier
       is discussed in FILTER RULE MODIFIERS.

       One final note, if your shell doesn't mind  unexpanded  wildcards,  you
       could  simplify the typing of the filter	options	by using an underscore
       in place	of the space  and  leaving  off	 the  quotes.	For  instance,
       -f -_*.o	-f -_cmd (and similar) could be	used instead of	the filter op-
       tions above.

       Rsync supports old-style	include/exclude	 rules	and  new-style	filter
       rules.	The older rules	are specified using --include and --exclude as
       well as the --include-from and --exclude-from. These are	limited	in be-
       havior  but  they  don't	require	a "-" or "+" prefix.  An old-style ex-
       clude rule is turned into a "- name" filter rule	 (with	no  modifiers)
       and  an	old-style  include  rule is turned into	a "+ name" filter rule
       (with no	modifiers).

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
       mand-line  and/or  read-in from files.  New style filter	rules have the
       following syntax:


       You have	your choice of using either short or long RULE names,  as  de-
       scribed	below.	 If you	use a short-named rule,	the ','	separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows  (when present) must come after either a single space or an	under-
       score (_). Any additional spaces	and/or underscores are	considered  to
       be a part of the	pattern	name.  Here are	the available rule prefixes:

       exclude,	'-'
	      specifies	 an  exclude  pattern that (by default)	is both	a hide
	      and a protect.

       include,	'+'
	      specifies	an include pattern that	(by default) is	 both  a  show
	      and a risk.

       merge, '.'
	      specifies	 a  merge-file	on  the	 client	 side to read for more

       dir-merge, ':'
	      specifies	a per-directory	merge-file.  Using this	kind of	filter
	      rule requires that you trust the sending side's filter checking,
	      so it has	the side-effect	mentioned under	the --trust-sender op-

       hide, 'H'
	      specifies	a pattern for hiding files from	the transfer.  Equiva-
	      lent to a	sender-only exclude, so	-f'H foo' could	also be	speci-
	      fied as -f'-s foo'.

       show, 'S'
	      files  that  match  the  pattern are not hidden. Equivalent to a
	      sender-only include, so -f'S foo'	could  also  be	 specified  as
	      -f'+s foo'.

       protect,	'P'
	      specifies	a pattern for protecting files from deletion.  Equiva-
	      lent to a	receiver-only exclude,	so  -f'P foo'  could  also  be
	      specified	as -f'-r foo'.

       risk, 'R'
	      files  that match	the pattern are	not protected. Equivalent to a
	      receiver-only include, so	-f'R foo' could	also be	 specified  as
	      -f'+r foo'.

       clear, '!'
	      clears the current include/exclude list (takes no	arg)

       When rules are being read from a	file (using merge or dir-merge), empty
       lines are ignored, as are whole-line comments that  start  with	a  '#'
       (filename rules that contain a hash character are unaffected).

       Note  also that the --filter, --include,	and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each.  To add multiple ones, you can repeat	the options on
       the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from / --exclude-from options.

       Most of the rules mentioned above take an argument that specifies  what
       the rule	should match.  If rsync	is recursing through a directory hier-
       archy, keep in mind that	each pattern is	matched	against	 the  name  of
       every  directory	 in  the  descent path as rsync	finds the filenames to

       The matching rules for the pattern argument take	several	forms:

       o      If a pattern contains a /	(not counting a	trailing slash)	 or  a
	      "**"  (which  can	 match	a  slash), then	the pattern is matched
	      against the full pathname,  including  any  leading  directories
	      within  the  transfer.   If  the pattern doesn't contain a (non-
	      trailing)	/ or a "**", then it is	matched	only against the final
	      component	 of  the  filename or pathname.	For example, foo means
	      that the final path component must be "foo" while	foo/bar	 would
	      match  the last 2	elements of the	path (as long as both elements
	      are within the transfer).

       o      A	pattern	that ends with a / only	matches	 a  directory,	not  a
	      regular file, symlink, or	device.

       o      A	 pattern  that starts with a / is anchored to the start	of the
	      transfer path instead of	the  end.   For	 example,  /foo/**  or
	      /foo/bar/**  match  only	leading	 elements in the path.	If the
	      rule is read from	a per-directory	filter file, the transfer path
	      being matched will begin at the level of the filter file instead
	      of the top of the	transfer.  See the section  on	ANCHORING  IN-
	      CLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full	discussion of how to specify a
	      pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       Rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching
       by checking if the pattern contains one of these	three wildcard charac-
       ters: '*', '?', and '[' :

       o      a	'?' matches any	single character except	a slash	(/).

       o      a	'*' matches zero or more non-slash characters.

       o      a	'**' matches zero or more characters, including	slashes.

       o      a	'[' introduces a character class,  such	 as  [a-z]  or	[[:al-
	      pha:]], that must	match one character.

       o      a	 trailing *** in the pattern is	a shorthand that allows	you to
	      match a directory	and all	its contents using a single rule.  For
	      example,	 specifying   "dir_name/***"   will   match  both  the
	      "dir_name" directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified)  and
	      everything in the	directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been	speci-

       o      a	backslash can be used to escape	a wildcard character,  but  it
	      is only interpreted as an	escape character if at least one wild-
	      card character is	present	in the match  pattern.	For  instance,
	      the  pattern  "foo\bar" matches that single backslash literally,
	      while the	 pattern  "foo\bar*"  would  need  to  be  changed  to
	      "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       Here are	some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      Option -f'- *.o' would exclude all filenames ending with .o

       o      Option  -f'- /foo' would exclude a file (or directory) named foo
	      in the transfer-root directory

       o      Option -f'- foo/'	would exclude any directory named foo

       o      Option -f'- foo/*/bar' would  exclude  any  file/dir  named  bar
	      which is at two levels below a directory named foo (if foo is in
	      the transfer)

       o      Option -f'- /foo/**/bar' would exclude any  file/dir  named  bar
	      that  was	 two  or more levels below a top-level directory named
	      foo (note	that /foo/bar is not excluded by this)

       o      Options -f'+ */' -f'+ *.c' -f'- *' would include all directories
	      and .c source files but nothing else

       o      Options  -f'+ foo/' -f'+ foo/bar.c' -f'- *'  would  include only
	      the foo directory	and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must  be  ex-
	      plicitly included	or it would be excluded	by the "- *")

       The  following  modifiers  are accepted after an	include	(+) or exclude
       (-) rule:

       o      A	/ specifies that the include/exclude rule  should  be  matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      -f'-/ /etc/passwd' would exclude the passwd file	any  time  the
	      transfer	was  sending  files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/
	      subdir/foo" would	always exclude "foo" when it is	in a dir named
	      "subdir",	even if	"foo" is at the	root of	the current transfer.

       o      A	! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect	if the
	      pattern fails to match.  For instance, -f'-! */'	would  exclude
	      all non-directories.

       o      A	 C  is	used to	indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
	      should be	inserted as excludes in	place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
	      should follow.

       o      An  s  is	 used to indicate that the rule	applies	to the sending
	      side.  When a rule affects the sending  side,  it	 affects  what
	      files are	put into the sender's file list.  The default is for a
	      rule to affect both sides	unless	--delete-excluded  was	speci-
	      fied,  in	which case default rules become	sender-side only.  See
	      also the hide (H)	and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way
	      to specify sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate	that the rule applies to the receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it	prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which	are an	alternate  way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A	 p indicates that a rule is perishable,	meaning	that it	is ig-
	      nored in directories that	are being deleted.  For	instance,  the
	      --cvs-exclude  (-C)  option's  default rules that	exclude	things
	      like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not pre-
	      vent  a  directory  that	was  removed  on the source from being
	      deleted on the destination.

       o      An x  indicates  that  a	rule  affects  xattr  names  in	 xattr
	      copy/delete  operations  (and  is	 thus  ignored	when  matching
	      file/dir names).	If no xattr-matching rules  are	 specified,  a
	      default xattr filtering rule is used (see	the --xattrs option).

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules	by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge	(:) filter rule	(as introduced in  the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two kinds of	merged files --	single-instance	('.') and per-
       directory (':').	 A single-instance merge file is read  one  time,  and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.  For per-directory	merge files, rsync will	scan  every  directory
       that  it	 traverses  for	 the named file, merging its contents when the
       file exists into	the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory  rule  files must be created on the	sending	side because it	is the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These  rule files may also need to be transferred to the	receiving side
       if you want them	to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	   merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
	   . /etc/rsync/default.rules
	   dir-merge .per-dir-filter
	   dir-merge,n-	.non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	   :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	 - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	+ specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 C  is a way to	specify	that the file should be	read in	a CVS-
	      compatible manner.  This turns on	'n', 'w', and  '-',  but  also
	      allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
	      name is provided,	".cvsignore" is	assumed.

       o      A	e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the	rules are not inherited	by subdirecto-

       o      A	w specifies that the rules are word-split  on  whitespace  in-
	      stead  of	 the  normal line-splitting.  This also	turns off com-
	      ments.  Note: the	space that separates the prefix	from the  rule
	      is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar"	is parsed as two rules
	      (assuming	that prefix-parsing wasn't also	disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers	for  the  "+"  or  "-"
	      rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
	      the file default to having that modifier set (except for	the  !
	      modifier,	 which	would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
	      .excl" would treat the contents of .excl	as  absolute-path  ex-
	      cludes,  while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all
	      their per-directory rules	apply only on the  sending  side.   If
	      the  merge  rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r modi-
	      fier or both), then the rules in the file	must not specify sides
	      (via a modifier or a rule	prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the	direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was	 used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed	to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set	of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together	in the spot where the merge-file was specified,	so  it
       is  possible  to	override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read	 from a	per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a	single rule from a dir-merge file  from	 being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file	are relative to	the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo"	would only match the file "foo"	in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's  an  example  filter  file  which	 you'd	specify	  via	--fil-
       ter=". file":

	   merge /home/user/.global-filter
	   - *.gz
	   dir-merge .rules
	   + *.[ch]
	   - *.o
	   - foo*

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the	list and also turns the	".rules" filename into a  per-
       directory filter	file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the di-
       rectory scan follow the global anchoring	rules (i.e.  a	leading	 slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is	specified with a path that is a	parent
       directory of the	first transfer directory, rsync	will scan all the par-
       ent dirs	from that starting point to the	transfer directory for the in-
       dicated per-directory file.  For	instance, here is a common filter (see

	   --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells	rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all	direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to the start of the normal directory scan	of the file in the di-
       rectories that are sent as a part of the	transfer. (Note: for an	 rsync
       daemon, the root	is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of	this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	   rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	   rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	   rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter'	/src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands	above will look	for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and	 its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and	only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in  each  di-
       rectory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a	".cvsignore" in	your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect where the	--cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of  the  per-di-
       rectory .cvsignore file gets placed into	your rules by putting the ":C"
       wherever	you like in your filter	rules.	Without	this, rsync would  add
       the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of	all your other
       rules (giving it	a lower	priority than your command-line	 rules).   For

	   cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	   + foo.o
	   - *.old
	   rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of	 the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each	one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore	rules in the middle of the list	rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific	rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C	instead	 of  being  subservient	 to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents	of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g.  "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"	filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES	section	above).	 The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the	 rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set	of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a	subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the	transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think	of the
       transfer	as a subtree of	names that are being sent from sender  to  re-
       ceiver,	the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in
       the destination directory.  This	root governs where patterns that start
       with a /	match.

       Because	the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing	slash on a source path or changing your	use of the  --relative
       option  affects	the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file	tree is	duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match	two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with	a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	   Example cmd:	rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	   +/- pattern:	/me/foo/bar
	   +/- pattern:	/you/bar/baz
	   Target file:	/dest/me/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/you/bar/baz

	   Example cmd:	rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	   +/- pattern:	/foo/bar	       (note missing "me")
	   +/- pattern:	/bar/baz	       (note missing "you")
	   Target file:	/dest/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/bar/baz

	   Example cmd:	rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you	/dest
	   +/- pattern:	/home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
	   +/- pattern:	/home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
	   Target file:	/dest/home/me/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/home/you/bar/baz

	   Example cmd:	cd /home; rsync	-a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
	   +/- pattern:	/me/foo/bar	 (starts at specified path)
	   +/- pattern:	/you/bar/baz	 (ditto)
	   Target file:	/dest/me/foo/bar
	   Target file:	/dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see	what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any	files).

       Without	a  delete option, per-directory	rules are only relevant	on the
       sending side, so	you can	feel free to exclude  the  merge  files	 them-
       selves without affecting	the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you,	as seen	in these two  equivalent  com-

	   rsync -av --filter=': .excl'	--exclude=.excl	host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	 if you	want to	do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be	excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,	because	 this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same	exclude	rules as the sending side before it  tries  to	delete

	   rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or	 you'll	 need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on	the receiving side.  An	example	of the first is	 this  (assume
       that the	remote .rules files exclude themselves):

	   rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	      --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides	of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the	.rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote	side is	 excluding  the	 .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer,	but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and	then put rules into the	local files  to	 control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete	host:src/dir /dest

       In  addition  to	 the FILTER RULES that affect the recursive file scans
       that generate the file list on the sending and (when deleting)  receiv-
       ing sides, there	are transfer rules. These rules	affect which files the
       generator decides need to be transferred	without	the side effects of an
       exclude filter rule.  Transfer rules affect only	files and never	direc-

       Because a transfer rule does not	affect what  goes  into	 the  sender's
       (and  receiver's)  file	list, it cannot	have any effect	on which files
       get deleted on the receiving side.  For example,	if the file  "foo"  is
       present	in  the	 sender's list but its size is such that it is omitted
       due to a	transfer rule, the receiving side does not request  the	 file.
       However,	 its  presence	in the file list means that a delete pass will
       not remove a matching file named	"foo" on the receiving side.   On  the
       other  hand,  a server-side exclude (hide) of the file "foo" leaves the
       file out	of the server's	file list, and absent a	receiver-side  exclude
       (protect) the receiver will remove a matching file named	"foo" if dele-
       tions are requested.

       Given that the files are	still in the sender's file list, the  --prune-
       empty-dirs  option will not judge a directory as	being empty even if it
       contains	only files that	the transfer rules omitted.

       Similarly, a transfer rule does not have	 any  extra  effect  on	 which
       files are deleted on the	receiving side,	so setting a maximum file size
       for the transfer	does not prevent big files from	being deleted.

       Examples	of transfer rules include the default "quick check"  algorithm
       (which  compares	 size  & modify	time), the --update option, the	--max-
       size option, the	--ignore-non-existing option, and a few	others.

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same	set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems.  Suppose one has a tree which is replicated	on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some	changes	have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be	propagated to the other	hosts.	In order to do
       this using batch	mode, rsync is run with	the write-batch	option to  ap-
       ply  the	 changes  made	to  the	 source	tree to	one of the destination
       trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to  store	 in  a
       "batch  file"  all  the	information  needed  to	 repeat	this operation
       against other, identical	destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block	generation more	than once when updating	multi-
       ple destination trees.  Multicast transport protocols can  be  used  to
       transfer	 the batch update files	in parallel to many hosts at once, in-
       stead of	sending	the same data to every host individually.

       To apply	the recorded changes to	another	destination  tree,  run	 rsync
       with the	read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync	updates	the destination	tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For  your  convenience,	a  script file is also created when the	write-
       batch option is used: it	will be	named the same as the batch file  with
       ".sh"  appended.	 This script file contains a command-line suitable for
       updating	a destination tree using the associated	batch file.  It	can be
       executed	 using	a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in
       an alternate destination	tree pathname which is then  used  instead  of
       the  original  destination  path.   This	is useful when the destination
       tree path on the	current	host differs from the one used to  create  the
       batch file.


	   $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a	host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	   $ scp foo* remote:
	   $ ssh remote	./ /bdest/dir/

	   $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a	/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	   $ ssh remote	rsync --read-batch=- -a	/bdest/dir/ <foo

       In   these   examples,	rsync  is  used	 to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and	the information	to repeat this operation is stored  in
       "foo" and "".  The	host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first	example	shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local --	you  can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
	      either the remote-shell syntax or	rsync daemon  syntax,  as  de-

       o      The  first  example  uses	 the  created "" file to get the
	      right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
	      remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
	      that the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote  ma-
	      chine  first.   This example avoids the script because it
	      needed to	use a modified --read-batch option, but	you could edit
	      the  script  file	 if you	wished to make use of it (just be sure
	      that no other option is trying to	use standard  input,  such  as
	      the --exclude-from=- option).


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that	it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was	 used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be up-to-date	already) or the	file-update may	be at-
       tempted and then, if the	file fails to  verify,	the  update  discarded
       with  an	 error.	  This	means that it should be	safe to	re-run a read-
       batch operation if the command got interrupted.	If you wish  to	 force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an error  oc-
       curs,  the  destination	tree  will  probably be	in a partially updated
       state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used	on all destinations must be at least as	new as
       the one used to generate	the batch file.	 Rsync will die	with an	 error
       if  the	protocol  version  in the batch	file is	too new	for the	batch-
       reading rsync to	handle.	 See also the --protocol option	for a  way  to
       have  the  creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will	not work.)

       When  reading  a	 batch file, rsync will	force the value	of certain op-
       tions to	match the data in the batch file if you	didn't set them	to the
       same  as	 the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should) be
       changed.	 For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch,  --files-
       from  is	 dropped, and the --filter / --include / --exclude options are
       not needed unless one of	the --delete options is	specified.

       The code	that creates  the  file  transforms  any  filter/in-
       clude/exclude  options  into a single list that is appended as a	"here"
       document	to the shell script file.  An advanced user can	 use  this  to
       modify the exclude list if a change in what gets	deleted	by --delete is
       desired.	 A normal user can ignore this detail and just use  the	 shell
       script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for
       the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync	was based on "rsync+", but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three  basic  behaviors	are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred	 at  all.   A  message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If  --links  is specified, then symlinks	are added to the transfer (in-
       stead of	being noisily ignored),	and the	default	handling is to	recre-
       ate  them with the same target on the destination.  Note	that --archive
       implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync  can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic	links.	An ex-
       ample where this	might be used is a web site mirror that	wishes to  en-
       sure  that  the	rsync  module that is copied does not include symbolic
       links to	/etc/passwd in the public section of the site.	Using  --copy-
       unsafe-links  will  cause any links to be copied	as the file they point
       to on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe  links  to
       be  omitted  by	the  receiver.	 (Note	that you must specify or imply
       --links for --safe-links	to have	any effect.)

       Symbolic	links are considered unsafe  if	 they  are  absolute  symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough	".." components	to as-
       cend from the top of the	transfer.

       Here's a	summary	of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is in order of precedence, so if	your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn all symlinks	into normal files and directories (leaving  no
	      symlinks in the transfer for any other options to	affect).

	      Turn just	symlinks to directories	into real directories, leaving
	      all other	symlinks to be handled as described below.

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and  create  all  safe  sym-

	      Turn  all	unsafe symlinks	into files, noisily skip all safe sym-

       --links --safe-links
	      The receiver skips creating unsafe symlinks found	in the	trans-
	      fer and creates the safe ones.

	      Create all symlinks.

       For  the	 effect	 of --munge-links, see the discussion in that option's

       Note that the --keep-dirlinks option does not effect  symlinks  in  the
       transfer	 but instead affects how rsync treats a	symlink	to a directory
       that already exists on the receiving side.  See that  option's  section
       for a warning.

       Rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem	a little cryp-
       tic.  The one that seems	to cause the most confusion is "protocol  ver-
       sion mismatch --	is your	shell clean?".

       This  message is	usually	caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility	producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is	 using
       for its transport.  The way to diagnose this problem is to run your re-
       mote shell like this:

	   ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then  out.dat
       should  be a zero length	file.  If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains	some  text  or
       data.   Look  at	the contents and try to	work out what is producing it.
       The most	common cause is	incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such as	.cshrc or .profile) that contain output	statements for non-in-
       teractive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify-
       ing  the	 -vv  option.	At this	level of verbosity rsync will show why
       each individual file is included	or excluded.

       o      0	- Success

       o      1	- Syntax or usage error

       o      2	- Protocol incompatibility

       o      3	- Errors selecting input/output	files, dirs


	      o	     4 - Requested action not supported. Either:

		     an	attempt	was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a plat-
		     form that cannot support them

	      o	     an	 option	 was specified that is supported by the	client
		     and not by	the server

       o      5	- Error	starting client-server protocol

       o      6	- Daemon unable	to append to log-file

       o      10 - Error in socket I/O

       o      11 - Error in file I/O

       o      12 - Error in rsync protocol data	stream

       o      13 - Errors with program diagnostics

       o      14 - Error in IPC	code

       o      20 - Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       o      21 - Some	error returned by waitpid()

       o      22 - Error allocating core memory	buffers

       o      23 - Partial transfer due	to error

       o      24 - Partial transfer due	to vanished source files

       o      25 - The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       o      30 - Timeout in data send/receive

       o      35 - Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The CVSIGNORE environment	variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
	      terns  in	 .cvsignore  files.   See the --cvs-exclude option for
	      more details.

	      Specify a	default	--iconv	setting	using this  environment	 vari-
	      able. First supported in 3.0.0.

	      Specify a	"1" if you want	the --old-args option to be enabled by
	      default, a "2" (or more) if you want it to be enabled in the re-
	      peated-option  state,  or	a "0" to make sure that	it is disabled
	      by default. When this environment	variable is set	to a  non-zero
	      value, it	supersedes the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS variable.

	      This  variable is	ignored	if --old-args, --no-old-args, or --se-
	      cluded-args is specified on the command line.

	      First supported in 3.2.4.

	      Specify a	non-zero numeric value if you want the --secluded-args
	      option  to  be  enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure
	      that it is disabled by default.

	      This variable is ignored if --secluded-args, --no-secluded-args,
	      or --old-args is specified on the	command	line.

	      First  supported	in 3.1.0.  Starting in 3.2.4, this variable is
	      ignored if RSYNC_OLD_ARGS	is set to a non-zero value.

	      This environment variable	allows you  to	override  the  default
	      shell used as the	transport for rsync.  Command line options are
	      permitted	after the command name,	just as	in the --rsh (-e)  op-

	      This  environment	 variable  allows  you	to redirect your rsync
	      client to	use a web proxy	when connecting	to  an	rsync  daemon.
	      You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      This  environment	variable allows	you to set the password	for an
	      rsync daemon connection, which avoids the	password prompt.  Note
	      that this	does not supply	a password to a	remote shell transport
	      such as ssh (consult its documentation for how to	do that).

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The USER or LOGNAME environment variables	are used to  determine
	      the  default  username  sent  to an rsync	daemon.	 If neither is
	      set, the username	defaults to "nobody".  If both are  set,  USER
	      takes precedence.

	      This  environment	 variable specifies the	directory to use for a
	      --partial	transfer without implying that	partial	 transfers  be
	      enabled.	See the	--partial-dir option for full details.

	      This  environment	 variable allows you to	customize the negotia-
	      tion of the compression algorithm	by specifying an alternate or-
	      der or a reduced list of names.  Use the command rsync --version
	      to see the available compression names.  See the --compress  op-
	      tion for full details.

	      This  environment	 variable allows you to	customize the negotia-
	      tion of the checksum algorithm by	specifying an alternate	 order
	      or  a reduced list of names.  Use	the command rsync --version to
	      see the available	checksum names.	 See the --checksum-choice op-
	      tion for full details.

	      This  environment	 variable sets an allocation maximum as	if you
	      had used the --max-alloc option.

	      This environment variable	is not read by rsync, but  is  instead
	      set  in  its  sub-environment  when  rsync is running the	remote
	      shell in combination with	a daemon connection.   This  allows  a
	      script such as rsync-ssl to be able to know the port number that
	      the user specified on the	command	line.

       HOME   This environment variable	is used	to  find  the  user's  default
	      .cvsignore file.

	      This  environment	variable is mainly used	in debug setups	to set
	      the program to use when making a daemon  connection.   See  CON-
	      NECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON for full details.

	      This  environment	variable is mainly used	in debug setups	to set
	      the program to use to run	the program  specified	by  RSYNC_CON-
	      NECT_PROG.  See CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON for	full details.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf	or rsyncd.conf

       rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5), rrsync(1)

       o      Times are	transferred as *nix time_t values.

       o      When  transferring  to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodi-
	      fied files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       o      File permissions,	devices, etc. are transferred as native	numer-
	      ical values.

       o      See also the comments on the --delete option.

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This manpage is current for version 3.2.7 of rsync.

       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by	 a  user  under	 normal	 circumstances.	  Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that can	only run an rsync  command.   For  in-
       stance,	the support directory of the rsync distribution	has an example
       script named rrsync (for	restricted rsync) that can be used with	a  re-
       stricted	ssh login.

       Rsync  is  distributed  under  the GNU General Public License.  See the
       file COPYING for	details.

       An rsync	web site is available at   The  site
       includes	 an  FAQ-O-Matic  which	may cover questions unanswered by this
       manual page.

       The rsync github	project	is

       We would	be delighted to	hear  from  you	 if  you  like	this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This  program  uses  the	 excellent zlib	compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly	and Mark Adler.

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen,  Matt	McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
       Terpstra,  David	 Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre,	J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and	David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       Rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell	 and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many people have	later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by
       Wayne Davison.

       Mailing	lists  for  support   and   development	  are	available   at

rsync 3.2.7			  20 Oct 2022			      rsync(1)


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