Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

NAME
       rsync --	a fast,	versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

SYNOPSIS
       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync	daemon:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just	one SRC	arg and	no DEST	arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

DESCRIPTION
       Rsync is	a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote	rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of	 its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of	the set	of files to be copied.	It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of	data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the	 source	 files
       and  the	 existing  files in the	destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved	copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" al-
       gorithm	(by default) that looks	for files that have changed in size or
       in last-modified	time.  Any changes in the other	 preserved  attributes
       (as  requested  by  options)  are made on the destination file directly
       when the	quick check indicates that the file's data does	not need to be
       updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync	are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-
	      sions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS	 would
	      ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or	authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
	      mirroring)

GENERAL
       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current	host  (it  does	 not  support copying files between two	remote
       hosts).

       There are two different ways for	rsync to contact a remote system:  us-
       ing  a  remote-shell  program  as the transport (such as	ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell	trans-
       port  is	used whenever the source or destination	path contains a	single
       colon (:) separator after a host	specification.	 Contacting  an	 rsync
       daemon  directly	happens	when the source	or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://	 URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this	latter
       rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a	desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format	similar	to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a	remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync  refers  to the local side	as the "client"	and the	remote side as
       the "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a	daemon
       is  always  a  server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-
       shell spawned process.

SETUP
       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any	machine	that  you  can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that	you can	access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its	 communications, but it	may have been configured to use	a dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any	remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH	environment variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the	source and destination
       machines.

USAGE
       You use rsync in	the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best	way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the	directory src on the machine foo. If any of the	 files
       already	exist on the remote system then	the rsync remote-update	proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the	/data/tmp/bar directory	on the local  machine.
       The  files  are	transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that sym-
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,	ownerships,  etc.  are
       preserved  in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions	of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash	on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You	can think of a
       trailing	/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the at-
       tributes	of the containing directory are	transferred to the  containing
       directory  on  the  destination.	 In other words, each of the following
       commands	copies the files in the	same way, including their  setting  of
       the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av	/src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av	/src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that	 host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to	copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these	copy the remote	directory's contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av	host: /dest
	      rsync -av	host::module /dest

       You  can	 also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both	the source and
       destination don't have a	':' in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy	command.

       Finally,	 you can list all the (listable) modules available from	a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

	      rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

ADVANCED USAGE
       The syntax for requesting multiple files	from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the	first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all	these work:

	      rsync -av	host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
	      rsync -av	host::modname/file{1,2}	host::modname/file3 /dest/
	      rsync -av	host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required	using quoted spaces in the  SRC,  like
       these examples:

	      rsync -av	host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  word-splitting  still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as	the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains	 whitespace,  you  can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll	need to	escape
       the whitespace in a way that the	remote shell will understand.  For in-
       stance:

	      rsync -av	host:'file\ name\ with\	spaces'	/dest

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON
       It  is  also possible to	use rsync without a remote shell as the	trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to	a remote rsync daemon,
       typically  using	 TCP port 873.	(This obviously	requires the daemon to
       be running on the remote	system,	so refer to the	STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell ex-
       cept that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first	word of	the "path" is actually a module	name.

       o      the  remote  daemon may print a message of the day when you con-
	      nect.

       o      if you specify no	path name on the remote	daemon then  the  list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon	will be	shown.

       o      if you specify no	local destination then a listing of the	speci-
	      fied files on the	remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote	module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require  authentication.  If  so,
       you  will receive a password prompt when	you connect. You can avoid the
       password	prompt by setting the environment variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to
       the  password you want to use or	using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	On some	systems	 environment  variables	 are  visible  to  all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is	recommended.

       You  may	 establish the connection via a	web proxy by setting the envi-
       ronment variable	RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing  to  your
       web proxy.  Note	that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a	daemon connection using	a program as  a	 proxy
       by  setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
       you wish	to run in place	of making a  direct  socket  connection.   The
       string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent	the hostname specified
       in the rsync command (so	use "%%" if you	need  a	 single	 "%"  in  your
       string).	 For example:

	 export	RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh	proxyhost nc %H	873'
	 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses	ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards all data to port 873 (the	rsync daemon) on the  targeth-
       ost (%H).

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA	A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named	modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into  a	system	(other	than what is already required to allow remote-
       shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to  a	host  using  a	remote
       shell  and  then	 spawning a single-use "daemon"	server that expects to
       read its	config file in the home	dir of the remote user.	 This  can  be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the daemon is started up	fresh by the remote user, you may not be  able
       to  use	features  such as chroot or change the uid used	by the daemon.
       (For another way	to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider	using  ssh  to
       tunnel  a  local	 port to a remote machine and configure	a normal rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow	connections from "localhost".)

       From the	user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax	as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that	 you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line	with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	(Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will	 not  turn  on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a	different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix	in front of the	 host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based	authentication).  This
       means that you must give	the '-l	user' option to	 ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short	version	of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e	"ssh -l	ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
       In order	to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon	already	running	(or it needs to	have configured	something like
       inetd to	spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full	information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming	socket connections, see	the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
       that is the config file for the daemon, and it contains	the  full  de-
       tails  for  how to run the daemon (including stand-alone	and inetd con-
       figurations).

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for	the  transfer,
       there is	no need	to manually start an rsync daemon.

EXAMPLES
       Here are	some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job	that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection	to a duplicate directory on my machine
       "arvidsjaur".

       To  synchronize my samba	source trees I use the following Makefile tar-
       gets:

	   get:
		   rsync -avuzb	--exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
	   put:
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of	time as	the remote CVS protocol	isn't very efficient.

       I mirror	a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-
       mand:

       rsync -az -e ssh	--delete ~ftp/pub/samba	nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched	from cron every	few hours.

OPTIONS	SUMMARY
       Here is a short summary of the options available	in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete	description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not	mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
	    --no-OPTION		    turn off an	implied	OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive		    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use	relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy	based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are	newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data	onto shorter files
	    --append-verify	    --append w/old data	in file	checksum
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links	    only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir	on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file	and/or directory permissions
	-A, --acls		    preserve ACLs (implies -p)
	-X, --xattrs		    preserve extended attributes
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve modification times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories from --times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	    --fake-super	    store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files	efficiently
	-n, --dry-run		    perform a trial run	with no	changes	made
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross	filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the	remote shell to	use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the	rsync to run on	remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files	that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized	files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before transfer (default)
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during xfer, not before
	    --delete-delay	    find deletions during, delete after
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not before
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete	excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even	if there are I/O errors
	    --force		    force deletion of dirs even	if not empty
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than	SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put	a partially transferred	file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put	all updated files into place at	end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty	directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by	user/group name
	    --timeout=SECONDS	    set	I/O timeout in seconds
	    --contimeout=SECONDS    set	daemon connection timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match	size and time
	    --size-only		    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM	    compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory	DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis	if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files	relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ...	and include copies of unchanged	files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to	files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	    --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with	suffix in LIST
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore	files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add	a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge	/.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE	    read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files	matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE	    read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from	FILE
	-0, --from0		    all	*from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	-s, --protect-args	    no space-splitting;	wildcard chars only
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to	daemon
	    --port=PORT		    specify double-colon alternate port	number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use	blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a	human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for	all updates
	    --out-format=FORMAT	    output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log	what we're doing to the	specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log	updates	using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password	from FILE
	    --list-only		    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes	per second
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating	dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
	    --checksum-seed=NUM	    set	block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see	below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as	a daemon, in which case	the following  options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run	as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the	specified address
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes	per second
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	    --no-detach		    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT		    listen on alternate	port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

OPTIONS
       rsync  uses  the	GNU long options package. Many of the command line op-
       tions have two variants,	one short and one long.	 These are  shown  be-
       low,  separated	by commas. Some	options	only have a long variant.  The
       '=' for options that take a parameter is	optional;  whitespace  can  be
       used instead.

       --help Print  a	short  help  page  describing the options available in
	      rsync and	exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
	      of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h	option
	      without any other	args.

       --version
	      print the	rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during the transfer.  By default,	rsync works silently. A	single
	      -v will give you information about what files are	 being	trans-
	      ferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give
	      you information on what files are	 being	skipped	 and  slightly
	      more  information	 at  the  end. More than two -v	options	should
	      only be used if you are debugging	rsync.

	      Note that	the names of the transferred files that	are output are
	      done  using  a  default  --out-format of "%n%L", which tells you
	      just the name of the file	and, if	the item is a link,  where  it
	      points.  At the single -v	level of verbosity, this does not men-
	      tion when	a file gets its	attributes changed.  If	you ask	for an
	      itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or
	      adding "%i" to the --out-format setting),	 the  output  (on  the
	      client)  increases  to mention all items that are	changed	in any
	      way.  See	the --out-format option	for more details.

       -q, --quiet
	      This option decreases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the  transfer,  notably suppressing information messages
	      from the remote server. This  option  is	useful	when  invoking
	      rsync from cron.

       --no-motd
	      This option affects the information that is output by the	client
	      at the start of a	daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
	      of-the-day  (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
	      that the daemon sends in response	to the "rsync host::"  request
	      (due to a	limitation in the rsync	protocol), so omit this	option
	      if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
	      size  and	 have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This	option
	      turns off	this "quick check" behavior, causing all files	to  be
	      updated.

       --size-only
	      This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
	      that need	to be transferred, changing it	from  the  default  of
	      transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
	      modified time to just looking for	files  that  have  changed  in
	      size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using an-
	      other mirroring system which may	not  preserve  timestamps  ex-
	      actly.

       --modify-window
	      When  comparing  two  timestamps,	rsync treats the timestamps as
	      being equal if they differ by no	more  than  the	 modify-window
	      value.   This  is	 normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
	      find it useful to	set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In  particular,  when  transferring to or	from an	MS Windows FAT
	      filesystem (which	represents times with a	2-second  resolution),
	      --modify-window=1	is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1
	      second).

       -c, --checksum
	      This changes the way rsync checks	if the files have been changed
	      and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
	      a	"quick check" that (by default)	checks if each file's size and
	      time of last modification	match between the sender and receiver.
	      This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
	      file  that  has a	matching size.	Generating the checksums means
	      that both	sides will expend a lot	of disk	I/O  reading  all  the
	      data  in	the  files  in	the transfer (and this is prior	to any
	      reading that will	be done	to transfer changed  files),  so  this
	      can slow things down significantly.

	      The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
	      file-system scan that builds the list of	the  available	files.
	      The  receiver  generates	its  checksums when it is scanning for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file	that has the same size
	      as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
	      size or a	changed	checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that	rsync always verifies that each	transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	 receiving  side by checking a
	      whole-file checksum that is generated  as	 the  file  is	trans-
	      ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
	      nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
	      file need	to be updated?"	check.

	      For  protocol  30	 and  beyond  (first  supported	in 3.0.0), the
	      checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is
	      MD4.

       -a, --archive
	      This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
	      want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
	      being  a	notable	 omission).   The  only	exception to the above
	      equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in	which case  -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that	-a does	not preserve hardlinks,	because	finding	multi-
	      ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

       --no-OPTION
	      You may turn off one or more implied options  by	prefixing  the
	      option  name with	"no-".	Not all	options	may be prefixed	with a
	      "no-": only options that are  implied  by	 other	options	 (e.g.
	      --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
	      cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file,	--no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
	      You  may	specify	either the short or the	long option name after
	      the "no-"	prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same	as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
	      (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
	      specify -a --no-o	(or -a --no-owner).

	      The order	of the options is important:  if  you  specify	--no-r
	      -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
	      -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
	      option  are  NOT	positional, as it affects the default state of
	      several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories	recursively.  See also
	      --dirs (-d).

	      Beginning	with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive	algorithm used is  now
	      an  incremental  scan that uses much less	memory than before and
	      begins the transfer after	the scanning of	the first few directo-
	      ries  have  been	completed.  This incremental scan only affects
	      our recursion algorithm, and does	 not  change  a	 non-recursive
	      transfer.	 It is also only possible when both ends of the	trans-
	      fer are at least version 3.0.0.

	      Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so	 these
	      options  disable the incremental recursion mode.	These include:
	      --delete-before, --delete-after, --prune-empty-dirs,  and	 --de-
	      lay-updates.   Because of	this, the default delete mode when you
	      specify --delete is now --delete-during when both	 ends  of  the
	      connection  are  at least	3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to
	      request this improved deletion mode explicitly).	See  also  the
	      --delete-delay  option  that  is	a  better  choice  than	 using
	      --delete-after.

	      Incremental recursion can	be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
	      sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
	      Use  relative  paths. This means that the	full path names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent	to the server rather than just
	      the  last	 parts	of  the	filenames. This	is particularly	useful
	      when you want to send several different directories at the  same
	      time. For	example, if you	used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ...  this	would create a file named baz.c	in /tmp/ on the	remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then a file named	/tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the re-
	      mote  machine,  preserving its full path.	 These extra path ele-
	      ments are	called "implied	directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
	      "foo/bar"	directories in the above example).

	      Beginning	with rsync 3.0.0, rsync	always sends these implied di-
	      rectories	as real	directories in the file	list, even if  a  path
	      element  is really a symlink on the sending side.	 This prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the	full path of a
	      file  that you didn't realize had	a symlink in its path.	If you
	      want to duplicate	a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
	      link via its path, and referent directory	via its	real path.  If
	      you're dealing with an older rsync on the	sending	side, you  may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs	option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.	  With
	      a	 modern	 rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into	the source path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create	/tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.	 (Note
	      that  the	dot must be followed by	a slash, so "/foo/." would not
	      be abbreviated.)	For older rsync	versions, you  would  need  to
	      use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing
	      files:

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c	remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put	the two	commands into a	sub-shell,  so
	      that  the	 "cd" command doesn't remain in	effect for future com-
	      mands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync,  use  this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

       --no-implied-dirs
	      This  option  affects the	default	behavior of the	--relative op-
	      tion.  When it is	specified, the attributes of the  implied  di-
	      rectories	 from  the source names	are not	included in the	trans-
	      fer.  This means that the	corresponding  path  elements  on  the
	      destination  system  are	left  unchanged	if they	exist, and any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even	allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences, such as being a symlink to	a directory on	the  receiving
	      side.

	      For  instance,  if a command-line	arg or a files-from entry told
	      rsync to transfer	 the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
	      "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
	      "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
	      receiving	 rsync would ordinarily	delete "path/foo", recreate it
	      as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
	      With    --no-implied-dirs,    the	   receiving   rsync   updates
	      "path/foo/file" using the	existing path  elements,  which	 means
	      that  the	file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
	      to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is	to   use   the
	      --keep-dirlinks  option  (which will also	affect symlinks	to di-
	      rectories	in the rest of the transfer).

	      When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
	      to use this option if the	sending	side has a symlink in the path
	      you request and you wish the implied directories	to  be	trans-
	      ferred as	normal directories.

       -b, --backup
	      With  this  option, preexisting destination files	are renamed as
	      each file	is transferred or deleted.  You	can control where  the
	      backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets	appended using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note  that  if  you  don't   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
	      --omit-dir-times	option will be implied,	and (2)	if --delete is
	      also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will	add  a
	      "protect"	 filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to	the end	of all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre-
	      viously  backed-up  files	 from being deleted.  Note that	if you
	      are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
	      insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up	in the
	      list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to	 be  effective
	      (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing	inclusion/exclusion of
	      '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

       --backup-dir=DIR
	      In combination with the --backup option,	this  tells  rsync  to
	      store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
	      side.  This can be used for incremental backups.	You can	 addi-
	      tionally specify a backup	suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
	      erwise the files backed up in the	specified directory will  keep
	      their original filenames).

       --suffix=SUFFIX
	      This  option  allows  you	 to override the default backup	suffix
	      used with	the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is	a ~ if
	      no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an	empty string.

       -u, --update
	      This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destina-
	      tion and have a modified time that  is  newer  than  the	source
	      file.   (If an existing destination file has a modification time
	      equal to the source file's, it will be updated if	the sizes  are
	      different.)

	      Note  that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other
	      special files.  Also, a difference of file  format  between  the
	      sender  and receiver is always considered	to be important	enough
	      for an update, no	matter what date is on the objects.  In	 other
	      words, if	the source has a directory where the destination has a
	      file, the	transfer would occur regardless	of the timestamps.

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

       --inplace
	      This  option  changes  how  rsync	transfers a file when its data
	      needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
	      new  copy	 of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
	      plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
	      destination file.

	      This  has	several	effects: (1) in-use binaries cannot be updated
	      (either the OS will prevent this	from  happening,  or  binaries
	      that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave	or crash), (2)
	      the file's data will be in  an  inconsistent  state  during  the
	      transfer,	(3) a file's data may be left in an inconsistent state
	      after the	transfer if the	transfer is interrupted	or if  an  up-
	      date  fails, (4) a file that does	not have write permissions can
	      not be updated, and (5) the efficiency of	rsync's	delta-transfer
	      algorithm	may be reduced if some data in the destination file is
	      overwritten before it can	be copied to a position	later  in  the
	      file  (one  exception to this is if you combine this option with
	      --backup,	since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file  as
	      the basis	file for the transfer).

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update	files that are
	      being accessed by	others,	so be careful  when  choosing  to  use
	      this for a copy.

	      This  option  is useful for transferring large files with	block-
	      based changes or appended	data, and also	on  systems  that  are
	      disk bound, not network bound.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the file), but	conflicts with --partial-dir and --de-
	      lay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incompati-
	      ble with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --append
	      This causes rsync	to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
	      end  of  the file, which presumes	that the data that already ex-
	      ists on the receiving side is identical with the	start  of  the
	      file on the sending side.	 If a file needs to be transferred and
	      its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size  on
	      the  sender,  the	file is	skipped.  This does not	interfere with
	      the updating of a	file's non-content  attributes	(e.g.  permis-
	      sions, ownership,	etc.) when the file does not need to be	trans-
	      ferred, nor does it  affect  the	updating  of  any  non-regular
	      files.   Implies	--inplace, but does not	conflict with --sparse
	      (since it	is always extending a file's length).

       --append-verify
	      This works just like the --append	option,	but the	existing  data
	      on the receiving side is included	in the full-file checksum ver-
	      ification	step, which will cause a file to be resent if the  fi-
	      nal  verification	step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-appending
	      --inplace	transfer for the resend).

	      Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the	--append  option  worked  like
	      --append-verify,	so  if you are interacting with	an older rsync
	      (or the transfer is using	a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
	      either append option will	initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell  the	 sending  side to include any directories that are en-
	      countered.  Unlike --recursive, a	directory's contents  are  not
	      copied unless the	directory name specified is "."	or ends	with a
	      trailing slash (e.g. ".",	"dir/.", "dir/", etc.).	 Without  this
	      option  or  the --recursive option, rsync	will skip all directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The --dirs option	is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
	      --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
	      --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories	 are  seen  in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

	      There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
	      (or  --old-d)  that  tells  rsync	 to  use  a  hack of "-r --ex-
	      clude='/*/*'" to get an older rsync to list a  single  directory
	      without recursing.

       -l, --links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des-
	      tination.

       -L, --copy-links
	      When symlinks are	encountered, the item that they	point to  (the
	      referent)	is copied, rather than the symlink.  In	older versions
	      of rsync,	this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
	      receiving	 side to follow	symlinks, such as symlinks to directo-
	      ries.  In	a modern rsync such as this one, you'll	need to	 spec-
	      ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get	this extra behavior.  The only
	      exception	is when	sending	files to an rsync that is too  old  to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will	still have the
	      side-effect of -K	on that	older receiving	rsync.

       --copy-unsafe-links
	      This tells rsync to copy the referent  of	 symbolic  links  that
	      point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
	      treated like ordinary files, and so  are	any  symlinks  in  the
	      source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option	has no
	      additional effect	if --copy-links	was also specified.

       --safe-links
	      This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out-
	      side  the	 copied	 tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
	      Using this option	in conjunction with --relative may give	 unex-
	      pected results.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
	      This  option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a di-
	      rectory as though	it were	a real directory.  This	is  useful  if
	      you  don't  want	symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a	direc-
	      tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the	new symlink, including
	      a	 directory hierarchy (as long as --force or --delete is	in ef-
	      fect).

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes  the	receiving side to treat	a symlink to a
	      directory	as though it were a real directory,  but  only	if  it
	      matches  a real directory	from the sender.  Without this option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with	a real
	      directory.

	      For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
	      tains a file "file", but "foo" is	a symlink to  directory	 "bar"
	      on  the receiver.	 Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
	      symlink "foo", recreates it as a	directory,  and	 receives  the
	      file into	the new	directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the	symlink	and "file" ends	up in "bar".

	      One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks,	you must trust
	      all  the	symlinks  in  the  copy!  If it	is possible for	an un-
	      trusted user to create their own symlink to any  directory,  the
	      user  could then (on a subsequent	copy) replace the symlink with
	      a	real directory and affect the content  of  whatever  directory
	      the  symlink  references.	 For backup copies, you	are better off
	      using something like a bind mount	instead	of a symlink to	modify
	      your receiving hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the sending
	      side.

       -H, --hard-links
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in	 the  transfer
	      and link together	the corresponding files	on the receiving side.
	      Without this option,  hard-linked	 files	in  the	 transfer  are
	      treated as though	they were separate files.

	      When  you	are updating a non-empty destination, this option only
	      ensures that files that are hard-linked together on  the	source
	      are  hard-linked	together on the	destination.  It does NOT cur-
	      rently endeavor to break already existing	hard links on the des-
	      tination that do not exist between the source files.  Note, how-
	      ever, that if  one  or  more  extra-linked  files	 have  content
	      changes,	they  will  become unlinked when updated (assuming you
	      are not using the	--inplace option).

	      Note that	rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
	      are  inside  the transfer	set.  If rsync updates a file that has
	      extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to	avoid this breakage, be	very careful that you know how
	      your files are being updated so that you are certain that	no un-
	      intended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see the
	      --inplace	option for more	caveats).

	      If  incremental recursion	is active (see --recursive), rsync may
	      transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
	      link  for	that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
	      does not affect the accuracy of the  transfer,  just  its	 effi-
	      ciency.	One way	to avoid this is to disable incremental	recur-
	      sion using the --no-inc-recursive	option.

       -p, --perms
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to	 set  the  destination
	      permissions to be	the same as the	source permissions.  (See also
	      the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync	 considers  to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this	option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing files (including updated files) retain their ex-
		     isting permissions,  though  the  --executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New  files	 get their "normal" permission bits set	to the
		     source file's permissions masked with the	receiving  di-
		     rectory's	 default  permissions  (either	the  receiving
		     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
		     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
		     permission	bits disabled except in	the case where	a  new
		     directory	inherits  a  setgid bit	from its parent	direc-
		     tory.

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's  behavior	 is the	same as	that of	other file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In summary: to give destination files (both  old	and  new)  the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give	new files the destina-
	      tion-default  permissions	 (while	 leaving  existing  files  un-
	      changed),	 make  sure  that  the	--perms	 option	is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get  en-
	      abled).	If  you'd  care	to make	this latter behavior easier to
	      type, you	could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line  in	the file ~/.popt (the following	defines	the -Z option,
	      and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination
	      dir):

		 rsync alias -Z	--no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You  could  then	use  this new option in	a command such as this
	      one:

		 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or	it will	re-en-
	      able the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

	      The  preservation	 of the	destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
	      ated directories when --perms is off was added in	 rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
	      permission bits for newly-created	files when  --perms  was  off,
	      while  overriding	 the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
	      newly-created directory.	Default	ACL observance	was  added  to
	      the  ACL	patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even	if default ACLs	are present.  (Keep in
	      mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
	      these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
	      This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or  non-
	      executability)  of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
	      regular file is considered to be executable if at	least one  'x'
	      is  turned  on in	its permissions.  When an existing destination
	      file's executability differs  from  that	of  the	 corresponding
	      source  file,  rsync modifies the	destination file's permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	make a file non-executable, rsync turns	 off  all  its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To	 make  a file executable, rsync	turns on each 'x' per-
		     mission that has a	corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs	to  be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The	option also implies --perms.

	      The  source and destination systems must have compatible ACL en-
	      tries for	this option to work properly.	See  the  --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-
	      ible.

       -X, --xattrs
	      This option causes rsync	to  update  the	 remote	 extended  at-
	      tributes to be the same as the local ones.

	      For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces,	a copy
	      being done by a super-user copies	 all  namespaces  except  sys-
	      tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.	 To be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as	a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

       --chmod
	      This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
	      "chmod" strings to the permission	of the files in	the  transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as	though it were the permissions
	      that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
	      this  option  can	 seem  to  have	no effect on existing files if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
	      chmod(1) manpage,	you can	specify	an item	that should only apply
	      to a directory by	prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
	      that  should  only  apply	 to a file by prefixing	it with	a 'F'.
	      For example:

	      --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

	      It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
	      additional  option  is  just  appended to	the list of changes to
	      make.

	      See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
	      ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the	trans-
	      fer.

       -o, --owner
	      This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
	      file  to be the same as the source file, but only	if the receiv-
	      ing rsync	is being run as	the super-user (see also  the  --super
	      and  --fake-super	 options).   Without this option, the owner of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The  preservation	 of ownership will associate matching names by
	      default, but may fall back to using the ID number	in  some  cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full discus-
	      sion).

       -g, --group
	      This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
	      file  to	be the same as the source file.	 If the	receiving pro-
	      gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
	      specified),  only	groups that the	invoking user on the receiving
	      side is a	member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group  is	 set  to the default group of the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The preservation of group	information  will  associate  matching
	      names  by	 default,  but may fall	back to	using the ID number in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full
	      discussion).

       --devices
	      This  option causes rsync	to transfer character and block	device
	      files to the remote system to recreate these devices.  This  op-
	      tion  has	no effect if the receiving rsync is not	run as the su-
	      per-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

       --specials
	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times	along with the
	      files and	update them on the remote system.  Note	that  if  this
	      option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
	      have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync's	delta-
	      transfer	algorithm will make the	update fairly efficient	if the
	      files haven't actually changed, you're  much  better  off	 using
	      -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when	it is preserving modi-
	      fication times (see --times).  If	NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it	is a good idea to use -O.  This	option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

       --super
	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by	the super-user.	 These
	      activities include: preserving users  via	 the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just	the current user's groups) via
	      the --groups option, and copying devices via the	--devices  op-
	      tion.   This  is	useful	for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the	super-user, and	also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will get errors if the receiving side isn't being	run as the su-
	      per-user.	 To turn off super-user	activities, the	super-user can
	      use --no-super.

       --fake-super
	      When  this option	is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
	      ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
	      extended	attributes that	are attached to	each file (as needed).
	      This includes the	file's owner and group (if it is not  the  de-
	      fault),  the file's device info (device &	special	files are cre-
	      ated as empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't
	      allow  to	 be  set on the	real file (e.g.	 the real file gets u-
	      s,g-s,o-t	for safety) or that would  limit  the  owner's	access
	      (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
	      files we create can always be accessed/changed by	 the  creating
	      user).   This option also	handles	ACLs (if --acls	was specified)
	      and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was	specified).

	      This is a	good way to backup data	without	 using	a  super-user,
	      and to store ACLs	from incompatible systems.

	      The  --fake-super	 option	only affects the side where the	option
	      is used.	To affect the remote side of  a	 remote-shell  connec-
	      tion, specify an rsync path:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/

	      Since  there is only one "side" in a local copy, this option af-
	      fects both the sending and receiving of files.  You'll  need  to
	      specify a	copy using "localhost" if you need to avoid this, pos-
	      sibly using the "lsh" shell script (from the support  directory)
	      as a substitute for an actual remote shell (see --rsh).

	      This option is overridden	by both	--super	and --no-super.

	      See  also	 the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf
	      file.

       -S, --sparse
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they	take  up  less
	      space on the destination.	 Conflicts with	--inplace because it's
	      not possible to overwrite	data in	a sparse fashion.

	      NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination	is  a  Solaris
	      "tmpfs"  filesystem. It seems to have problems seeking over null
	      regions, and ends	up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This makes rsync perform a  trial	 run  that  doesn't  make  any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a	real run).  It
	      is most commonly used in	combination  with  the	-v,  --verbose
	      and/or  -i,  --itemize-changes options to	see what an rsync com-
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
	      same on a	dry run	and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery and system call failures); if it	isn't, that's  a  bug.
	      Other  output should be mostly unchanged,	but may	differ in some
	      areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send	the  actual  data  for
	      file  transfers,	so --progress has no effect, the "bytes	sent",
	      "bytes received",	"literal data",	and "matched data"  statistics
	      are  too	small,	and the	"speedup" value	is equivalent to a run
	      where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With this	option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm	 is  not  used
	      and  the	whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer	may be
	      faster if	this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
	      source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
	      tination are specified as	local paths, but  only	if  no	batch-
	      writing option is	in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
	      recursing.  This does not	limit the user's  ability  to  specify
	      items  to	copy from multiple filesystems,	just rsync's recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and  also	 the  analogous	recursion on the receiving side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that	rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is	repeated, rsync	omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries from	the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
	      at  each	mount-point it encounters (using the attributes	of the
	      mounted directory	because	those of  the  underlying  mount-point
	      directory	are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been	told to	collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on	another	device
	      is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks	to non-directories are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This tells rsync to skip creating	files (including  directories)
	      that  do	not  exist  yet	on the destination.  If	this option is
	      combined with the	--ignore-existing option, no files will	be up-
	      dated  (which  can be useful if all you want to do is delete ex-
	      traneous files).

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

       --ignore-existing
	      This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
	      the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or
	      nothing would get	done).	See also --existing.

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an	exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

	      This option can be useful	for  those  doing  backups  using  the
	      --link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
	      got interrupted.	Since a	--link-dest run	is copied into	a  new
	      directory	 hierarchy  (when it is	used properly),	using --ignore
	      existing will ensure that	the already-handled  files  don't  get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in	permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).  This does mean that this	option is only looking at  the
	      existing files in	the destination	hierarchy itself.

       --remove-source-files
	      This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the	sending	side the files
	      (meaning non-directories)	that are a part	of  the	 transfer  and
	      have been	successfully duplicated	on the receiving side.

       --delete
	      This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
	      side (ones that aren't on	the sending side), but	only  for  the
	      directories  that	 are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
	      rsync to send the	whole directory	(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using  a	wildcard  for  the directory's contents	(e.g. "dir/*")
	      since the	wildcard is expanded by	the shell and rsync thus  gets
	      a	 request  to  transfer individual files, not the files'	parent
	      directory.  Files	that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option or	mark the rules as only matching	on  the	 sending  side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the	FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior  to	 rsync	2.6.7, this option would have no effect	unless
	      --recursive was enabled.	Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!	 It is a  very
	      good  idea to first try a	run using the --dry-run	option (-n) to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
	      This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures	(such  as  NFS
	      errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
	      files on the destination.	 You can override this with the	 --ig-
	      nore-errors option.

	      The   --delete   option	may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
	      --delete-WHEN options without conflict, as well as  --delete-ex-
	      cluded.  However,	if none	of the --delete-WHEN options are spec-
	      ified, rsync will	 choose	 the  --delete-during  algorithm  when
	      talking  to  rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before algo-
	      rithm when talking to an older rsync.  See  also	--delete-delay
	      and --delete-after.

       --delete-before
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete	(which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting	before	the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
	      tight for	space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the  transfer  possible.	However, it does introduce a delay be-
	      fore the start of	the transfer, and this delay might  cause  the
	      transfer	to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that  requires  rsync to scan all	the files in the transfer into
	      memory at	once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during,	--del
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory	delete
	      scan is done right before	each directory is checked for updates,
	      so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
	      doing the	deletions prior	to any per-directory filter files  be-
	      ing  updated.   This  option  was	 first	added in rsync version
	      2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)	for  more  details  on
	      file-deletion.

       --delete-delay
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be com-
	      puted during the transfer	(like --delete-during),	and  then  re-
	      moved  after  the	 transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or	--fuzzy, and is	more efficient
	      than  using  --delete-after  (but	 can behave differently, since
	      --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass	 after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an internal buffer, a temporary file will	be created on the  re-
	      ceiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open,	so you
	      shouldn't	see it during the transfer).  If the creation  of  the
	      temporary	 file  fails,  rsync  will  try	 to fall back to using
	      --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive	 is  doing  an
	      incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied) for more de-
	      tails on file-deletion.

       --delete-after
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      after  the  transfer  has	 completed.  This is useful if you are
	      sending new per-directory	merge files as a part of the  transfer
	      and  you	want  their  exclusions	 to take effect	for the	delete
	      phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
	      old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm	that requires rsync to
	      scan all the files in the	transfer  into	memory	at  once  (see
	      --recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
	      on file-deletion.

       --delete-excluded
	      In addition to deleting the files	on the receiving side that are
	      not  on  the  sending  side, this	tells rsync to also delete any
	      files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to	make individual	exclu-
	      sions behave this	way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
	      files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

       --ignore-errors
	      Tells --delete to	go ahead and delete files even when there  are
	      I/O errors.

       --force
	      This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
	      is to be replaced	by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
	      deletions	are not	active (see --delete for details).

	      Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
	      when using --delete-after, and it	used to	be non-functional  un-
	      less the --recursive option was also enabled.

       --max-delete=NUM
	      This  tells  rsync not to	delete more than NUM files or directo-
	      ries.  If	that limit is exceeded,	a warning is output and	 rsync
	      exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).

	      Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be
	      warned about any extraneous files	in the destination without re-
	      moving  any  of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
	      ited", so	if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
	      use  the	less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
	      way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  older  ver-
	      sions didn't warn	when the limit was exceeded).

       --max-size=SIZE
	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file	that is	larger
	      than the specified SIZE. The SIZE	value can be suffixed  with  a
	      string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

	      The  suffixes  are  as  follows:	"K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
	      (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is	a mebibyte (1024*1024),	 and  "G"  (or
	      "GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).	If you want the	multi-
	      plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or	 "GB".
	      (Note: lower-case	is also	accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either	"+1" or	"-1", the value	will be	offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:	   --max-size=1.5mb-1	 is    1499999	  bytes,   and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

       --min-size=SIZE
	      This tells rsync to avoid	transferring any file that is  smaller
	      than  the	 specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
	      small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for	a  description
	      of SIZE and other	information.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
	      rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected	based  on  the
	      size  of	each file being	updated.  See the technical report for
	      details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This option allows you to	choose	an  alternative	 remote	 shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and	remote
	      copies of	rsync. Typically, rsync	is configured to  use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on	a local	network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will	be used	to run an rsync	daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and all data will be transmitted through that re-
	      mote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket  con-
	      nection  to  a running rsync daemon on the remote	host.  See the
	      section "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL  CONNEC-
	      TION" above.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single	 argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not	tabs or	other whitespace) to separate the com-
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to	 preserve spaces in an argument	(but not back-
	      slashes).	 Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
	      quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
	      quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes	rsync is parsing).  Some exam-
	      ples:

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h	%p"'

	      (Note that ssh users  can	 alternately  customize	 site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as
	      -e.

	      See  also	the --blocking-io option which is affected by this op-
	      tion.

       --rsync-path=PROGRAM
	      Use this to specify what program is to be	run on the remote  ma-
	      chine  to	 start-up  rsync.  Often used when rsync is not	in the
	      default	remote-shell's	 path	(e.g.	 --rsync-path=/usr/lo-
	      cal/bin/rsync).	Note  that  PROGRAM  is	run with the help of a
	      shell, so	it can be any program,	script,	 or  command  sequence
	      you'd  care to run, so long as it	does not corrupt the standard-
	      in & standard-out	that rsync is using to communicate.

	      One tricky example is to set a different	default	 directory  on
	      the  remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For in-
	      stance:

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This is a	useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of	 files
	      that you often don't want	to transfer between systems. It	uses a
	      similar algorithm	to CVS to determine if a file  should  be  ig-
	      nored.

	      The  exclude  list is initialized	to exclude the following items
	      (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the	FILTER
	      RULES section):

		     RCS   SCCS	  CVS	CVS.adm	  RCSLOG  cvslog.*  tags  TAGS
		     .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#*	,* _$* *$ *.old	 *.bak
		     *.BAK  *.orig *.rej .del-*	*.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .bzr/

	      then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to  the  list
	      and  any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
	      cvsignore	names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file	is ignored if it is in the same	directory as a
	      .cvsignore  file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If  you're combining -C with your	own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that	these CVS excludes are appended	at the end of your own
	      rules,  regardless  of  where  the -C was	placed on the command-
	      line.  This makes	them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
	      ified  explicitly.   If  you want	to control where these CVS ex-
	      cludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit  the
	      -C as a command-line option and use a combination	of --filter=:C
	      and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by  putting  the
	      ":C"  and	 "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules).
	      The first	option turns on	the  per-directory  scanning  for  the
	      .cvsignore  file.	  The  second option does a one-time import of
	      the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This option allows you to	add rules to selectively exclude  cer-
	      tain  files  from	 the  list of files to be transferred. This is
	      most useful in combination with a	recursive transfer.

	      You may use as many --filter options on the command line as  you
	      like  to	build  up the list of files to exclude.	 If the	filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the  rule	 to  rsync  as a single	argument.  The text below also
	      mentions that you	can use	an underscore  to  replace  the	 space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this
	      option.

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two  --filter  rules  to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
	      rule:

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This tells rsync to look for per-directory  .rsync-filter	 files
	      that  have  been	sprinkled  through the hierarchy and use their
	      rules to filter the files	in the transfer.  If -F	 is  repeated,
	      it is a shorthand	for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This  filters  out  the  .rsync-filter files themselves from the
	      transfer.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for	detailed  information  on  how
	      these options work.

       --exclude=PATTERN
	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that de-
	      faults to	an exclude rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this
	      option.

       --exclude-from=FILE
	      This option is related to	the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  exclude patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	and lines starting with	';'  or	 '#'  are  ig-
	      nored.  If FILE is -, the	list will be read from standard	input.

       --include=PATTERN
	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that de-
	      faults to	an include rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this
	      option.

       --include-from=FILE
	      This option is related to	the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  include patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	and lines starting with	';'  or	 '#'  are  ig-
	      nored.  If FILE is -, the	list will be read from standard	input.

       --files-from=FILE
	      Using  this option allows	you to specify the exact list of files
	      to transfer (as read from	the specified FILE or -	 for  standard
	      input).	It  also  tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
	      transferring just	the specified files and	directories easier:

	      o	     The --relative (-R) option	is  implied,  which  preserves
		     the  path	information that is specified for each item in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The  --dirs (-d) option is	implied, which will create di-
		     rectories specified in the	list on	the destination	rather
		     than  noisily  skipping  them (use	--no-dirs or --no-d if
		     you want to turn that off).

	      o	     The --archive (-a)	option's behavior does not imply --re-
		     cursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if	you want it.

	      o	     These  side-effects change	the default state of rsync, so
		     the position of the --files-from option on	 the  command-
		     line has no bearing on how	other options are parsed (e.g.
		     -a	works the same before or after --files-from,  as  does
		     --no-R and	all other options).

	      The  filenames  that  are	read from the FILE are all relative to
	      the source dir --	any leading slashes are	removed	 and  no  ".."
	      references  are  allowed	to go higher than the source dir.  For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo	/usr remote:/backup

	      If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even	 "/bin"),  the
	      /usr/bin	directory will be created as /backup/bin on the	remote
	      host.  If	it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the  im-
	      mediate  contents	 of  the directory would also be sent (without
	      needing to be explicitly mentioned in the	file --	this began  in
	      version  2.6.4).	 In  both cases, if the	-r option was enabled,
	      that dir's entire	hierarchy would	also be	transferred  (keep  in
	      mind that	-r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
	      the  (enabled by default)	--relative option is to	duplicate only
	      the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not	 force
	      the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the	remote
	      host instead of the local	host if	you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a	prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the	transfer".  For	example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list	src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This  would  copy	all the	files specified	in the /path/file-list
	      file that	was located on the remote "src"	host.

	      If the --iconv and --protect-args	options	are specified and  the
	      --files-from  filenames are being	sent from one host to another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the	sending	host's charset
	      to the receiving host's charset.

       -0, --from0
	      This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from	a file
	      are terminated by	a null ('\0') character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and	any merged files specified in a	--filter rule.
	      It  does	not  affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read	from a
	      .cvsignore file are split	on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
	      This option sends	all filenames and most options to  the	remote
	      rsync without allowing the remote	shell to interpret them.  This
	      means that spaces	are not	split in names,	and  any  non-wildcard
	      special  characters  are	not  translated	 (such	as ~, $, ;, &,
	      etc.).  Wildcards	are expanded on	the remote host	by rsync  (in-
	      stead of the shell doing it).

	      If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the re-
	      mote side	will also be translated	from the local to  the	remote
	      character-set.   The  translation	 happens before	wild-cards are
	      expanded.	 See also the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR as	 a  scratch  directory
	      when  creating  temporary	copies of the files transferred	on the
	      receiving	side.  The default behavior is to create  each	tempo-
	      rary  file  in  the same directory as the	associated destination
	      file.

	      This option is most often	used when the receiving	disk partition
	      does  not	 have  enough free space to hold a copy	of the largest
	      file in the transfer.  In	this case (i.e.	when the  scratch  di-
	      rectory  is  on  a  different disk partition), rsync will	not be
	      able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
	      associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
	      place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
	      destination  file,  which	 means	that the destination file will
	      contain truncated	data during this copy.	If this	were not  done
	      this  way	 (even if the destination file were first removed, the
	      data locally copied to a temporary file in the  destination  di-
	      rectory,	and  then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if	someone	had it
	      open),  and  thus	 there might not be enough room	to fit the new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
	      of  disk	space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay-up-
	      dates option, which will ensure that all copied  files  get  put
	      into  subdirectories  in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
	      end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate
	      all the arriving files on	the destination	partition, another way
	      to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk	 space
	      is to use	the --partial-dir option with a	relative path; because
	      this tells rsync that it is OK to	stash off a copy of  a	single
	      file  in	a  subdir in the destination hierarchy,	rsync will use
	      the partial-dir as a staging area	to bring over the copied file,
	      and  then	 rename	it into	place from there. (Specifying a	--par-
	      tial-dir with an absolute	path does not have this	side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells	rsync that it should look for a	basis file for
	      any  destination	file  that  is missing.	 The current algorithm
	      looks in the same	directory as the destination file for either a
	      file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
	      larly-named file.	 If found, rsync uses the fuzzy	basis file  to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might	get rid	of any
	      potential	fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

       --compare-dest=DIR
	      This  option  instructs  rsync to	use DIR	on the destination ma-
	      chine as an additional hierarchy to  compare  destination	 files
	      against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the	desti-
	      nation directory).  If a file is found in	DIR that is  identical
	      to  the  sender's	 file, the file	will NOT be transferred	to the
	      destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a	sparse
	      backup of	just files that	have changed from an earlier backup.

	      Beginning	 in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
	      may be provided, which will cause	rsync to search	 the  list  in
	      the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a	match is found
	      that differs only	in attributes, a local copy is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-
	      fer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

       --copy-dest=DIR
	      This option behaves like --compare-dest,	but  rsync  will  also
	      copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
	      using a local copy.  This	is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination  while leaving existing files	intact,	and then doing
	      a	flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully	trans-
	      ferred.

	      Multiple	--copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
	      cause rsync to search the	list in	the order specified for	an un-
	      changed file.  If	a match	is not found, a	basis file from	one of
	      the DIRs will be selected	to try to speed	up the transfer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --link-dest.

       --link-dest=DIR
	      This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
	      hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The	 files
	      must be identical	in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly ownership) in order for the  files  to  be  linked  to-
	      gether.  An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If  file's  aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
	      check if some attributes are getting forced outside  of  rsync's
	      control,	such  a	 mount	option	that squishes root to a	single
	      user, or mounts a	removable drive	with generic  ownership	 (such
	      as OS X's	"Ignore	ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be provided, which will cause rsync to search the	 list  in  the
	      order  specified	for  an	exact match.  If a match is found that
	      differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made	 and  the  at-
	      tributes	updated.   If  a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-
	      fer.

	      This  option  works  best	when copying into an empty destination
	      hierarchy, as rsync treats existing files	as definitive  (so  it
	      never  looks  in	the link-dest dirs when	a destination file al-
	      ready exists), and as malleable (so  it  might  change  the  at-
	      tributes	of  a  destination  file,  which affects all the hard-
	      linked versions).

	      Note that	if you combine this option with	--ignore-times,	 rsync
	      will not link any	files together because it only links identical
	      files together as	a substitute for transferring the file,	 never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --copy-dest.

	      Note that	rsync versions prior to	2.6.1 had  a  bug  that	 could
	      prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a	non-super-user
	      when -o was specified (or	implied	by -a).	 You  can  work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old	rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With  this  option, rsync	compresses the file data as it is sent
	      to the destination machine, which	reduces	the amount of data be-
	      ing  transmitted -- something that is useful over	a slow connec-
	      tion.

	      Note that	this option typically achieves better compression  ra-
	      tios than	can be achieved	by using a compressing remote shell or
	      a	compressing transport because it takes advantage  of  the  im-
	      plicit  information in the matching data blocks that are not ex-
	      plicitly sent over the connection.

	      See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
	      fixes that will not be compressed.

       --compress-level=NUM
	      Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) in-
	      stead of letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero,	the --compress
	      option is	implied.

       --skip-compress=LIST
	      Override	the list of file suffixes that will not	be compressed.
	      The LIST should be one or	more file suffixes (without  the  dot)
	      separated	by slashes (/).

	      You  may specify an empty	string to indicate that	no file	should
	      be skipped.

	      Simple character-class matching is supported: each must  consist
	      of a list	of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are	supported).

	      The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?)	have  no  spe-
	      cial meaning.

	      Here's  an example that specifies	6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

		  --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

	      The default list of suffixes that	will not be compressed is this
	      (several of these	are newly added	for 3.0.0):

		  gz/zip/z/rpm/deb/iso/bz2/t[gb]z/7z/mp[34]/mov/avi/ogg/jpg/jpeg

	      This  list  will be replaced by your --skip-compress list	in all
	      but one situation: a copy	from a	daemon	rsync  will  add  your
	      skipped  suffixes	 to its	list of	non-compressing	files (and its
	      list may be configured to	a different default).

       --numeric-ids
	      With this	option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
	      rather  than using user and group	names and mapping them at both
	      ends.

	      By default rsync will use	the username and groupname  to	deter-
	      mine  what  ownership  to	 give files. The special uid 0 and the
	      special group 0 are never	mapped via user/group  names  even  if
	      the --numeric-ids	option is not specified.

	      If a user	or group has no	name on	the source system or it	has no
	      match on the destination system, then the	numeric	 ID  from  the
	      source  system  is  used	instead.  See also the comments	on the
	      "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for  information
	      on how the chroot	setting	affects	rsync's	ability	to look	up the
	      names of the users and groups and	what you can do	about it.

       --timeout=TIMEOUT
	      This option allows you to	set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
	      If no data is transferred	for the	specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The	default	is 0, which means no timeout.

       --contimeout
	      This option allows you to	set the	amount of time that rsync will
	      wait  for	 its connection	to an rsync daemon to succeed.	If the
	      timeout is reached, rsync	exits with an error.

       --address
	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when connect-
	      ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The	--address option allows	you to
	      specify a	specific IP address (or	hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
	      also this	option in the --daemon mode section.

       --port=PORT
	      This  specifies  an alternate TCP	port number to use rather than
	      the default of 873.  This	is only	needed if you  are  using  the
	      double-colon  (::) syntax	to connect with	an rsync daemon	(since
	      the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a	 part  of  the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --sockopts
	      This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
	      their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set	all  sorts  of
	      socket  options  which  may  make	transfers faster (or slower!).
	      Read the man page	for the	setsockopt() system call  for  details
	      on  some	of  the	 options you may be able to set. By default no
	      special socket options are set. This only	affects	direct	socket
	      connections  to  a remote	rsync daemon.  This option also	exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

       --blocking-io
	      This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a	remote
	      shell  transport.	  If  the remote shell is either rsh or	remsh,
	      rsync defaults to	using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
	      using  non-blocking  I/O.	  (Note	 that ssh prefers non-blocking
	      I/O.)

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests a simple	itemized list of the changes  that  are	 being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only	if the
	      receiving	rsync is at least version 2.6.7	(you can use -vv  with
	      older  versions  of  rsync, but that also	turns on the output of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that	is  11	letters	 long.
	      The  general  format  is like the	string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
	      replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
	      file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
	      be output	if they	are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the	Y are as follows:

	      o	     A < means that a file is being transferred	to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A	>  means that a	file is	being transferred to the local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A c means that a local change/creation is	occurring  for
		     the  item	(such  as  the	creation of a directory	or the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A h means that the	item is	a hard link  to	 another  item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A	.  means that the item is not being updated (though it
		     might have	attributes that	are being modified).

	      o	     A * means that the	rest of	the itemized-output area  con-
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The  file-types  that replace the	X are: f for a file, a d for a
	      directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S	for  a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The  other  letters  in  the string above	are the	actual letters
	      that will	be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
	      being  updated or	a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
	      are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
	      (2)  an identical	item replaces the dots with spaces, and	(3) an
	      unknown attribute	replaces each letter with a "?"	(this can hap-
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter	is as follows:

	      o	     A	c  means  either  that	a regular file has a different
		     checksum (requires	--checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or	 special  file	has a changed value.  Note that	if you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this	change
		     flag  will	be present only	for checksum-differing regular
		     files.

	      o	     A s means the size	of a regular  file  is	different  and
		     will be updated by	the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification	time is	different and is being
		     updated to	the sender's value (requires --times).	An al-
		     ternate  value of T means that the	modification time will
		     be	set  to	 the  transfer	time,  which  happens  when  a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and	when a
		     symlink is	changed	and the	receiver can't set  its	 time.
		     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
		     the s flag	combined with t	instead	of the proper  T  flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A p means the permissions are different and are being up-
		     dated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An	o means	the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --owner and super-user priv-
		     ileges).

	      o	     A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
		     the sender's value	(requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     The u slot	is reserved for	future use.

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information changed.

	      o	     The x  means  that	 the  extended	attribute  information
		     changed.

	      One  other  output  is  possible:	 when deleting files, the "%i"
	      will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is	 being
	      removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
	      that it logs deletions instead of	outputting them	as  a  verbose
	      message).

       --out-format=FORMAT
	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync	client outputs
	      to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is	a text	string
	      containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.   A	default	format	of  "%n%L"  is
	      assumed  if  -v is specified (which reports the name of the file
	      and, if the item is a link, where	it points).  For a  full  list
	      of  the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting
	      in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying the --out-format option will mention each file,  dir,
	      etc. that	gets updated in	a significant way (a transferred file,
	      a	recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).   In	 addi-
	      tion,  if	 the  itemize-changes  escape  (%i) is included	in the
	      string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the log-
	      ging  of	names increases	to mention any item that is changed in
	      any way (as long as the receiving	side is	at least 2.6.4).   See
	      the  --itemize-changes option for	a description of the output of
	      "%i".

	      Rsync will output	the out-format string prior to a file's	trans-
	      fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
	      in which case the	logging	is done	 at  the  end  of  the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late	logging	is in effect and --progress is
	      also specified, rsync will also output the name of the file  be-
	      ing  transferred prior to	its progress information (followed, of
	      course, by the out-format	output).

       --log-file=FILE
	      This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a	 file.
	      This  is	similar	 to the	logging	that a daemon does, but	can be
	      requested	for the	client side and/or the server side of  a  non-
	      daemon transfer.	If specified as	a client option, transfer log-
	      ging will	be enabled with	a default format of  "%i  %n%L".   See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's  a	 example  command that requests	the remote side	to log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

	      This is very useful if you need to debug	why  a	connection  is
	      closing unexpectedly.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
	      This  allows  you	 to specify exactly what per-update logging is
	      put into the file	specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also  be	specified for this option to have any effect).	If you
	      specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
	      the log file.  For a list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this  op-
	      tion is not is '%i %n%L'.

       --stats
	      This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics	on the
	      file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective	rsync's	delta-
	      transfer algorithm is for	your data.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number  of	 files	is  the	 count	of all "files" (in the
		     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
		     etc.

	      o	     Number  of	files transferred is the count of normal files
		     that were updated via rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm,
		     which does	not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

	      o	     Total file	size is	the total sum of all file sizes	in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any	size  for  directories
		     or	special	files, but does	include	the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the	total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the	transferred files.

	      o	     Literal data is how much unmatched	 file-update  data  we
		     had  to  send  to the receiver for	it to recreate the up-
		     dated files.

	      o	     Matched data is how much data the	receiver  got  locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory	size for the file list due to some compressing
		     of	duplicated data	when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File list generation time is the number of	 seconds  that
		     the sender	spent creating the file	list.  This requires a
		     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer	time is	the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list	to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync	 received  by the client side from the
		     server side.  "Non-message" bytes	means  that  we	 don't
		     count  the	 bytes	for  a verbose message that the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave	all high-bit characters	 unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test	them to	see if they're
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is	to  output  a  literal
	      backslash	 (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
	      its.  For	example, a newline would output	as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash	that is	in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in	a more human-readable format.  This makes  big
	      numbers output using larger units, with a	K, M, or G suffix.  If
	      this option was specified	once, these  units  are	 K  (1000),  M
	      (1000*1000),  and	G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,
	      the units	are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

       --partial
	      By default, rsync	will delete any	partially transferred file  if
	      the  transfer  is	 interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
	      desirable	to keep	partially transferred files. Using the	--par-
	      tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which	should
	      make a subsequent	transfer of the	rest of	the file much faster.

       --partial-dir=DIR
	      A	better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
	      to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data (in-
	      stead of writing it out to the destination file).	 On  the  next
	      transfer,	 rsync	will  use  a file found	in this	dir as data to
	      speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after
	      it has served its	purpose.

	      Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified	(or implied), any par-
	      tial-dir file that is found for a	file  that  is	being  updated
	      will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without us-
	      ing rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create	the DIR	if it is missing (just the last	dir --
	      not  the whole path).  This makes	it easy	to use a relative path
	      (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have	 rsync	create
	      the  partial-directory  in the destination file's	directory when
	      needed, and then remove  it  again  when	the  partial  file  is
	      deleted.

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path,	rsync will add
	      an exclude rule at the end of all	your existing excludes.	  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files	that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving	side.  An example: the
	      above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of  "-f  '-p
	      .rsync-partial/'"	at the end of any other	filter rules.

	      If you are supplying your	own exclude rules, you may need	to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
	      (1)  the	auto-added  rule may be	ineffective at the end of your
	      other rules, or (2) you may wish	to  override  rsync's  exclude
	      choice.	For  instance,	if you want to make rsync clean-up any
	      left-over	partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R
	      .rsync-partial/'.	 (Avoid	using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
	      ing unless you don't need	rsync to use any of the	left-over par-
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by	 other
	      users or it is a security	risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR en-
	      vironment	variable.  Setting this	in the	environment  does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
	      tial files go when --partial is specified.   For	instance,  in-
	      stead  of	 using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp	along with --progress,
	      you could	set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then	 just  use  the	 -P  option  to	turn on	the use	of the
	      .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
	      --partial	 option	 does  not look	for this environment value are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace	conflicts with
	      --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was	specified (see
	      below).

	      For the purposes of the daemon-config's  "refuse	options"  set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so	that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to	 disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files	with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

       --delay-updates
	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a	holding	directory until	the end	of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are	renamed	into place in rapid succession.	  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
	      in  each	file's	destination directory, but if you've specified
	      the --partial-dir	option,	that directory will be	used  instead.
	      See  the	comments in the	--partial-dir section for a discussion
	      of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded	from the transfer, and
	      what  you	 can do	if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
	      that might be lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and	 --ap-
	      pend.

	      This  option uses	more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
	      file transferred)	and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.  Note also	that you should	not use	an  absolute  path  to
	      --partial-dir  unless (1)	there is no chance of any of the files
	      in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
	      files  will  be put into a single	directory if the path is abso-
	      lute) and	(2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the  delayed  updates  will  fail	 if they can't be renamed into
	      place).

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"	subdir
	      for  an  update  algorithm  that	is  even  more atomic (it uses
	      --link-dest and a	parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells	the receiving rsync to get rid of empty	direc-
	      tories  from  the	 file-list,  including nested directories that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation	of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
	      rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy	 of  files  using  in-
	      clude/exclude/filter rules.

	      Note  that the use of transfer rules, such as the	--min-size op-
	      tion, does not affect what goes into the	file  list,  and  thus
	      does not leave directories empty,	even if	none of	the files in a
	      directory	match the transfer rule.

	      Because the file-list is actually	being pruned, this option also
	      affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
	      However, keep in mind that excluded files	 and  directories  can
	      prevent existing items from being	deleted	due to an exclude both
	      hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
	      perishable filter-rule option for	how to avoid this.

	      You  can	prevent	 the pruning of	certain	empty directories from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect"	filter.	 For instance,
	      this  option would ensure	that the directory "emptydir" was kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect	emptydir/'

	      Here's an	example	that copies all	.pdf  files  in	 a  hierarchy,
	      only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
	      .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
	      ries  in	the  destination  are removed (note the	hide filter of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */'	src/ dest

	      If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'	--exclude='*'"
	      would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if	that  is  more
	      natural to you).

       --progress
	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress of the transfer.	This gives a bored user	 something  to
	      watch.  Implies --verbose	if it wasn't already specified.

	      While  rsync  is	transferring  a	 regular  file,	 it  updates a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%	 110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has	reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
	      63% of the sender's file,	which is being reconstructed at	a rate
	      of 110.64	kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
	      4	seconds	if the current rate is maintained until	the end.

	      These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer al-
	      gorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's	file  consists
	      of the basis file	followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will probably drop dramatically when the receiver	 gets  to  the
	      literal data, and	the transfer will probably take	much longer to
	      finish than the receiver	estimated  as  it  was	finishing  the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When  the	 file  transfer	 finishes, rsync replaces the progress
	      line with	a summary line that looks like this:

		   1238099 100%	 146.38kB/s    0:00:08	(xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

	      In this example, the file	was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during	the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and	there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see  if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out	of the 396 to-
	      tal files	in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
	      pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
	      a	long transfer that may be interrupted.

       --password-file
	      This option allows you to	provide	a password in a	file  for  ac-
	      cessing  an  rsync daemon.  The file must	not be world readable.
	      It should	contain	just the password as a single line.

	      This option does not supply a password to	a remote shell	trans-
	      port  such  as  ssh; to learn how	to do that, consult the	remote
	      shell's documentation.  When accessing an	rsync daemon  using  a
	      remote  shell  as	the transport, this option only	comes into ef-
	      fect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if
	      you have also specified a	password in the	daemon's config	file).

       --list-only
	      This  option will	cause the source files to be listed instead of
	      transferred.  This option	is  inferred  if  there	 is  a	single
	      source  arg  and no destination specified, so its	main uses are:
	      (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
	      a	 file-listing  command,	or (2) to be able to specify more than
	      one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
	      tion:  keep  in  mind  that a source arg with a wild-card	is ex-
	      panded by	the shell into multiple	args, so it is never  safe  to
	      try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

		  rsync	-av --list-only	foo* dest/

	      Compatibility  note:   when requesting a remote listing of files
	      from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you	may  encounter
	      an  error	 if  you ask for a non-recursive listing.  This	is be-
	      cause a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o  --recursive,
	      and older	rsyncs don't have that option.	To avoid this problem,
	      either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't	need to	expand
	      a	 directory's  content),	 or  turn on recursion and exclude the
	      content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

       --bwlimit=KBPS
	      This option allows you to	specify	a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes	 per  second. This option is most effective when using
	      rsync with large files (several megabytes	and up).  Due  to  the
	      nature  of  rsync	 transfers,  blocks  of	data are sent, then if
	      rsync determines the transfer was	too fast, it will wait	before
	      sending  the  next data block. The result	is an average transfer
	      rate equaling the	specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no
	      limit.

       --write-batch=FILE
	      Record  a	 file  that  can later be applied to another identical
	      destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
	      details, and also	the --only-write-batch option.

       --only-write-batch=FILE
	      Works like --write-batch,	except that no updates are made	on the
	      destination system when  creating	 the  batch.   This  lets  you
	      transport	 the  changes to the destination system	via some other
	      means and	then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that	you can	feel free to write the batch directly to  some
	      portable	media:	if this	media fills to capacity	before the end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer	to the
	      destination  and repeat the whole	process	to get the rest	of the
	      changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
	      tion system while	the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note	that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote system because this allows	the batched  data  to  be  di-
	      verted  from  the	 sender	 into the batch	file without having to
	      flow over	the wire to the	receiver (when pulling,	the sender  is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

       --read-batch=FILE
	      Apply  all of the	changes	stored in FILE,	a file previously gen-
	      erated by	--write-batch.	If FILE	is -, the batch	data  will  be
	      read  from standard input.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for de-
	      tails.

       --protocol=NUM
	      Force an older protocol version to be used.  This	is useful  for
	      creating	a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
	      of rsync.	 For instance, if rsync	2.6.4 is being used  with  the
	      --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating	the  batch file	to force the older protocol version to
	      be used in the batch file	(assuming you can't upgrade the	 rsync
	      on the reading system).

       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
	      Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
	      option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
	      default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
	      can fully	specify	what conversion	to do by giving	a local	and  a
	      remote  charset  separated  by  a	comma in the order --iconv=LO-
	      CAL,REMOTE, e.g.	 --iconv=utf8,iso88591.	  This	order  ensures
	      that  the	 option	 will  stay the	same whether you're pushing or
	      pulling files.  Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or  a
	      CONVERT_SPEC  of	"-"  to	 turn off any conversion.  The default
	      setting of this option is	site-specific, and  can	 also  be  af-
	      fected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
	      ports, you can run "iconv	--list".

	      If you specify the --protect-args	option (-s), rsync will	trans-
	      late  the	filenames you specify on the command-line that are be-
	      ing sent to the remote host.  See	also the --files-from option.

	      Note that	rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in	filter
	      files (including include/exclude files).	It is up to you	to en-
	      sure that	you're specifying matching rules  that	can  match  on
	      both sides of the	transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude rules if there are filename differences  on  the
	      two sides	that need to be	accounted for.

	      When  you	 pass an --iconv option	to an rsync daemon that	allows
	      it, the daemon uses the charset specified	in its "charset"  con-
	      figuration  parameter regardless of the remote charset you actu-
	      ally pass.  Thus,	you may	feel free to specify  just  the	 local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells  rsync  to	prefer	IPv4/IPv6 when creating	sockets.  This
	      only affects sockets that	rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
	      See also these options in	the --daemon mode section.

	      If rsync was complied without support for	IPv6, the  --ipv6  op-
	      tion will	have no	effect.	 The --version output will tell	you if
	      this is the case.

       --checksum-seed=NUM
	      Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.	 This 4	byte  checksum
	      seed  is	included  in each block	and file checksum calculation.
	      By default the checksum seed is generated	by the server and  de-
	      faults  to  the  current	time() .  This option is used to set a
	      specific checksum	seed, which is useful  for  applications  that
	      want  repeatable	block and file checksums, or in	the case where
	      the user wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting  NUM	 to  0
	      causes rsync to use the default of time()	for checksum seed.

DAEMON OPTIONS
       The options allowed when	starting an rsync daemon are as	follows:

       --daemon
	      This  tells rsync	that it	is to run as a daemon.	The daemon you
	      start running may	be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If  standard input is a socket then rsync	will assume that it is
	      being run	via inetd, otherwise it	will detach from  the  current
	      terminal	and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
	      the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See	the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

       --address
	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon  with  the	 --daemon option.  The --address option	allows
	      you to specify a specific	IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
	      This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
	      --config option.	See also the "address" global  option  in  the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --bwlimit=KBPS
	      This  option  allows  you	 to specify a maximum transfer rate in
	      kilobytes	per second for the data	the daemon sends.  The	client
	      can still	specify	a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
	      value will be rounded down if they try to	exceed	it.   See  the
	      client version of	this option (above) for	some extra details.

       --config=FILE
	      This  specifies an alternate config file than the	default.  This
	      is only relevant when --daemon is	 specified.   The  default  is
	      /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf  unless  the daemon is	running	over a
	      remote shell program and the remote user is not the  super-user;
	      in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory
	      (typically $HOME).

       --no-detach
	      When running as a	daemon,	this option instructs rsync to not de-
	      tach itself and become a background process.  This option	is re-
	      quired when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be use-
	      ful when rsync is	supervised by a	program	such as	daemontools or
	      AIX's System Resource Controller.	 --no-detach  is  also	recom-
	      mended  when  rsync is run under a debugger.  This option	has no
	      effect if	rsync is run from inetd	or sshd.

       --port=PORT
	      This specifies an	alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
	      listen  on  rather than the default of 873.  See also the	"port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --log-file=FILE
	      This option tells	the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
	      name instead of using the	"log file" setting in the config file.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
	      This  option  tells  the	rsync  daemon  to use the given	FORMAT
	      string instead of	using the "log format" setting in  the	config
	      file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
	      empty, in	which case transfer logging is turned off.

       --sockopts
	      This overrides the socket	options	 setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option increases the amount	of information the daemon logs
	      during its startup phase.	 After the client connects,  the  dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the	incoming sock-
	      ets that the rsync daemon	will use to  listen  for  connections.
	      One  of these options may	be required in older versions of Linux
	      to work around an	IPv6 bug in the	kernel (if you see an "address
	      already  in  use"	error when nothing else	is using the port, try
	      specifying --ipv6	or --ipv4 when starting	the daemon).

	      If rsync was complied without support for	IPv6, the  --ipv6  op-
	      tion will	have no	effect.	 The --version output will tell	you if
	      this is the case.

       -h, --help
	      When specified after --daemon, print a short help	page  describ-
	      ing the options available	for starting an	rsync daemon.

FILTER RULES
       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to	trans-
       fer (include) and which files to	skip (exclude).	 The rules either  di-
       rectly  specify	include/exclude	 patterns or they specify a way	to ac-
       quire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories	to transfer  is	 built,	 rsync	checks
       each  name  to  be transferred against the list of include/exclude pat-
       terns in	turn, and the first matching pattern is	acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern,	then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then that filename is not skipped; if no	 matching  pattern  is	found,
       then the	filename is not	skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an ordered list of filter	rules as specified on the com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules	have the following syntax:

	      RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
	      RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

       You have	your choice of using either short or long RULE names,  as  de-
       scribed	below.	 If you	use a short-named rule,	the ','	separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows  (when present) must come after either a single space or an	under-
       score (_).  Here	are the	available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide, H specifies	a pattern for hiding files from	the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from	 dele-
	      tion.
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored,	as are
       comment lines that start	with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of	rule parsing as	described above	-- they	only allow the
       specification of	include/exclude	patterns plus a	"!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules	are read from a	file).
       If a pattern does not begin with	"- " (dash,  space)  or	 "+  "	(plus,
       space),	then  the  rule	will be	interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to	the string.  A
       --filter	 option, on the	other hand, must always	contain	either a short
       or long rule name at the	start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat	the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

INCLUDE/EXCLUDE	PATTERN	RULES
       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns	using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter	rules (as  introduced  in  the	FILTER	RULES  section
       above).	 The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the	files that  are	 going	to  be	trans-
       ferred.	These patterns can take	several	forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is	anchored to a particu-
	      lar spot in the hierarchy	of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is	similar	to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
	      at  either  the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in
	      the merge-file's directory (for a	per-directory rule).   An  un-
	      qualified	"foo" would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree
	      because the algorithm is applied recursively from	the top	 down;
	      it  behaves  as  if each path component gets a turn at being the
	      end of the filename.  Even the unanchored	"sub/foo" would	 match
	      at  any  point in	the hierarchy where a "foo" was	found within a
	      directory	named "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EX-
	      CLUDE PATTERNS for a full	discussion of how to specify a pattern
	      that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then	it will	only  match  a	direc-
	      tory, not	a regular file,	symlink, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
	      matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these	 three
	      wildcard characters: '*',	'?', and '[' .

       o      a	'*' matches any	path component,	but it stops at	slashes.

       o      use '**' to match	anything, including slashes.

       o      a	'?' matches any	character except a slash (/).

       o      a	 '['  introduces  a  character	class, such as [a-z] or	[[:al-
	      pha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be	used to	escape a wild-
	      card  character,	but  it	is matched literally when no wildcards
	      are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a	/ (not counting	a  trailing  /)	 or  a
	      "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a	/ or a
	      "**", then it is matched only against the	final component	of the
	      filename.	 (Remember that	the algorithm is  applied  recursively
	      so  "full	 filename"  can	actually be any	portion	of a path from
	      the starting directory on	down.)

       o      a	trailing "dir_name/***"	will match both	the directory  (as  if
	      "dir_name/"  had been specified) and everything in the directory
	      (as if "dir_name/**" had been  specified).   This	 behavior  was
	      added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when	using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every	path is	visited	from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns	get applied recursively	to each	subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually	short-
       circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync	 finds	the  files  to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent	directory, it can ren-
       der a deeper include pattern ineffectual	because	rsync did not  descend
       through	that  excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is particularly
       important when using a trailing '*' rule.   For	instance,  this	 won't
       work:

	      +	/some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      +	/file-is-included
	      -	*

       This  fails  because the	parent directory "some"	is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so	rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask	for all	directories in
       the hierarchy to	be included by using a single rule:  "+	 */"  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the	  "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.	 For instance,
       this set	of rules works fine:

	      +	/some/
	      +	/some/path/
	      +	/some/path/this-file-is-found
	      +	/file-also-included
	      -	*

       Here are	some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all	names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or	directory) named  foo  in  the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar" would exclude any	file named bar which is	at two
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-
	      tory

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"	would  exclude	any file named bar two or more
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-
	      tory

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
	      directories and C	source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would in-
	      clude only the foo directory and foo/bar.c  (the	foo  directory
	      must be explicitly included or it	would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+"	or "-":

       o      A	 /  specifies  that the	include/exclude	rule should be matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/  /usr/local/etc/passwd"  would  exclude  the passwd file any
	      time the transfer	was sending files from the  "/etc"  directory,
	      and  "-/	subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a
	      dir named	"subdir", even if "foo"	is at the root of the  current
	      transfer.

       o      A	! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect	if the
	      pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
	      non-directories.

       o      A	 C  is	used to	indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
	      should be	inserted as excludes in	place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
	      should follow.

       o      An  s  is	 used to indicate that the rule	applies	to the sending
	      side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents	 files
	      from  being  transferred.	  The  default is for a	rule to	affect
	      both sides unless	--delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default  rules  become  sender-side only.	 See also the hide (H)
	      and show (S) rules, which	are an alternate way to	specify	 send-
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate	that the rule applies to the receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it	prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which	are an	alternate  way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A	 p indicates that a rule is perishable,	meaning	that it	is ig-
	      nored in directories that	are being deleted.  For	instance,  the
	      -C  option's  default  rules  that exclude things	like "CVS" and
	      "*.o" are	marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
	      that  was	removed	on the source from being deleted on the	desti-
	      nation.

MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES
       You can merge whole files into your filter rules	by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a	dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.')  and  per-
       directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge file is read one time, and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.   For  per-directory merge	files, rsync will scan every directory
       that it traverses for the named file, merging  its  contents  when  the
       file exists into	the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory rule files must be created on the sending side because it  is  the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These rule files	may also need to be transferred	to the receiving  side
       if you want them	to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	      merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
	      .	/usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge	.per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	- specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-
	      compatible  manner.   This  turns	on 'n',	'w', and '-', but also
	      allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
	      name is provided,	".cvsignore" is	assumed.

       o      A	 e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the	transfer; e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are	not inherited  by  subdirecto-
	      ries.

       o      A	 w  specifies  that the	rules are word-split on	whitespace in-
	      stead of the normal line-splitting.  This	also  turns  off  com-
	      ments.   Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
	      is treated specially, so "- foo +	bar" is	parsed	as  two	 rules
	      (assuming	that prefix-parsing wasn't also	disabled).

       o      You  may	also  specify  any of the modifiers for	the "+"	or "-"
	      rules (above) in order to	have the rules that are	read  in  from
	      the  file	 default  to  having that modifier set.	 For instance,
	      "merge,-/	.excl" would treat the contents	of .excl as  absolute-
	      path  excludes,  while  "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each
	      make all their per-directory rules apply	only  on  the  sending
	      side.

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the	direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was	 used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed	to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set	of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together	in the spot where the merge-file was specified,	so  it
       is  possible  to	override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read	 from a	per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a	single rule from a dir-merge file  from	 being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file	are relative to	the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo"	would only match the file "foo"	in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter	 file  which  you'd  specify  via  --filter=".
       file":

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      -	*.gz
	      dir-merge	.rules
	      +	*.[ch]
	      -	*.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the	list and also turns the	".rules" filename into a  per-
       directory filter	file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the di-
       rectory scan follow the global anchoring	rules (i.e.  a	leading	 slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is	specified with a path that is a	parent
       directory of the	first transfer directory, rsync	will scan all the par-
       ent dirs	from that starting point to the	transfer directory for the in-
       dicated per-directory file.  For	instance, here is a common filter (see
       -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells	rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all	direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to the start of the normal directory scan	of the file in the di-
       rectories that are sent as a part of the	transfer.  (Note: for an rsync
       daemon, the root	is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of	this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands	above will look	for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and	 its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and	only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in  each  di-
       rectory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a	".cvsignore" in	your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect where the	--cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of  the  per-di-
       rectory .cvsignore file gets placed into	your rules by putting the ":C"
       wherever	you like in your filter	rules.	Without	this, rsync would  add
       the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of	all your other
       rules (giving it	a lower	priority than your command-line	 rules).   For
       example:

	      cat <<EOT	| rsync	-avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      +	foo.o
	      :C
	      -	*.old
	      EOT
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of	 the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each	one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore	rules in the middle of the list	rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific	rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C	instead	 of  being  subservient	 to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents	of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE
       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"	filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES	section	above).	 The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the	 rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set	of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a	subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the	transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think	of the
       transfer	as a subtree of	names that are being sent from sender  to  re-
       ceiver,	the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in
       the destination directory.  This	root governs where patterns that start
       with a /	match.

       Because	the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing	slash on a source path or changing your	use of the  --relative
       option  affects	the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file	tree is	duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match	two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with	a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note	missing	"me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note	missing	"you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note	full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo	you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz	    (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see	what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any	files).

PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND	DELETE
       Without	a  delete option, per-directory	rules are only relevant	on the
       sending side, so	you can	feel free to exclude  the  merge  files	 them-
       selves without affecting	the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you,	as seen	in these two  equivalent  com-
       mands:

	      rsync -av	--filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir	/dest
	      rsync -av	--filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	 if you	want to	do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be	excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,	because	 this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same	exclude	rules as the sending side before it  tries  to	delete
       anything:

	      rsync -avF --delete-after	host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or	 you'll	 need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on	the receiving side.  An	example	of the first is	 this  (assume
       that the	remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir	/dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides	of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the	.rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote	side is	 excluding  the	 .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer,	but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and	then put rules into the	local files  to	 control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete	host:src/dir /dest

BATCH MODE
       Batch mode can be used to apply the same	set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems. Suppose one	has a tree which is replicated on a number  of
       hosts.  Now suppose some	changes	have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be	propagated to the other	hosts. In order	to  do
       this  using batch mode, rsync is	run with the write-batch option	to ap-
       ply the changes made to the source  tree	 to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.	The  write-batch  option causes	the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all	 the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical	destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block	generation more	than once when updating	multi-
       ple  destination	 trees.	 Multicast  transport protocols	can be used to
       transfer	the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,  in-
       stead of	sending	the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded	changes	to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the	read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync	updates	the destination	tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For your	convenience, a script file is also  created  when  the	write-
       batch option is used:  it will be named the same	as the batch file with
       ".sh" appended.	This script file contains a command-line suitable  for
       updating	 a destination tree using the associated batch file. It	can be
       executed	using a	Bourne (or Bourne-like)	shell, optionally  passing  in
       an  alternate  destination  tree	pathname which is then used instead of
       the original destination	path.  This is	useful	when  the  destination
       tree  path  on the current host differs from the	one used to create the
       batch file.

       Examples:

	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $	scp foo* remote:
	      $	ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a /source/dir/	/adest/dir/
	      $	ssh remote rsync --read-batch=-	-a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is	used  to   update   /adest/dir/	  from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this	operation is stored in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The	host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into	the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the	flexibility you	have in	how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first	example	shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host	 using
	      either  the  remote-shell	 syntax	or rsync daemon	syntax,	as de-
	      sired.

       o      The first	example	uses the created  "foo.sh"  file  to  get  the
	      right  rsync  options when running the read-batch	command	on the
	      remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
	      that  the	batch file doesn't need	to be copied to	the remote ma-
	      chine first.  This example avoids	the foo.sh script  because  it
	      needed to	use a modified --read-batch option, but	you could edit
	      the script file if you wished to make use	of it  (just  be  sure
	      that  no	other  option is trying	to use standard	input, such as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).

       Caveats:

       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that	was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference	between	the destination	 trees
       is  encountered	the  update  might be discarded	with a warning (if the
       file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update  may  be  at-
       tempted	and  then,  if	the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a	 read-
       batch  operation	 if the	command	got interrupted.  If you wish to force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and  date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an error oc-
       curs, the destination tree will probably	 be  in	 a  partially  updated
       state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one	used to	generate the batch file.  Rsync	will die with an error
       if the protocol version in the batch file is too	 new  for  the	batch-
       reading	rsync  to handle.  See also the	--protocol option for a	way to
       have the	creating rsync generate	a batch	file that an older  rsync  can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will	not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync	will force the value  of  certain  op-
       tions to	match the data in the batch file if you	didn't set them	to the
       same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)  be
       changed.	   For	 instance   --write-batch   changes  to	 --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped,	and the	 --filter/--include/--exclude  options
       are not needed unless one of the	--delete options is specified.

       The  code  that	creates	 the  BATCH.sh	file transforms	any filter/in-
       clude/exclude options into a single list	that is	appended as  a	"here"
       document	 to  the  shell	script file.  An advanced user can use this to
       modify the exclude list if a change in what gets	deleted	by --delete is
       desired.	  A  normal user can ignore this detail	and just use the shell
       script as an easy way to	run the	appropriate --read-batch  command  for
       the batched data.

       The  original batch mode	in rsync was based on "rsync+",	but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

SYMBOLIC LINKS
       Three basic behaviors are possible when	rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not	transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,	then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links	is specified, then symlinks are	"collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An  ex-
       ample  where this might be used is a web	site mirror that wishes	to en-
       sure that the rsync module that is copied  does	not  include  symbolic
       links  to /usr/local/etc/passwd in the public section of	the site.  Us-
       ing --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as  the  file
       they point to on	the destination.  Using	--safe-links will cause	unsafe
       links to	be omitted altogether.	(Note that you	must  specify  --links
       for --safe-links	to have	any effect.)

       Symbolic	 links	are  considered	 unsafe	 if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough	".." components	to as-
       cend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a summary of how	the symlink options are	interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if	your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

       --copy-links
	      Turn all symlinks	into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate	all safe  sym-
	      links.

       --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn  all	unsafe symlinks	into files, noisily skip all safe sym-
	      links.

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate	safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

       --links
	      Duplicate	all symlinks.

DIAGNOSTICS
       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem	a little cryp-
       tic.  The  one that seems to cause the most confusion is	"protocol ver-
       sion mismatch --	is your	shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote	 shell
       facility	 producing  unwanted garbage on	the stream that	rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your  re-
       mote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is	working	correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero	length file. If	you are	getting	the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you	 will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is	producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as	.cshrc or .profile) that contain output	statements for non-in-
       teractive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity	rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included	or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
       0      Success

       1      Syntax or	usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested	 action	 not supported:	an attempt was made to manipu-
	      late 64-bit files	on a platform that cannot support them;	or  an
	      option  was specified that is supported by the client and	not by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       CVSIGNORE
	      The CVSIGNORE environment	variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more
	      details.

       RSYNC_ICONV
	      Specify a	default	--iconv	setting	using this  environment	 vari-
	      able.

       RSYNC_RSH
	      The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
	      default shell used as the	transport for rsync.  Command line op-
	      tions  are  permitted  after the command name, just as in	the -e
	      option.

       RSYNC_PROXY
	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

       RSYNC_PASSWORD
	      Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to	the required password  allows  you  to
	      run  authenticated  rsync	connections to an rsync	daemon without
	      user intervention. Note that this	does not supply	a password  to
	      a	 remote	 shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
	      consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The USER or LOGNAME environment variables	are used to  determine
	      the  default  username  sent  to an rsync	daemon.	 If neither is
	      set, the username	defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the	user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

SEE ALSO
       rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS
       times are transferred as	*nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems	 rsync	may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments	on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred	 as  native  numerical
       values

       see also	the comments on	the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

VERSION
       This man	page is	current	for version 3.0.7 of rsync.

INTERNAL OPTIONS
       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by	 a  user  under	 normal	 circumstances.	  Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that can	only run an rsync  command.   For  in-
       stance,	the support directory of the rsync distribution	has an example
       script named rrsync (for	restricted rsync) that can be used with	a  re-
       stricted	ssh login.

CREDITS
       rsync  is distributed under the GNU public license.  See	the file COPY-
       ING for details.

       A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The	site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic	which  may  cover  questions unanswered	by this	manual
       page.

       The primary ftp site for	rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We would	be delighted to	hear  from  you	 if  you  like	this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

       This  program  uses  the	 excellent zlib	compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly	and Mark Adler.

THANKS
       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen,  Matt	McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
       Terpstra,  David	 Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre,	J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and	David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

AUTHOR
       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell	 and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many  people  have later	contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
       by Wayne	Davison.

       Mailing	lists  for  support   and   development	  are	available   at
       http://lists.samba.org

				  31 Dec 2009			      rsync(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GENERAL | SETUP | USAGE | ADVANCED USAGE | CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON | USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION | STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS SUMMARY | OPTIONS | DAEMON OPTIONS | FILTER RULES | INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES | MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES | LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE | ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS | PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE | BATCH MODE | SYMBOLIC LINKS | DIAGNOSTICS | EXIT VALUES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | FILES | SEE ALSO | BUGS | VERSION | INTERNAL OPTIONS | CREDITS | THANKS | AUTHOR

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://man.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=rsync&sektion=1&manpath=FreeBSD+8.2-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help