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SCREEN(1)		    General Commands Manual		     SCREEN(1)

       screen -	screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal	emulation

       screen [	-options ] [ cmd [ args	] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).	  Each
       virtual terminal	provides the functions of a DEC	VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from	the ISO	6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple	character sets).  There	is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows	moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a	 shell	in  it
       (or  the	 specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any	time, you  can
       create new (full-screen)	windows	with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list	of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on	and off, copy-and-paste	text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run	their  programs	completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue	to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and	even when the whole screen session is detached from the	user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained	it.  If	this window was	in the foreground, the
       display switches	to the previous	window;	if none	are left,  screen  ex-
       its.  Shells usually distinguish	between	running	as login-shell or sub-
       shell.  Screen runs them	as  sub-shells,	 unless	 told  otherwise  (See
       shell .screenrc command).

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception	to this	is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate	a command to the window	manager.  By default, each command be-
       gins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and	is followed by
       one  other  keystroke.	The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like,	though they are	always
       two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix C-	to mean	control, although this
       notation	is used	in this	manual for readability.	 Please	use the	 caret
       notation	(^A instead of C-a) as arguments to e.g. the escape command or
       the -e option.  Screen will also	print out control characters in	 caret

       The standard way	to create a new	window is to type C-a c.  This creates
       a new window running a shell and	switches to that  window  immediately,
       regardless  of  the state of the	process	running	in the current window.
       Similarly, you can create a new window with a custom command in	it  by
       first  binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc file or at
       the C-a : command line) and then	using it just like the C-a c  command.
       In addition, new	windows	can be created by running a command like:

	      screen emacs prog.c

       from  a shell prompt within a previously	created	window.	 This will not
       run another copy	of screen, but will instead supply  the	 command  name
       and its arguments to the	window manager (specified in the $STY environ-
       ment variable) who will use it to create	the new	window.	 The above ex-
       ample  would  start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch	to its
       window. - Note that you cannot transport	environment variables from the
       invoking	 shell	to the application (emacs in this case), because it is
       forked from the parent screen process, not from the invoking shell.

       If /etc/utmp is writable	by screen, an appropriate record will be writ-
       ten to this file	for each window, and removed when the window is	termi-
       nated.  This is useful for working with talk, script, shutdown,	rsend,
       sccs and	other similar programs that use	the utmp file to determine who
       you are.	As long	as screen is active on your terminal,  the  terminal's
       own record is removed from the utmp file. See also C-a L.

       Before  you  begin to use screen	you'll need to make sure you have cor-
       rectly selected your terminal type, just	as you	would  for  any	 other
       termcap/terminfo	program.  (You can do this by using test for example.)

       If  you're  impatient  and want to get started without doing a lot more
       reading,	you should remember this one command:  C-a  ?.	 Typing	 these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS.  The  manual section CUSTOMIZATION deals with the contents of
       your .screenrc.

       If your terminal	is a true auto-margin terminal (it doesn't  allow  the
       last position on	the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider	using a	version	of your	terminal's termcap that	has  automatic
       margins	turned off. This will ensure an	accurate and optimal update of
       the screen in all circumstances.	Most  terminals	 nowadays  have	 magic
       margins	(automatic margins plus	usable last column). This is the VT100
       style type and perfectly	suited for screen.  If all  you've  got	 is  a
       true  auto-margin terminal screen will be content to use	it, but	updat-
       ing a character put into	the last position on the  screen  may  not  be
       possible	until the screen scrolls or the	character is moved into	a safe
       position	in some	other way. This	delay can be shortened by using	a ter-
       minal with insert-character capability.

       Screen has the following	command-line options:

       -a   include all	capabilities (with some	minor exceptions) in each win-
	    dow's termcap, even	if screen must redraw parts of the display  in
	    order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the	sizes of all windows to	the size of the	current	termi-
	    nal.  By default, screen tries to restore  its  old	 window	 sizes
	    when  attaching  to	 resizable terminals (those with WS in its de-
	    scription, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
	    override the default configuration file  from  $HOME/.screenrc  to

       -d|-D []
	    does  not  start screen, but detaches the elsewhere	running	screen
	    session. It	has the	same effect as typing C-a d from screen's con-
	    trolling  terminal.	 -D is the equivalent to the power detach key.
	    If no session can be detached, this	option is ignored. In combina-
	    tion with the -r/-R	option more powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach	a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach	 a  session  and if necessary detach or	even create it

       -d -RR  Reattach	a session and if necessary detach or  create  it.  Use
	       the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach	 a  session.  If  necessary detach and logout remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
	       ning,  then  reattach.  If necessary detach and logout remotely
	       first.  If it was not running create it and  notify  the	 user.
	       This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

	    Note:  It  is  always a good idea to check the status of your ses-
	    sions by means of screen -list.

       -e xy
	    specifies the command character to be x and	the character generat-
	    ing	a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
	    character).	 The default is	C-a and	`a', which can be specified as
	    -e^Aa.   When  creating a screen session, this option sets the de-
	    fault command character. In	a multiuser session  all  users	 added
	    will  start	off with this command character. But when attaching to
	    an already running session,	this option changes only  the  command
	    character of the attaching user.  This option is equivalent	to ei-
	    ther the commands defescape	or escape respectively.

       -f, -fn,	and -fa
	    turns flow-control on, off,	or automatic switching mode.  This can
	    also be defined through the	defflow	.screenrc command.

       -h num
	    Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause	 the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the dis-
	    play  immediately  when  flow-control  is  on.   See  the  defflow
	    .screenrc command for details.  The	use of this option is discour-

       -l and -ln
	    turns login	mode on	or off (for  /etc/utmp	updating).   This  can
	    also be defined through the	deflogin .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
	    does  not  start screen, but prints	a list of strings
	    identifying	your screen sessions.  Sessions	marked `detached'  can
	    be resumed with screen -r. Those marked `attached' are running and
	    have a controlling terminal. If  the  session  runs	 in  multiuser
	    mode,  it  is marked `multi'. Sessions marked as `unreachable' ei-
	    ther live on a different host or are `dead'.  An unreachable  ses-
	    sion  is considered	dead, when its name matches either the name of
	    the	local host, or the specified parameter,	if any.	  See  the  -r
	    flag  for a	description how	to construct matches.  Sessions	marked
	    as `dead' should be	thoroughly checked and removed.	 Ask your sys-
	    tem	 administrator	if  you	are not	sure. Remove sessions with the
	    -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -Logfile	file
	    By default logfile name is screenlog.0. You	can  set  new  logfile
	    name with the -Logfile option.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the	$STY environment variable. With	screen
	    -m creation	of a  new  session  is	enforced,  regardless  whether
	    screen  is	called from within another screen session or not. This
	    flag has a special meaning in connection with the `-d' option:

       -d -m   Start screen in detached	mode. This creates a new  session  but
	       doesn't	attach	to  it.	 This  is  useful  for	system startup

       -D -m   This also starts	screen in detached mode, but  doesn't  fork  a
	       new process. The	command	exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  an	optimal	output mode for	your terminal rather than true
	    VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin terminals	without	`LP').
	    This  can  also  be	 set in	your .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a
	    termcap command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
	    Preselect a	window.	This is	useful when you	want to	reattach to  a
	    specific window or you want	to send	a command via the -X option to
	    a specific window. As with screen's	select command,	- selects  the
	    blank window. As a special case for	reattach, = brings up the win-
	    dowlist on the blank window, while a + will	create a  new  window.
	    The	command	will not be executed if	the specified window could not
	    be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination	with  -ls  the
	    exit  value	 is  as	 follows: 9 indicates a	directory without ses-
	    sions. 10 indicates	a directory with running  but  not  attachable
	    sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1	(or more) usable sessions.  In
	    combination	with -r	the exit value is  as  follows:	 10  indicates
	    that  there	 is  no	session	to resume. 12 (or more)	indicates that
	    there are 2	(or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
	    which one to choose.  In all other cases -q	has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands now can be queried from a remote session using this
	    flag, e.g. screen -Q windows. The commands will send the  response
	    to	the  stdout  of	the querying process. If there was an error in
	    the	command, then the querying process will	exit with  a  non-zero

	    The	commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
	    resumes  a detached	screen session.	 No other options (except com-
	    binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional	prefix
	    of	[pid.]	may  be	needed to distinguish between multiple
	    detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to
	    another  user's  screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This
	    indicates that screen should look for sessions in  another	user's
	    directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes  screen  only  when	 it's unambiguous which	one to attach,
	    usually when only one screen is detached. Otherwise	 lists	avail-
	    able  sessions.   -RR attempts to resume the first detached	screen
	    session it finds.  If successful, all other	 command-line  options
	    are	 ignored.  If no detached session exists, starts a new session
	    using the specified	options, just as if -R had not been specified.
	    The	 option	 is  set  by default if	screen is run as a login-shell
	    (actually screen uses -xRR in that case).  For  combinations  with
	    the	-d/-D option see there.

       -s program
	    sets  the  default	shell to the program specified,	instead	of the
	    value in the environment variable $SHELL (or /bin/sh  if  not  de-
	    fined).  This can also be defined through the shell	.screenrc com-
	    mand.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
	    When creating a new	session, this option can be used to specify  a
	    meaningful	name for the session. This name	identifies the session
	    for	screen -list and screen	-r actions. It substitutes the default
	    [] suffix. This name should	not be longer then 80 symbols.

       -t name
	    sets  the  title  (a.k.a.) for the default shell or	specified pro-
	    gram.  See also the	shelltitle .screenrc command.

       -T term
	    Set	the $TERM environment variable using the specified term	as op-
	    posed to the default setting of screen.

       -U   Run	 screen	in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen	that your ter-
	    minal sends	and understands	UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
	    the	default	encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
	    does  the  same  as	screen -ls, but	removes	destroyed sessions in-
	    stead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable session  is  con-
	    sidered  dead,  when its name matches either the name of the local
	    host, or the explicitly given parameter, if	any.  See the -r  flag
	    for	a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to	a  not	detached screen	session. (Multi	display	mode).
	    Screen refuses to attach from within itself.  But  when  cascading
	    multiple screens, loops are	not detected; take care.

       -X   Send  the  specified  command to a running screen session. You may
	    use	the -S option to specify the screen session if you  have  sev-
	    eral  screen  sessions running. You	can use	the -d or -r option to
	    tell screen	to look	only for attached or detached screen sessions.
	    Note  that	this  command  doesn't work if the session is password

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.

       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a	C-a  followed  by  one
       other  character.  For your convenience,	all commands that are bound to
       lower-case letters are also bound to their control  character  counter-
       parts  (with the	exception of C-a a; see	below),	thus, C-a c as well as
       C-a C-c can be used to create a window. See section CUSTOMIZATION for a
       description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings. The trailing	commas
       in boxes	with multiple keystroke	entries	are separators,	 not  part  of
       the bindings.

       C-a '		  (select)	    Prompt for a window
					    name or  number  to
					    switch to.
       C-a "		  (windowlist -b)   Present  a	list of
					    all	windows	for se-
       C-a digit	  (select 0-9)	    Switch   to	 window
					    number 0 - 9
       C-a -		  (select -)	    Switch  to	 window
					    number 0 - 9, or to
					    the	blank window.
       C-a tab		  (focus)	    Switch  the	  input
					    focus  to  the next
					    region.   See  also
					    split,	remove,
       C-a C-a		  (other)	    Toggle to the  win-
					    dow	 displayed pre-
					    viously.  Note that
					    this   binding  de-
					    faults to the  com-
					    mand      character
					    typed twice, unless
					    overridden.	    For
					    instance,  if   you
					    use	   the	 option
					    -e]x, this	command
					    becomes ]].
       C-a a		  (meta)	    Send   the	command
					    character (C-a)  to
					    window.  See escape
       C-a A		  (title)	    Allow the  user  to
					    enter  a  name  for
					    the	current	window.
       C-a b,		  (break)	    Send  a  break   to
       C-a C-b				    window.
       C-a B		  (pow_break)	    Reopen the terminal
					    line  and  send   a
       C-a c,		  (screen)	    Create a new window
       C-a C-c				    with  a  shell  and
					    switch to that win-
       C-a C		  (clear)	    Clear the screen.
       C-a d,		  (detach)	    Detach screen  from
       C-a C-d				    this terminal.
       C-a D D		  (pow_detach)	    Detach and logout.
       C-a f,		  (flow)	    Toggle flow	on, off
       C-a C-f				    or auto.

       C-a F		  (fit)		    Resize  the	 window
					    to	the current re-
					    gion size.
       C-a C-g		  (vbell)	    Toggles    screen's
					    visual bell	mode.
       C-a h		  (hardcopy)	    Write a hardcopy of
					    the	current	 window
					    to	the  file hard-
       C-a H		  (log)		    Begins/ends	logging
					    of the current win-
					    dow	 to  the   file
       C-a i,		  (info)	    Show   info	  about
       C-a C-i				    this window.
       C-a k,		  (kill)	    Destroy	current
       C-a C-k				    window.
       C-a l,		  (redisplay)	    Fully  refresh cur-
       C-a C-l				    rent window.
       C-a L		  (login)	    Toggle this	windows
					    login  slot. Avail-
					    able only if screen
					    is	 configured  to
					    update   the   utmp
       C-a m,		  (lastmsg)	    Repeat   the   last
       C-a C-m				    message   displayed
					    in	  the	message
       C-a M		  (monitor)	    Toggles  monitoring
					    of the current win-
       C-a space,	  (next)	    Switch to the  next
       C-a n,				    window.
       C-a C-n
       C-a N		  (number)	    Show   the	 number
					    (and title)	of  the
					    current window.
       C-a backspace,	  (prev)	    Switch  to the pre-
       C-a C-h,				    vious window (oppo-
       C-a p,				    site of C-a	n).
       C-a C-p
       C-a q,		  (xon)		    Send a control-q to
       C-a C-q				    the	current	window.
       C-a Q		  (only)	    Delete all	regions
					    but	  the	current
					    one.    See	   also
					    split,  remove, fo-

       C-a r,		  (wrap)	    Toggle the	current
       C-a C-r				    window's  line-wrap
					    setting  (turn  the
					    current    window's
					    automatic	margins
					    on and off).
       C-a s,		  (xoff)	    Send a control-s to
       C-a C-s;				    the	current	window.
       C-a S		  (split)	    Split  the	current
					    region horizontally
					    into two new  ones.
					    See	 also only, re-
					    move, focus.
       C-a t,		  (time)	    Show system	 infor-
       C-a C-t				    mation.
       C-a v		  (version)	    Display the	version
					    and	    compilation
       C-a C-v		  (digraph)	    Enter digraph.
       C-a w,		  (windows)	    Show a list	of win-
       C-a C-w				    dow.
       C-a W		  (width)	    Toggle 80/132  col-
       C-a x or	C-a C-x	  (lockscreen)	    Lock this terminal.
       C-a X		  (remove)	    Kill   the	current
					    region.   See  also
					    split, only, focus.
       C-a z,		  (suspend)	    Suspend	screen.
       C-a C-z				    Your  system   must
					    support   BSD-style
       C-a Z		  (reset)	    Reset  the	virtual
					    terminal   to   its
					    power-on values.
       C-a .		  (dumptermcap)	    Write out a	 .term-
					    cap	file.
       C-a ?		  (help)	    Show key bindings.
       C-a \		  (quit)	    Kill   all	windows
					    and	      terminate
       C-a :		  (colon)	    Enter  command line
       C-a [,		  (copy)	    Enter  copy/scroll-
       C-a C-[,				    back mode.
       C-a esc
       C-a C-],		  (paste .)	    Write  the contents
       C-a ]				    of the paste buffer
					    to	the stdin queue
					    of the current win-

       C-a {,		  (history)	    Copy  and  paste  a
       C-a }				    previous  (command)
       C-a >		  (writebuf)	    Write  paste buffer
					    to a file.
       C-a <		  (readbuf)	    Reads  the	screen-
					    exchange  file into
					    the	paste buffer.
       C-a =		  (removebuf)	    Removes  the   file
					    used  by  C-a < and
					    C-a	>.
       C-a ,		  (license)	    Shows where	 screen
					    comes  from,  where
					    it went to and  why
					    you	can use	it.
       C-a _		  (silence)	    Start/stop monitor-
					    ing	  the	current
					    window for inactiv-
       C-a |		  (split -v)	    Split  the	current
					    region   vertically
					    into two new ones.
       C-a *		  (displays)	    Show a  listing  of
					    all	 currently  at-
					    tached displays.

       The socket directory defaults either  to	 $HOME/.screen	or  simply  to
       /tmp/screens  or	 preferably  to	 /usr/local/screens chosen at compile-
       time. If	screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator	should
       compile	screen with an adequate	(not NFS mounted) socket directory. If
       screen is not running setuid-root, the user can specify	any  mode  700
       directory in the	environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When  screen  is	 invoked, it executes initialization commands from the
       files /usr/local/etc/screenrc and defaults that can  be	overridden  in
       the  following  ways:  for the global screenrc file screen searches for
       the environment variable	$SYSSCREENRC (this  override  feature  may  be
       disabled	 at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched
       in $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The	command	line option  -c	 takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands	 in  these  files  are	used to	set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to automatically establish one	or more	windows	at the	begin-
       ning  of	 your  screen session.	Commands are listed one	per line, with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or  spaces,  and	 may  be surrounded by single or double	quotes.	 A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.   Unintel-
       ligible	lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain ref-
       erences to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR  "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous	screen
       versions, as now	the '$'-character has to be protected with '\'	if  no
       variable	 substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your  screen  dis-
       tribution:  etc/screenrc	 and etc/etcscreenrc. They contain a number of
       useful examples for various commands.

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To  enter  the	 command  mode
       type  `C-a :'. Note that	commands starting with def change default val-
       ues, while others change	current	settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames	[crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen	session. Usernames can be  one
       user or a comma separated list of users.	This command enables to	attach
       to the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg  usernames
       +rwx  "#?"'.   executed.	 To add	a user with restricted access, use the
       `aclchg'	command	below.	If an optional second parameter	 is  supplied,
       it  should  be  a crypted password for the named	user(s). `Addacl' is a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user	mode only.

       aclchg usernames	permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits	list

       Change permissions for a	comma separated	list of	users. Permission bits
       are  represented	 as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing	`+' grants the permis-
       sion, `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list  of
       commands	and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
       cial list `#' refers to all windows, `?'	to all commands. if  usernames
       consists	of a single `*', all known users are affected.

       A  command  can	be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The
       user can	type input to a	window when he has its	`w'  bit  set  and  no
       other  user  obtains  a writelock for this window.  Other bits are cur-
       rently ignored.	To withdraw the	writelock from another user in	window
       2: `aclchg username -w+w	2'.  To	allow read-only	access to the session:
       `aclchg username	-w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known  to	screen
       he can attach to	the session and	(per default) has full permissions for
       all command and windows.	Execution permission  for  the	acl  commands,
       `at'  and  others should	also be	removed	or the user may	be able	to re-
       gain write permission.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be
       changed (see the	su command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.	 Multi
       user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a	user from screen's access control list.	If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot	attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access	rights.	 The  name  of
       the group is the	username of the	group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits	the permissions	that are granted to  the  group	 leader.  That
       means,  if  a user fails	an access check, another check is made for the
       group leader.  A	user is	removed	from all groups	the special value none
       is  used	 for groupname.	 If the	second parameter is omitted all	groups
       the user	is in are listed.

       aclumask	[[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[	users ]	+bits |	[ users	] -bits... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre-
       ated  by	 the  caller  of the command.  Users may be no,	one or a comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no	users are specified, a list of
       all  currently  known users is assumed.	Bits is	any combination	of ac-
       cess control bits allowed defined with the aclchg command. The  special
       username	 ?  predefines	the  access  that  not yet known users will be
       granted to any window initially.	 The special  username	??  predefines
       the access that not yet known users are granted to any command.	Rights
       of the special username nobody cannot be	changed	(see the su  command).
       `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity	message

       When  any  activity  occurs  in a background window that	is being moni-
       tored, screen displays a	notification in	the message line.  The notifi-
       cation  message	can  be	 re-defined  by	means of the activity command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by	the number of the win-
       dow  in which activity has occurred, and	each occurrence	of `^G'	is re-
       placed by the definition	for bell in your termcap (usually  an  audible
       bell).  The default message is

		       'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that monitoring is	off for	all windows by default,	but can	be al-
       tered by	use of the monitor command (C-a	M).

       allpartial [ on | off ]

       If set to on, only the current  cursor  line  is	 refreshed  on	window
       change.	 This  affects	all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal
       lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window  is
       restored	 with  allpartial off.	This is	a global flag that immediately
       takes effect on all windows overriding the partial  settings.  It  does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen [ on |	off ]

       If  set	to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in	virtual	termi-
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ...	]

       Execute a command at other displays or windows as if it	had  been  en-
       tered  there.  At changes the context (the `current window' or `current
       display'	setting) of the	command. If the	first  parameter  describes  a
       non-unique context, the command will be executed	multiple times.	If the
       first parameter is of the form `identifier*' then identifier is matched
       against	user  names.  The command is executed once for each display of
       the selected user(s). If	the first parameter is of  the	form  `identi-
       fier%' identifier is matched against displays. Displays are named after
       the ttys	they attach. The prefix	`/dev/'	or `/dev/tty' may  be  omitted
       from the	identifier.  If	identifier has a `#' or	nothing	appended it is
       matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting  an	identifier  in
       front  of  the `#', `*' or `%'-character	selects	all users, displays or
       windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note that on the  affected
       display(s)  a  short message will describe what happened. Permission is
       checked for initiator of	the at command,	not for	the owners of the  af-
       fected  display(s).  Note that the '#' character	works as a comment in-
       troducer	when it	is preceded by whitespace. This	can be escaped by pre-
       fixing  a  '\'.	Permission is checked for the initiator	of the at com-
       mand, not for the owners	of the affected	display(s).

       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once  per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of win-
       dows (like other) may be	called again. In shared	 windows  the  command
       will be repeated	for each attached display. Beware, when	issuing	toggle
       commands	like login!  Some commands (e.g. process) require that a  dis-
       play  is	 associated  with  the target windows.	These commands may not
       work correctly under at looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib	[attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can	be used	to highlight attributes	by changing the	 color
       of  the	text.  If the attribute	attrib is in use, the specified	attri-
       bute/color modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given, the  cur-
       rent  one  is deleted. See the STRING ESCAPES chapter for the syntax of
       the modifier. Screen understands	two pseudo-attributes,	i  stands  for
       high-intensity  foreground  color  and  I for high-intensity background


	      attrcolor	b "R"

       Change the color	to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

	      attrcolor	u "-u b"

       Use blue	text instead of	underline.

	      attrcolor	b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text.	Most terminal emulators	 do  this  al-

	      attrcolor	i "+b"

       Make bright colored text	also bold.

       autodetach [ on | off ]

       Sets  whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves
       all your	running	programs until they are	resumed	with a screen -r  com-
       mand.   When  turned off, a hangup signal will terminate	screen and all
       the processes it	contains. Autodetach is	on by default.

       autonuke	[ on | off ]

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke	all  the  output  that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also obuflimit.

       backtick	id lifespan autorefresh	cmd args...

       backtick	id

       Program	the  backtick command with the numerical id id.	 The output of
       such a command is used for substitution of the %`  string  escape.  The
       specified  lifespan  is	the number of seconds the output is considered
       valid. After this time, the command is run  again  if  a	 corresponding
       string  escape  is  encountered.	 The autorefresh parameter triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after  the	speci-
       fied  number  of	seconds. Only the last line of output is used for sub-

       If both the lifespan and	the autorefresh	parameters are zero, the back-
       tick  program is	expected to stay in the	background and generate	output
       once in a while.	 In this case, the command is executed right away  and
       screen  stores  the  last  line	of  output. If a new line gets printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus	or the captions.

       The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
       numerical id id.

       bce [ on	| off ]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If bce is	set to on, all charac-
       ters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear  operation	will  be  dis-
       played  in  the	current	 background color. Otherwise the default back-
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg	[message]

       When a bell character is	sent to	a background window, screen displays a
       notification  in	the message line.  The notification message can	be re-
       defined by this command.	 Each occurrence of `%'	in message is replaced
       by the number of	the window to which a bell has been sent, and each oc-
       currence	of `^G'	is replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap
       (usually	an audible bell).  The default message is

		       'Bell in	window %n'

       An  empty  message  can be supplied to the bell_msg command to suppress
       output of a message line	(bell_msg "").	Without	parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [class] key	[command [args]]

       Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
       screen are bound	to one or more keys as indicated in  the  DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS	 section,  e.g.	the command to create a	new window is bound to
       C-c and c.  The bind command can	be used	to redefine the	 key  bindings
       and  to define new bindings.  The key argument is either	a single char-
       acter, a	two-character sequence of the form ^x (meaning C-x),  a	 back-
       slash  followed	by  an	octal number (specifying the ASCII code	of the
       character), or a	backslash followed by a	second character, such	as  \^
       or  \\.	 The  argument can also	be quoted, if you like.	 If no further
       argument	is given, any previously established binding for this  key  is
       removed.	  The  command argument	can be any command listed in this sec-

       If a command class is specified via the -c option, the key is bound for
       the  specified class. Use the command command to	activate a class. Com-
       mand classes can	be used	to create multiple command keys	or multi-char-
       acter bindings.

       Some examples:

		       bind ' '	windows
		       bind ^k
		       bind k
		       bind K kill
		       bind ^f screen telnet foobar
		       bind \033 screen	-ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key	to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that	the command usually invoked by C-a C-w would also be available
       as  C-a	space).	 The  next three lines remove the default kill binding
       from C-a	C-k and	C-a k.	C-a K is then bound to the kill	command.  Then
       it binds	C-f to the command create a window with	a TELNET connection to
       foobar, and bind	escape to the command that creates an non-login	window
       with  a.k.a.  root  in slot #9, with a superuser	shell and a scrollback
       buffer of 1000 lines.

		       bind -c demo1 0 select 10
		       bind -c demo1 1 select 11
		       bind -c demo1 2 select 12
		       bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes C-b 0 select window 10, C-b 1 window 11, etc.

		       bind -c demo2 0 select 10
		       bind -c demo2 1 select 11
		       bind -c demo2 2 select 12
		       bind - command -c demo2

       makes C-a - 0 select window 10, C-a - 1 window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry  in
       one  of	the  tables tells screen how to	react if a certain sequence of
       characters is encountered. There	are three tables: one that should con-
       tain  actions  programmed by the	user, one for the default actions used
       for terminal emulation and one for screen's  copy  mode	to  do	cursor
       movement. See section INPUT TRANSLATION for a list of default key bind-

       If the -d option	is given,  bindkey  modifies  the  default  table,  -m
       changes	the  copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
       selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters  to	 which
       an action is bound. This	can either be a	fixed string or	a termcap key-
       board capability	name (selectable with the -k option).

       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a	different string  if  applica-
       tion  mode  is turned on	(e.g the cursor	keys).	Such keys have two en-
       tries in	the translation	table. You can select the application mode en-
       try by specifying the -a	option.

       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One	cannot
       turn off	the timing if a	termcap	capability is used.

       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with	an arbitrary number  of	 args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.

       Here are	some examples of keyboard bindings:

	       bindkey -d

       Show  all of the	default	key bindings. The application mode entries are
       marked with [A].

	       bindkey -k k1 select 1

       Make the	"F1" key switch	to window one.

	       bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo

       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo".	Timeout	is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

	       bindkey "\024" mapdefault

       This  key-binding makes ^T an escape character for key-bindings.	If you
       did the above stuff barfoo binding, you can enter the word foo by  typ-
       ing  ^Tfoo.  If you want	to insert a ^T you have	to press the key twice
       (i.e., escape the escape	binding).

	       bindkey -k F1 command

       Make the	F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen	escape (besides	^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to	this window.  For non-
       Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may	be rounded up to full seconds.
       Most useful if a	character device is attached to	the window rather than
       a  shell	 process (See also chapter WINDOW TYPES). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate	the screen blanker. First the screen is	cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned	off, otherwise,	the program is
       started and it's	output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
       is killed with the first	keypress, the read key is discarded.

       This command is normally	used together with the idle command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if an empty ar-
       gument is given.	Shows the currently set	blanker	program	 if  no	 argu-
       ments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of	the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal	devices. This command should affect the	current	 window	 only.
       But it still behaves identical to defbreaktype. This will be changed in
       the future.  Calling breaktype with no  parameter  displays  the	 break
       method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used	for reading and	writing	with the paste buffer.
       If the optional argument	to the bufferfile command is omitted, the  de-
       fault setting (/tmp/screen-exchange) is reactivated.  The following ex-
       ample will paste	the system's password file into	the screen window (us-
       ing the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

		       C-a : bufferfile	/etc/passwd
		       C-a < C-a ]
		       C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window	list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [ on | off ]

       Change  c1 code processing. C1 on tells screen to treat the input char-
       acters between 128 and 159 as control functions.	 Such an 8-bit code is
       normally	 the same as ESC followed by the corresponding 7-bit code. The
       default setting is to process c1	codes and  can	be  changed  with  the
       defc1  command.	Users with fonts that have usable characters in	the c1
       positions may want to turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ]	always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the	window	captions.  Normally  a
       caption	is  only  used if more than one	window is shown	on the display
       (split screen mode). But	if the type is set to always  screen  shows  a
       caption even if only one	window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The  second form	changes	the text used for the caption. You can use all
       escapes from the	STRING ESCAPES chapter.	Screen uses a default of  `%3n

       You can mix both	forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       You  can	 have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom	of the
       window.	The default is bottom.

       charset set

       Change the current character set	slot designation and charset  mapping.
       The  first  four	 character  of	set are	treated	as charset designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must	be in range '0'	to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set
       is  padded  to  six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New
       windows have "BBBB02" as	default	charset, unless	a encoding command  is
       The current setting can be viewed with the info command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current directory of screen	to the specified directory or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value	of the
       environment  variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means of
       the screen command from within .screenrc	or by means of	C-a  :	screen
       ...   or	 C-a  c	 use this as their default directory.  Without a chdir
       command,	this would be the directory from which screen was invoked.

       Hardcopy	and log	files are always written to the	window's  default  di-
       rectory,	 not  the current directory of the process running in the win-
       dow.  You can use this command multiple	times  in  your	 .screenrc  to
       start  various  windows	in different default directories, but the last
       chdir value will	affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth	[ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters	as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to	the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders	window on window list, removing	number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter .screenrc command lines. Useful for on-the-fly mod-
       ification  of  key bindings, specific window creation and changing set-
       tings. Note that	the set	keyword	no longer exists! Usually commands af-
       fect  the  current  window rather than default settings for future win-
       dows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of	screen,	you may	regard
       C-a esc (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [ -c class"]"

       This  command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character
       (^A). It	is probably only useful	for key	bindings.  If the -c option is
       given, select the specified command class.  See also bind and bindkey.

       compacthist [ on	| off ]

       This  tells  screen  whether  to	 suppress  trailing  blank  lines when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [ on | off ]

       Grabs or	un-grabs the machines console output to	a window.  Note:  Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl	TIOCCONS.


       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This	allows you to copy text	from the  cur-
       rent  window  and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       h, C-h,	      move the cursor left.
       left arrow
       j, C-n,	      move the cursor down.
       down arrow

       k, C-p,	      move the cursor up.
       up arrow
       l ('el'),      move the cursor right.
       right arrow
       0 (zero)	C-a   move to the leftmost column.
       + and -	      positions	one line up and	down.
       H, M and	L     move the cursor to the leftmost  column  of  the
		      top, center or bottom line of the	window.
       |	      moves to the specified absolute column.
       g or home      moves to the beginning of	the buffer.
       G or end	      moves  to	 the specified absolute	line (default:
		      end of buffer).
       %	      jumps to the specified percentage	of the buffer.
       ^ or $	      move to the leftmost column,  to	the  first  or
		      last non-whitespace character on the line.
       w, b, and e    move the cursor word by word.
       B, E	      move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
       f/F, t/T	      move the cursor forward/backward to the next oc-
		      currence of the target. (eg, '3fy' will move the
		      cursor to	the 3rd	'y' to the right.)
       ; and ,	      Repeat  the last f/F/t/T command in the same/op-
		      posite direction.
       C-e and C-y    scroll the display up/down  by  one  line	 while
		      preserving the cursor position.
       C-u and C-d    scroll  the  display  up/down  by	 the specified
		      amount of	lines while preserving the cursor  po-
		      sition. (Default:	half screen-full).
       C-b and C-f    scroll the display up/down a full	screen.

       Note:  Emacs  style movement keys can be	customized by a	.screenrc com-
       mand.  (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is	no simple method for a
       full emacs-style	keymap,	as this	involves multi-character codes.

       Some keys are defined to	do mark	and replace operations.

       The  copy  range	 is  specified	by setting two marks. The text between
       these marks will	be highlighted.	Press:

	      space or enter to	set the	first or second	mark respectively.  If
	      mousetrack  is  set  to  `on',  marks can	also be	set using left
	      mouse click.

	      Y	and y used to mark one whole line or to	 mark  from  start  of

	      W	marks exactly one word.

       Any  of	these  commands	 can be	prefixed with a	repeat count number by
       pressing	digits

	      0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example:	C-a C-[	H 10 j 5 Y will	copy lines 11 to  15  into  the	 paste

       The following search keys are defined:

	      /	Vi-like	search forward.

	      ?	Vi-like	search backward.

	      C-a s Emacs style	incremental search forward.

	      C-r Emacs	style reverse i-search.

	      n	Find next search pattern.

	      N	Find previous search pattern.

       There  are  however some	keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does
       not allow one to	yank rectangular blocks	 of  text,  but	 screen	 does.
       Press:  c  or C to set the left or right	margin respectively. If	no re-
       peat count is given, both default to the	current	cursor position.

       Example:	Try this on a rather full text screen:

	      C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l	5 j C SPACE.

       This moves one to the middle line of the	screen,	moves  in  20  columns
       left,  marks  the  beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left column,
       moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and	then marks the end  of
       the paste buffer. Now try:

	      C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5	j SPACE

       and notice the difference in the	amount of text copied.

       J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines	separated by a newline
       character (012),	lines glued seamless,  lines  separated	 by  a	single
       whitespace  and	comma  separated  lines. Note that you can prepend the
       newline character with a	carriage return	character, by issuing  a  crlf

       v  or V is for all the vi users with :set numbers - it toggles the left
       margin between column 9 and 1. Press

       a before	the final space	key to toggle in append	mode.  Thus  the  con-
       tents of	the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.

       A toggles in append mode	and sets a (second) mark.

       > sets the (second) mark	and writes the contents	of the paste buffer to
       the screen-exchange file	(/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once	 copy-
       mode is finished.

       This  example  demonstrates  how	to dump	the whole scrollback buffer to
       that file: C-A [	g SPACE	G $ >.

       C-g gives information about the current line and	column.

       x or o exchanges	the first mark and the current	cursor	position.  You
       can use this to adjust an already placed	mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not	even exit copy mode.

       All keys	not described here exit	copy mode.

       copy_reg	[key]

       No longer exists, use readreg instead.

       crlf [ on | off ]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a	[' command. If
       it is set to `on', lines	will be	separated by  the  two	character  se-
       quence  `CR'  -	`LF'.  Otherwise (default) only	`LF' is	used.  When no
       parameter is given, the state is	toggled.

       debug [ on | off	]

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen has	been compiled with op-
       tion  -DDEBUG  debugging	 available  and	is turned on per default. Note
       that this command only affects debugging	output from  the  main	SCREEN
       process	correctly.  Debug  output  from	attacher processes can only be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 [ on | off	]

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke [ on	| off ]

       Same  as	 the  autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays	is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you  can  use
       the  special  `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce [	on | off ]

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of	the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal	devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak	and  TIOCSBRK.
       The  third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the duration
       of the break, but it may	be the only way	to generate long breaks.   Tc-
       sendbreak  and  TIOCSBRK	may or may not produce long breaks with	spikes
       (e.g. 4 per second). This is not	only system-dependent, this also  dif-
       fers between serial board drivers.  Calling defbreaktype	with no	param-
       eter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the	charset	command	except that the	default	setting	for  new  win-
       dows is changed.	Shows current default if called	without	argument.

       defdynamictitle [ on | off ]

       Set default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should	change
       window title when seeing	proper escape sequence.	See also "TITLES (nam-
       ing windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set  the	 default  command characters. This is equivalent to the	escape
       except that it is useful	multiuser sessions only. In a  multiuser  ses-
       sion  escape  changes  the command character of the calling user, where
       defescape changes the default command characters	for users that will be
       added later.

       defflow [ on | off | auto [ interrupt ]]

       Same  as	 the flow command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed.	Initial	setting	is `auto'.   Specifying	 defflow  auto
       interrupt is the	same as	the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr [ on | off	]

       Same  as	the gr command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that	all new	windows	will get  is  set  to  status.
       This  command  is useful	to make	the hardstatus of every	window display
       the window number or title or the like.	Status may  contain  the  same
       directives  as in the window messages, but the directive	escape charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.	This was done to make a	misin-
       terpretation  of	program	generated hardstatus lines impossible.	If the
       parameter status	is omitted, the	current	default	string	is  displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as	 the  encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-

       deflog [	on | off ]

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin	[ on | off ]

       Same as the login command except	that the default setting for new  win-
       dows is changed.	This is	initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-

       defmode mode

       The mode	of each	newly allocated	pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no defmode command is given,	mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor [ on | off]

       Same  as	 the  monitor  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack [ on | off	]

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock [ on	| off |	numsecs]

       Same  as	 the nonblock command except that the default setting for dis-
       plays is	changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting  for  new
       displays	 is  changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can
       use the special 'OL' terminal capability	if you want to have  a	depen-
       dency on	the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same  as	the scrollback command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell	command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence [ on | off ]

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same  as	 the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0	milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 [ on | off ]

       Same as the utf8	command	except that the	default	setting	for  new  win-
       dows is changed.	Initial	setting	is `on'	if screen was started with -U,
       otherwise `off'.

       defwrap [ on | off ]

       Same as the wrap	command	except that the	default	setting	for  new  win-
       dows  is	changed. Initially line-wrap is	on and can be toggled with the
       wrap command (C-a r) or by means	of "C-a	: wrap on|off".

       defwritelock [ on | off | auto ]

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks	will off.

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and	put it
       into the	background).  This returns you to the shell where you  invoked
       screen.	 A  detached screen can	be resumed by invoking screen with the
       -r option (see also section COMMAND-LINE	OPTIONS). The -h option	 tells
       screen to immediately close the connection to the terminal (hangup).


       Show what screen	thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate	charset	don't work.


       Shows a tabular listing of  all	currently  connected  user  front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful	for multiuser sessions.	 The following
       keys can	be used	in displays list:

       k, C-p, or up	       Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down	       Move down one line.
       C-a or home	       Move to the first line.
       C-e or end	       Move to the last	line.
       C-u or C-d	       Move one	half page up or	down.
       C-b or C-f	       Move one	full page up or	down.
       mouseclick	       Move  to	 the  selected	line.
			       Available  when	mousetrack is
			       set to on.
       space		       Refresh the list
       d		       Detach that display
       D		       Power detach that display
       C-g, enter, or escape   Exit the	list

       The following is	an example of what displays could look like:
	      xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4	  0(m11)   &rWx
	      facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
	      xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5	  0(m11)   &R.x
	       (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)	  (H)(I)

       The legend is as	follows:

	      (A) The terminal type known by screen for	this display.

	      (B) Displays geometry as width x height.

	      (C) Username who is logged in at the display.

	      (D) Device name of the display or	the attached device

	      (E) Display is in	blocking or nonblocking	mode.	The  available
	      modes are	"nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>",	and "BL".

	      (F) Number of the	window

	      (G) Name/title of	window

	      (H) Whether the window is	shared

	      (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters.

	      |		    Window permissions indicators	       |
	      |	1st character	|  2nd character   |   3rd character   |
	      |-   |no read	| -   |no write	   | -	 |no execute   |
	      |r   |read	| w   |write	   | x	 |execute      |
	      |	   |		| W   |own wlock   |	 |	       |
	      |Indicators of permissions suppressed by a foreign wlock |
	      |R   |read only	| .   |no write	   |	 |	       |
	      displays	needs a	region size of at least	10 characters wide and
	      5	characters high	in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This command prompts the	user for a  digraph  sequence.	The  next  two
       characters  typed  are  looked  up in a builtin table and the resulting
       character is inserted in	the input stream. For example, if the user en-
       ters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted.	If the first character entered
       is a 0 (zero), screen will treat	the following characters (up to	three)
       as an octal number instead.  The	optional argument preset is treated as
       user input, thus	one can	create an umlaut key.  For example the command
       "bindkey	 ^K  digraph  '"'" enables the user to generate	an a-umlaut by
       typing CTRL-K a.	 When a	non-zero unicode-value is specified, a new di-
       graph  is  created with the specified preset. The digraph is unset if a
       zero value is provided for the unicode-value.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal	optimized for the cur-
       rently  active  window to the file .termcap in the user's $HOME/.screen
       directory (or wherever screen stores its	sockets. See the FILES section
       below).	 This  termcap entry is	identical to the value of the environ-
       ment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by	screen for  each  window.  For
       terminfo	 based systems you will	need to	run a converter	like captoinfo
       and then	compile	the entry with tic.

       dynamictitle [ on | off ]

       Change behaviour	for windows regarding if screen	should	change	window
       title when seeing proper	escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming win-
       dows)" section.

       echo [-n] message

       The echo	command	may be used to annoy screen users with a  'message  of
       the day'. Typically installed in	a global /local/etc/screenrc.  The op-
       tion -n may be used to suppress the line	feed.  See also	 sleep.	  Echo
       is also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding	enc [enc]

       Tell  screen how	to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each	window can emulate a different
       encoding.  The optional second parameter	overwrites the encoding	of the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as	screen uses the	locale
       setting to detect the encoding.	There is also a	way to select a	termi-
       nal encoding depending on the terminal type by using the	KJ termcap en-

       Supported  encodings  are eucJP,	SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5, GBK, KOI8-R,
       KOI8-U, CP1251,	UTF-8,	ISO8859-2,  ISO8859-3,	ISO8859-4,  ISO8859-5,
       ISO8859-6,  ISO8859-7,  ISO8859-8,  ISO8859-9,  ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15,

       See also	defencoding, which changes the default setting of a  new  win-

       escape xy

       Set  the	 command character to x	and the	character generating a literal
       command character (by triggering	the meta command) to y (similar	to the
       -e  option).  Each argument is either a single character, a two-charac-
       ter sequence of the form	^x (meaning C-x), a backslash followed	by  an
       octal  number  (specifying the ASCII code of the	character), or a back-
       slash followed by a second character, such as \^	or \\.	The default is

       eval command1[command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each	argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ...]]

       Run  a  unix subprocess (specified by an	executable path	newcommand and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands  stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally	started	in the
       window (let us call it "application-process") and screen	 itself	 (win-
       dow)  is	controlled by the file descriptor pattern fdpat.  This pattern
       is basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout  and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects	the file descriptor to screen.
       An exclamation mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be	 connected  to
       the application-process.	A colon	(:) combines both.  User input will go
       to newcommand unless newcommand receives	the application-process'  out-
       put  (fdpats  first  character  is  `!' or `:') or a pipe symbol	(|) is
       added (as a fourth character) to	the end	of fdpat.

       Invoking	`exec' without arguments shows name and	arguments of the  cur-
       rently  running	subprocess  in this window. Only one subprocess	a time
       can be running in each window.

       When a subprocess is running the	`kill' command will affect it  instead
       of the windows process.

       Refer  to  the postscript file `doc/' for a confusing illustra-
       tion of all 21 possible combinations. Each  drawing  shows  the	digits
       2,1,0  representing  the	 three file descriptors	of newcommand. The box
       marked `W' is the usual pty that	has  the  application-process  on  its
       slave  side.   The  box	marked	`P'  is	the secondary pty that now has
       screen at its master side.

       Abbreviations: Whitespace between the word `exec'  and  fdpat  and  the
       command	can  be	 omitted. Trailing dots	and a fdpat consisting only of
       dots can	be omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for the pattern `!..|';
       the word	exec can be omitted here and can always	be replaced by `!'.


	      exec ... /bin/sh

	      exec /bin/sh


		     Creates another shell in the same window, while the orig-
		     inal shell	is still running. Output  of  both  shells  is
		     displayed and user	input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

	      exec !.. stty 19200

	      exec ! stty 19200

	      !!stty 19200

		     Set  the  speed of	the window's tty. If your stty command
		     operates on stdout, then add another `!'.

	      exec !..|	less


		     This adds a pager to the window output. The special char-
		     acter  `|'	 is  needed  to	give the user control over the
		     pager although  it	 gets  its  input  from	 the  window's
		     process.  This  works,  because less listens on stderr (a
		     behavior that screen would	not expect  without  the  `|')
		     when  its	stdin  is not a	tty.  Less versions newer than
		     177 fail miserably	here; good old pg still	works.

	      !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

		     Sends window output to both, the user and	the  sed  com-
		     mand.  The	sed inserts an additional bell character (oct.
		     007) to the window	output	seen  by  screen.   This  will
		     cause  "Bell  in  window x" messages, whenever the	string
		     "Error" appears in	the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This  command
       is needed because screen	doesn't	adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow [ on | off | auto]

       Sets the	flow-control mode for this window.  Without parameters it  cy-
       cles the	current	window's flow-control setting from "automatic" to "on"
       to "off".  See the discussion on	FLOW-CONTROL later on in this document
       for full	details	and note, that this is subject to change in future re-
       leases.	Default	is set by `defflow'.

       focus [ next | prev | up	| down | left |	right |	top | bottom ]

       Move the	input focus to the next	region.	This is	done in	a  cyclic  way
       so  that	the top	left region is selected	after the bottom right one. If
       no option is given it defaults to `next'. The next  region  to  be  se-
       lected  is  determined  by  how the regions are layered.	 Normally, the
       next region in the same layer would be selected.	 However, if that next
       region  contains	 one  or  more layers, the first region	in the highest
       layer is	selected first.	If you are at the last region of  the  current
       layer, `next' will move the focus to the	next region in the lower layer
       (if there is a lower layer).  `Prev' cycles in the opposite order.  See
       split for more information about	layers.

       The  rest  of  the  options  (`up', `down', `left', `right', `top', and
       `bottom') are more indifferent to layers. The option `up' will move the
       focus  upward  to  the region that is touching the upper	left corner of
       the current region.  `Down' will	move downward to the  region  that  is
       touching	the lower left corner of the current region. The option	`left'
       will move the focus leftward to the region that is touching  the	 upper
       left corner of the current region, while	`right'	will move rightward to
       the region that is touching the upper right corner of the  current  re-
       gion.  Moving left from a left most region or moving right from a right
       most region will	result in no action.

       The option `top'	will move the focus to the very	first  region  in  the
       upper  list  corner of the screen, and `bottom' will move to the	region
       in the bottom right corner of the screen. Moving	up from	a top most re-
       gion or moving down from	a bottom most region will result in no action.

       Useful bindings are (h, j, k, and l as in vi)
	   bind	h focus	left
	   bind	j focus	down
	   bind	k focus	up
	   bind	l focus	right
	   bind	t focus	top
	   bind	b focus	bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ (	width|max|_ ) (	height|max|_ ) ]

       This  forces  any currently selected region to be automatically resized
       at least	a certain width	and height. All	other surrounding regions will
       be resized in order to accommodate.  This constraint follows every time
       the focus command is used. The resize command can be used  to  increase
       either  dimension  of a region, but never below what is set with	focus-
       minsize.	The underscore `_' is a	synonym	for max. Setting a  width  and
       height  of  `0  0'  (zero zero) will undo any constraints and allow for
       manual resizing.	 Without any parameters, the minimum width and	height
       is shown.

       gr [ on | off ]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac-
       ter with	the 8th	bit set, it will use the charset stored	in the GR slot
       and  print  the	character  with	the 8th	bit stripped. The default (see
       also defgr) is not  to  process	GR  switching  because	otherwise  the
       ISO88591	charset	would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change  or show the group the current window belongs to.	Windows	can be
       moved around between different groups by	specifying  the	 name  of  the
       destination group. Without specifying a group, the title	of the current
       group is	displayed.

       hardcopy	[-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently	displayed image	to the file file,  or,	if  no
       filename	 is specified, to hardcopy.n in	the default directory, where n
       is the number of	the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the  file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified, dump
       also the	contents of the	scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append [ on | off ]

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the  command  C-a  h,  otherwise	these files are	overwritten each time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files	 will  be  placed.  If	unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's	current	working	directory.

       hardstatus [ on | off ]

       hardstatus  [ always ] firstline	| lastline | message | ignore [	string

       hardstatus string [ string ]

       This command configures the use and emulation of	the  terminal's	 hard-
       status  line.  The first	form toggles whether screen will use the hard-
       ware status line	to display messages. If	the  flag  is  set  to	`off',
       these  messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display line.
       The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have  a
       hardstatus  line	 (i.e.	the  termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts",
       "fs" and	"ds" are not set).  When firstline/lastline  is	 used,	screen
       will  reserve  the  first/last  line of the display for the hardstatus.
       message uses screen's message mechanism and ignore tells	 screen	 never
       to  display the hardstatus.  If you prepend the word always to the type
       (e.g., alwayslastline), screen will use the type	even if	 the  terminal
       supports	a hardstatus.

       The  third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus	line.  '%h' is
       used as default string, i.e., the stored	hardstatus of the current win-
       dow  (settable  via ESC]0;<string>^G or ESC_<string>ESC\) is displayed.
       You can customize this to any string you	 like  including  the  escapes
       from  the STRING	ESCAPES	chapter. If you	leave out the argument string,
       the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third	form by	providing the string as	 addi-
       tional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given	it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You	can also spec-
       ify  a  width  if  you want to change both values.  The -w option tells
       screen to leave the display size	unchanged  and	just  set  the	window
       size, -d	vice versa.


       Not  really  a  online help, but	displays a help	screen showing you all
       the key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal	commands  fol-
       lowed  by  their	 current  bindings.  Subsequent	pages will display the
       custom commands,	one command per	key.  Press  space  when  you're  done
       reading	each  page, or return to exit early.  All other	characters are
       ignored.	If the -c option is given, display all bound commands for  the
       specified command class.	 See also DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS section.


       Usually	users  work  with  a shell that	allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command !! to	repeat the  last  com-
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       the command that	started	...: You just type the first  letter  of  that
       command,	then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches with the	`prompt	character' to the left	of  the	 cursor.  This
       line  is	 pasted	into this window's input queue.	 Thus you have a crude
       command history (made up	by the visible window and its scrollback  buf-

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

       Sets  a command that is run after the specified number of seconds inac-
       tivity is reached. This command will normally be	the blanker command to
       create  a screen	blanker, but it	can be any screen command.  If no com-
       mand is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout of	zero  (or  the
       special	timeout	 off)  disables	the timer.  If no arguments are	given,
       the current settings are	displayed.

       ignorecase [ on | off ]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in	searches.  Default  is
       `off'. Without any options, the state of	ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses  the  message  line	 to display some information about the current
       window: the cursor position in  the  form  (column,row)	starting  with
       (1,1),  the  terminal  width and	height plus the	size of	the scrollback
       buffer in lines,	like  in  (80,24)+50,  the  current  state  of	window
       XON/XOFF	 flow  control	is shown like this (See	also section FLOW CON-

       |+flow	 | automatic flow control, currently on.		    |
       |-flow	 | automatic flow control, currently off.		    |
       |+(+)flow | flow	control	enabled. Agrees	with automatic control.	    |
       |-(+)flow | flow	control	disabled. Disagrees with automatic control. |
       |+(-)flow | flow	control	enabled. Disagrees with	automatic control.  |
       |-(-)flow | flow	control	disabled. Agrees with automatic	control.    |
       The current line	wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates	enabled, `-wrap'  not)
       is  also	 shown.	The flags `ins', `org',	`app', `log', `mon' or `nored'
       are displayed when the window is	in insert mode,	origin mode,  applica-
       tion-keypad  mode,  has	output logging,	activity monitoring or partial
       redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)  and  in	square
       brackets	 the  terminal character sets that are currently designated as
       G0 through G3 is	shown. If the window is	 in  UTF-8  mode,  the	string
       UTF-8 is	shown instead.

       Additional  modes  depending on the type	of the window are displayed at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter WINDOW TYPES).

       If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator	is  in	a  non-default
       state,  the  info line is started with a	string identifying the current

       For system information use the time command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use paste instead.


       Kill current window.

       If there	is an `exec' command running then it is	killed.	Otherwise  the
       process	(shell)	running	in the window receives a HANGUP	condition, the
       window structure	is removed and screen (your display) switches  to  an-
       other  window.  When the	last window is destroyed, screen exits.	 After
       a kill screen switches to the previously	displayed window.

       Note: Emacs users should	keep this command  in  mind,  when  killing  a
       line.   It is recommended not to	use C-a	as the screen escape key or to
       rebind kill to C-a K.


       Redisplay the last contents of  the  message/status  line.   Useful  if
       you're  typing  when  a message appears,	because	 the message goes away
       when you	press a	key (unless your terminal has a	hardware status	line).
       Refer to	the commands msgwait and msgminwait for	fine tuning.

       layout new [title]

       Create  a new layout. The screen	will change to one whole region	and be
       switched	to the blank window. From here,	you build the regions and  the
       windows	they  show as you desire. The new layout will be numbered with
       the smallest available integer, starting	with zero. You can  optionally
       give a title to your new	layout.	 Otherwise, it will have a default ti-
       tle of layout. You can always change the	title later by using the  com-
       mand layout title.

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the num-
       ber or the title	can be specified. Without either specification,	screen
       will remove the current layout.

       Removing	a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be	speci-
       fied. Without either specification, screen will prompt  and  ask	 which
       screen  is  desired. To see which layouts are available,	use the	layout
       show command.

       layout show

       List on the message line	the number(s) and title(s)  of	the  available
       layout(s). The current layout is	flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change  or display the title of the current layout. A string given will
       be used to name the layout. Without any options,	the current title  and
       number is displayed on the message line.

       layout number [n]

       Change  or  display  the	number of the current layout. An integer given
       will be used to number the layout. Without  any	options,  the  current
       number and title	is displayed on	the message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change  or  display  which  layout  to reattach back to.	The default is
       :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the last used layout just
       before  detachment.  By	supplying  a title, You	can instruct screen to
       reattach	to a particular	layout regardless which	one was	 used  at  the
       time of detachment. Without any options,	the layout to reattach to will
       be shown	in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember	the current arrangement	of regions. When used, screen will re-
       member  the  arrangement	 of vertically and horizontally	split regions.
       This arrangement	is restored when a screen  session  is	reattached  or
       switched	 back  from  a	different  layout.  If the session ends	or the
       screen process dies, the	layout arrangements are	lost. The layout  dump
       command	should	help  in  this siutation. If a number or title is sup-
       plied, screen will remember the arrangement of that particular  layout.
       Without any options, screen will	remember the current layout.

       Saving  your  regions can be done automatically by using	the layout au-
       tosave command.

       layout autosave [ on | off]

       Change or display the status of automatcally saving  layouts.  The  de-
       fault  is on, meaning when screen is detached or	changed	to a different
       layout, the arrangement of regions and windows will  be	remembered  at
       the  time  of  change  and restored upon	return.	 If autosave is	set to
       off, that arrangement will only be restored to either to	the last  man-
       ual  save,  using layout	save, or to when the layout was	first created,
       to a single region with a single	window.	Without	either an on  or  off,
       the current status is displayed on the message line.

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to	a file the order of splits made	in the current layout. This is
       useful to recreate the order of your regions used in your current  lay-
       out.  Only  the	current	layout is recorded. While the order of the re-
       gions are recorded, the sizes of	those regions and which	windows	corre-
       spond  to  which	 regions are not. If no	filename is specified, the de-
       fault is	layout-dump, saved in the directory that  the  screen  process
       was  started in.	If the file already exists, layout dump	will append to
       that file. As an	example:

		C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display the disclaimer page. This is done whenever  screen  is  started
       without	 options,   which   should  be	often  enough.	See  also  the
       startup_message command.


       Lock this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck  or
       /usr/bin/lock  or  a builtin if no other	is available). Screen does not
       accept any command keys until this program terminates.  Meanwhile  pro-
       cesses  in  the	windows	 may  continue,	as the windows are in the `de-
       tached' state. The screenlock program may be changed through the	 envi-
       ronment	variable  $LOCKPRG  (which must	be set in the shell from which
       screen is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.

       Warning:	When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no  password
       set on screen, the lock is void:	One could easily re-attach from	an un-
       locked shell. This feature should rather	be called `lockterminal'.

       log [ on	| off ]

       Start/stop writing output of the	current	window to a  file  screenlog.n
       in the window's default directory, where	n is the number	of the current
       window. This filename can be changed with the `logfile' command.	If  no
       parameter is given, the state of	logging	is toggled. The	session	log is
       appended	to the previous	contents of the	file if	it already exists. The
       current contents	and the	contents of the	scrollback history are not in-
       cluded in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename

       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name	the log	files will get.	The default  is	 screenlog.%n.
       The  second  form changes the number of seconds screen will wait	before
       flushing	the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10

       login [ on | off	]

       Adds  or	 removes  the  entry in	the utmp database file for the current
       window.	This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter
       is  given,  the	login state of the window is toggled.  Additionally to
       that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in' and a  `log  out'  key.
       E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind	O login	off' will map these keys to be
       C-a I and C-a O.	 The default setting (in should be	on for
       a screen	that runs under	suid-root.  Use	the deflogin command to	change
       the default login state for new windows.	Both commands are only present
       when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]

       logtstamp after [secs]

       logtstamp string

       This command controls logfile time-stamp	mechanism of screen.  If time-
       stamps are turned on, screen adds a string containing the current  time
       to  the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.	 When output continues
       and more	than another two minutes have passed, a	second	time-stamp  is
       added  to document the restart of the output. You can change this time-
       out with	the second form	of the command.	The third  form	 is  used  for
       customizing  the	time-stamp string (`-- %n:%t --	time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y
       %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell screen that	the next input character should	only be	looked	up  in
       the default bindkey table. See also bindkey.


       Like mapdefault,	but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence	detection to a timeout
       of timeout ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with  no	 argu-
       ments shows the current setting.	 See also bindkey.

       markkeys	string

       This  is	 a  method  of changing	the keymap used	for copy/history mode.
       The string is made up of	oldchar=newchar	pairs which are	 separated  by
       `:'. Example: The string	B=^B:F=^F will change the keys `C-b' and `C-f'
       to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to be
       the   default   binding	 for   `B'  and	 `F'.	The  command  markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E would set	the mode for an	emacs-style binding.  If  your
       terminal	sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command may help	by binding these characters to do nothing.  The	 no-op
       character  is  `@'  and is used like this: markkeys @=L=H if you	do not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.	As shown in this exam-
       ple,  multiple  keys can	be assigned to one function in a single	state-

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create.  Doesn't  affect  al-
       ready existing windows. The number can be increased only	when there are
       no existing windows.


       Insert the command  character  (C-a)  in	 the  current  window's	 input

       monitor [ on | off ]

       Toggles	activity  monitoring of	windows.  When monitoring is turned on
       and an affected window is switched into the background,	you  will  re-
       ceive the activity notification message in the status line at the first
       sign of output and the window will also be marked with an  `@'  in  the
       window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all windows.

       mousetrack [ on | off ]

       This  command  determines  whether  screen will watch for mouse clicks.
       When this command is enabled, regions that have been split  in  various
       ways can	be selected by pointing	to them	with a mouse and left-clicking
       them. Without specifying	on or off, the current state is	displayed. The
       default state is	determined by the defmousetrack	command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines	the  time screen delays	a new message when one message is cur-
       rently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines the time	a message is displayed if screen is not	 disturbed  by
       other activity. The default is 5	seconds.

       multiuser [ on |	off ]

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is singleuser. In  multiuser  mode  the	commands  `acladd',  `aclchg',
       `aclgrp'	 and  `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable) other users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack [ on | off ]

       Changes the kind	of error messages used by screen.  When	you are	famil-
       iar  with  the  game  nethack, you may enjoy the	nethack-style messages
       which will often	blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard	messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This  option  is	only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable	$NETHACKOPTIONS	and the	file ~/.nethackrc - if
       either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch to the next window.  This	command	can be used repeatedly to  cy-
       cle through the list of windows.

       nonblock	[ on | off | numsecs ]

       Tell  screen  how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to
       accept output. This can happen if a user	presses	^S or a	TCP/modem con-
       nection gets cut	but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is
       the default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the out-
       put.  If	 nonblock is on, screen	waits until the	timeout	is reached (on
       is treated as 1s). If the display  still	 doesn't  receive  characters,
       screen  will  consider it blocked and stop sending characters to	it. If
       at some time it restarts	to accept characters, screen will unblock  the
       display and redisplay the updated window	contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change  the  current  window's number. If the given number n is already
       used by another window, both windows exchange their numbers. If no  ar-
       gument  is  specified,  the current window number (and title) is	shown.
       Using `+' or `-'	will change the	window's number	by the relative	amount

       obuflimit [limit]

       If  the	output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no
       more data will be read from the windows.	The default value is  256.  If
       you  have  a  fast  display (like xterm), you can set it	to some	higher
       value. If no argument is	specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all	regions	but the	current	one.


       Switch to the window displayed  previously.  If	this  window  does  no
       longer exist, other has the same	effect as next.

       partial [ on | off ]

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with	redisplay) af-
       ter switching to	the current window. This command only affects the cur-
       rent window.  To	immediately affect all windows use the allpartial com-
       mand.  Default is `off',	of course.  This default is fixed, as there is
       currently no defpartial command.

       password	[crypted_pw]

       Present	a  crypted password in your .screenrc file and screen will ask
       for it, whenever	someone	attempts to resume a detached.	This is	useful
       if  you	have  privileged programs running under	screen and you want to
       protect your session from reattach attempts by another user  masquerad-
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is	speci-
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password	and places its encryp-
       tion  in	 the  paste buffer.  Default is	`none',	this disables password

       paste [registers	[dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated)	contents of the	 specified  registers  to  the
       stdin  queue  of	the current window. The	register '.' is	treated	as the
       paste buffer. If	no parameter is	given the user is prompted for a  sin-
       gle  register  to paste.	 The paste buffer can be filled	with the copy,
       history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled  with  the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a	second
       argument, the contents of the specified registers is  pasted  into  the
       named  destination  register  rather than the window. If	'.' is used as
       the second argument, the	displays  paste	 buffer	 is  the  destination.
       Note,  that  paste  uses	a wide variety of resources: Whenever a	second
       argument	is specified no	current	window	is  needed.  When  the	source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not	be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global	resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [ on |	off ]

       Tell  screen  to	 include font information in the paste buffer. The de-
       fault is	not to do so. This command  is	especially  useful  for	 multi
       character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen  the  window's  terminal	line  and  send	a break	condition. See


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends	a HANGUP  sig-
       nal  to	the  parent process of screen.	CAUTION: This will result in a
       logout, when screen was started from your login-shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was per-
       formed.	It may be used as a replacement	for a logout message or	to re-
       set baud	rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the next lower	number.	 This command  can  be
       used repeatedly to cycle	through	the list of windows.

       printcmd	[cmd]

       If  cmd	is not an empty	string,	screen will not	use the	terminal capa-
       bilities	po/pf if it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but pipe
       the  output  into  cmd.	 This should normally be a command like	lpr or
       printcmd	without	a command displays the current setting.	 The ansi  se-
       quence ESC \ ends printing and closes the pipe.

       Warning:	 Be careful with this command! If other	user have write	access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input	queue.
       If  no argument is given	you are	prompted for a register	name. The text
       is parsed as if it had been typed in from  the  user's  keyboard.  This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single	key.


       Kill all	windows	and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style	termi-
       nals the	keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.	 This makes the	default	 bind-
       ings  dangerous:	 Be  careful not to type C-a C-4 when selecting	window
       no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in bind '^\') to	remove	a  key

       readbuf [encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents  of	the specified file into	the paste buffer.  You
       can tell	screen the encoding of the file	via the	-e option.  If no file
       is  specified,  the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also buffer-
       file command.

       readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one	of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero  or
       one arguments it	duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register
       specified or entered at the prompt. With	two  arguments	it  reads  the
       contents	of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads the
       screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  You	can  tell  screen  the
       encoding	 of  the  file	via the	-e option.  The	following example will
       paste the system's password file	into the screen	window (using register
       p, where	a copy remains):

		C-a : readreg p	/etc/passwd
		C-a : paste p


       Redisplay  the  current	window.	Needed to get a	full redisplay when in
       partial redraw mode.

       register	[-eencoding]key-string

       Save the	specified string to the	register key.	The  encoding  of  the
       string can be specified via the -e option.  See also the	paste command.


       Kill the	current	region.	This is	a no-op	if there is only one region.


       Unlinks	the  screen-exchange  file  used  by the commands writebuf and

       rendition [ bell	| monitor | silence | so ] attr	[ color	]

       Change the way screen renders the titles	of windows that	 have  monitor
       or  bell	 flags	set  in	 caption  or hardstatus	or windowlist. See the
       STRING ESCAPES chapter for the syntax of	the  modifiers.	  The  default
       for  monitor is currently =b  (bold, active colors), for	bell =ub  (un-
       derline,	bold and active	colors), and =u	for silence.


       Reset the virtual terminal to its power-on values. Useful when  strange
       settings	 (like scroll regions or graphics character set) are left over
       from an application.

       resize [-h|-v|-b|-l|-p] [[+|-] n[%] |=|max|min|_|0]

       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or  added  to
       the  surrounding	 regions  depending  on	 the order of the splits.  The
       available options for resizing  are  `-h'(horizontal),  `-v'(vertical),
       `-b'(both),  `-l'(local	to layer), and `-p'(perpendicular). Horizontal
       resizes will add	or remove width	to a region, vertical will add or  re-
       move height, and	both will add or remove	size from both dimensions. Lo-
       cal and perpendicular are similar to horizontal and vertical, but  they
       take  in	 account  of how a region was split.  If a region's last split
       was horizontal, a local resize will work	like a vertical	resize.	 If  a
       region's	last split was vertical, a local resize	will work like a hori-
       zontal resize. Perpendicular resizes work in opposite of	local resizes.
       If no option is specified, local	is the default.

       The  amount of lines to add or remove can be expressed a	couple of dif-
       ferent ways. By specifying a number n by	itself will resize the	region
       by that absolute	amount.	You can	specify	a relative amount by prefixing
       a plus `+' or minus `-' to the amount, such as adding +n	lines  or  re-
       moving -n lines.	Resizing can also be expressed as an absolute or rela-
       tive percentage by postfixing a percent sign `%'. Using zero `0'	 is  a
       synonym for `min' and using an underscore `_' is	a synonym for `max'.

       Some examples are:

       resize +N
	      increase current region by N

       resize -N
	      decrease current region by N

       resize  N
	      set current region to N

       resize 20%
	      set current region to 20%	of original size

       resize +20%
	      increase current region by 20%

       resize -b =
	      make all windows equally

       resize  max
	      maximize current region

       resize  min
	      minimize current region

       Without any arguments, screen will prompt for how you would like	to re-
       size the	current	region.

       See focusminsize	if you want to restrict	the minimum size a region  can

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish  a  new  window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa),
       title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) ,	terminal  type
       option  (-T <term>), the	all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback	option
       (-h <num>) may be specified with	each command.  The option  (-M)	 turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for this	window.	 If an optional	number n in the	range  0..MAXWIN-1  is
       given, the window number	n is assigned to the newly created window (or,
       if this number is already in-use, the next  available  number).	 If  a
       command	is  specified after screen, this command (with the given argu-
       ments) is started in the	window;	otherwise, a  shell  is	 created.   If
       //group	is supplied, a container-type window is	created	in which other
       windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if	your .screenrc contains	the lines

		# example for .screenrc:
		screen 1
		screen -fn -t foobar -L	2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a	shell window (in window	#1) and	a window with a	TELNET
       connection  to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title
       foobar in window	#2) and	will write a logfile (screenlog.2) of the tel-
       net  session.   Note,  that unlike previous versions of screen no addi-
       tional default window is	created	when screen commands are  included  in
       your  .screenrc	file.  When  the  initialization  is completed,	screen
       switches	to the last window specified in	your  .screenrc	 file  or,  if
       none, opens a default window #0.

       Screen  has  built  in  some  functionality of cu and telnet.  See also
       chapter WINDOW TYPES.

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current  windows  to  num
       lines. The default scrollback is	100 lines.  See	also the defscrollback
       command and use info to view the	current	setting. To access and use the
       contents	in the scrollback buffer, use the copy command.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The	param-
       eter  is	 optional  and if omitted, you get prompted for	an identifier.
       When a new window is established, the first  available  number  is  as-
       signed  to this window.	Thus, the first	window can be activated	by se-
       lect 0.	The number of windows is limited at compile-time by the	MAXWIN
       configuration  parameter	(which defaults	to 40).	 There are two special
       WindowIDs, - selects the	internal blank window and . selects  the  cur-
       rent window. The	latter is useful if used with screen's -X option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the current session. Note, that for screen -list	the name shows
       up with the process-id prepended. If the	argument name is omitted,  the
       name  of	this session is	displayed. Caution: The	$STY environment vari-
       ables will still	reflect	the old	name in	pre-existing shells. This  may
       result  in confusion. Use of this command is generally discouraged. Use
       the -S command-line option if you want to name a	new session.  The  de-
       fault is	constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var	to value string.  If only var is spec-
       ified, the user will be prompted	to enter a value.   If	no  parameters
       are  specified,	the user will be prompted for both variable and	value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently	forked shells.

       setsid [	on | off ]

       Normally	screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win-
       dows. If	setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will be in the same process group as the	screen backend	process.  This
       also  breaks job-control, so be careful.	 The default is	on, of course.
       This command is probably	useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This	overrides  the
       value of	the environment	variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to run a	tty-enhancer which is expecting	to execute the program	speci-
       fied  in	$SHELL.	 If the	command	begins with a '-' character, the shell
       will be started as a login-shell. Typical shells	do only	 minimal  ini-
       tialization when	not started as a login-shell.  E.g. Bash will not read
       your ~/.bashrc unless it	is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup or by the  C-A  C-c
       command.	  For  details about what a title is, see the discussion enti-
       tled TITLES (naming windows).

       silence [ on | off | sec	]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned  on  and
       an  affected  window  is	switched into the background, you will receive
       the silence notification	message	in the status line after  a  specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds  instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the time	that all windows monitored for silence should wait be-
       fore displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of	a .screenrc file for num  sec-
       onds.   Keyboard	 activity  will	end the	sleep.	It may be used to give
       users a chance to read the messages output by echo.

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed	at which text is inserted into the current  window  by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If	the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written character by character.	screen will make a pause of msec  mil-
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the	application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if	your underlying	system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the	windows	in alphabetical	order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and	execute	commands from file file. Source	commands may be	nested
       to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file is not  an	absolute  path
       and screen is already processing	a source command, the parent directory
       of the running source command file is used to search for	the  new  com-
       mand file before	screen's current directory.

       Note  that  termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo	 commands only work at startup
       and reattach time, so they must be reached  via	the  default  screenrc
       files to	have an	effect.

       sorendition [attr[color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.


       Split  the current region into two new ones. All	regions	on the display
       are resized to make room	for the	new region. The	blank window  is  dis-
       played  in the new region. The default is to create a horizontal	split,
       putting the new regions on the top and bottom of	each other. Using `-v'
       will create a vertical split, causing the new regions to	appear side by
       side of each other.  Use	the remove or the only command to  delete  re-
       gions.  Use focus to toggle between regions.

       When  a	region	is split opposite of how it was	previously split (that
       is, vertical then horizontal or horizontal then vertical), a new	 layer
       is  created.  The  layer	is used	to group together the regions that are
       split the same. Normally, as a user, you	should not  see	 nor  have  to
       worry  about  layers, but they will affect how some commands (focus and
       resize) behave.

       With this current implementation	of screen, scrolling data will	appear
       much  slower  in	 a  vertically split region than one that is not. This
       should be taken into consideration if you need to use  system  commands
       such as cat or tail -f.

       startup_message [ on | off ]

       Select  whether	you  want  to see the copyright	notice during startup.
       Default is `on',	as you probably	noticed.

       status [	top | up | down	| bottom ] [ left | right ]

       The status window by default is in bottom-left corner. This command can
       move  status  messages  to any corner of	the screen. top	is the same as
       up, down	is the same as bottom.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff the string	string in the input  buffer  of	 the  current  window.
       This  is	like the paste command but with	much less overhead.  Without a
       parameter, screen will prompt for a string to stuff.  You cannot	 paste
       large  buffers  with the	stuff command. It is most useful for key bind-
       ings. See also bindkey.

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a	display. The command prompts for  all  parame-
       ters  that  are omitted.	If passwords are specified as parameters, they
       have to be specified un-crypted.	The first password is matched  against
       the systems passwd database, the	second password	is matched against the
       screen password as set with the commands	acladd or password.  Su	may be
       useful for the screen administrator to test multiuser setups.  When the
       identification fails, the user has access to the	commands available for
       user nobody.  These are detach, license,	version, help and displays.


       Suspend	screen.	 The windows are in the	`detached' state, while	screen
       is suspended. This feature relies on the	shell being  able  to  do  job

       term term

       In each window's	environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is	set to
       screen by default.  But when no description for screen is installed  in
       the  local  termcap  or	terminfo  data	base, you set $TERM to - say -
       vt100. This won't do much harm, as  screen  is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.
       The  use	 of  the  term command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
       That is,	one may	want to	specify	special	$TERM  settings	 (e.g.	vt100)
       for the next screen rlogin othermachine command.	Use the	command	screen
       -T vt100	rlogin othermachine rather than	setting	and resetting the  de-

       termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       terminfo	term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       termcapinfo term	terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       Use  this command to modify your	terminal's termcap entry without going
       through all the hassles involved	in creating a  custom  termcap	entry.
       Plus,  you  can optionally customize the	termcap	generated for the win-
       dows.  You have to place	these commands in one of the screenrc  startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal	emulator is booted.

       If  your	 system	uses the terminfo database rather than termcap,	screen
       will understand the `terminfo' command, which has the same  effects  as
       the  `termcap'  command.	  Two separate commands	are provided, as there
       are subtle syntactic differences,  e.g.	when  parameter	 interpolation
       (using  `%')  is	 required. Note	that termcap names of the capabilities
       have to be used with the	`terminfo' command.

       In many cases, where the	arguments are valid in both terminfo and term-
       cap  syntax,  you  can  use  the	command	`termcapinfo', which is	just a
       shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo'	commands with  identi-
       cal arguments.

       The  first  argument  specifies which terminal(s) should	be affected by
       this definition.	 You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them  with `|'s.	 Use `*' to match all terminals	and `vt*' to match all
       terminals that begin with vt.

       Each tweak argument contains one	or more	termcap	defines	(separated  by
       `:'s) to	be inserted at the start of the	appropriate termcap entry, en-
       hancing it or overriding	existing values.   The	first  tweak  modifies
       your  terminal's	 termcap,  and contains	definitions that your terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second	(optional) tweak modifies all the win-
       dow termcaps, and should	contain	definitions  that  screen  understands
       (see the	VIRTUAL	TERMINAL section).

       Some examples:

	      termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs	screen	that  all  terminals that begin	with `xterm' have firm
       auto-margins that allow the last	position on the	screen to  be  updated
       (LP), but they don't really have	a status line (no 'hs' - append	`@' to
       turn entries off).  Note	that we	assume `LP'  for  all  terminal	 names
       that start with vt, but only if you don't specify a termcap command for
       that terminal.
	      termcap vt*  LP

       termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP'	capability for all terminals that  be-
       gin  with  `vt',	and the	second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out	of (Z1)	132-character-per-line mode if
       this  is	a VT102	or VT220.  (You	must specify Z0	and Z1 in your termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

	      termcap vt100  ""	 l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your	vt100 termcap alone and	adds the function  key	labels
       to each window's	termcap	entry.

	      termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off	auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the insert mode (im) and	end-insert (ei)	capabilities (the `@'  in  the
       `im' string is after the	`=', so	it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im' and	`ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap  will	 cause
       screen  to  automatically  advertise the	character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will	also get the  delete-character
       capability  (dc)	added to its termcap, which screen will	translate into
       a line-update for the terminal (we're  pretending  it  doesn't  support
       character deletion).

       If  you	would  like  to	fully specify each window's termcap entry, you
       should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable  prior  to  running  screen.
       See  the	 discussion  on	 the  VIRTUAL TERMINAL in this manual, and the
       termcap(5) man page for more information	on termcap definitions.

       time   [string]

       Uses the	message	line to	display	the time of day, the  host  name,  and
       the  load  averages  over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on
       your system).  For window specific information, use info.

       If a string is specified, it changes the	format of the time report like
       it is described in the STRING ESCAPES chapter. Screen uses a default of
       "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no	name is	speci-
       fied, screen prompts for	one. This command was known as `aka' in	previ-
       ous releases.


       Unbind all the bindings.	This can be useful when	screen is used	solely
       for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a console application
       run as a	daemon.	If, for	some reason, it	is necessary to	bind  commands
       after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv	var

       Unset an	environment variable.

       utf8 [ on | off [ on | off ]]

       Change the encoding used	in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings sent to the window will be UTF-8	encoded	and vice versa.	 Omit-
       ting the	parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is	given,
       the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screen's	 -U option).  See also defutf8,	which changes the default set-
       ting of a new window.

       vbell [ on | off	]

       Sets the	visual bell setting for	this window.  Omitting	the  parameter
       toggles	the  setting.  If vbell	is switched on,	but your terminal does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the	status
       line  when the bell character (^G) is received.	Visual bell support of
       a terminal is defined by	the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').

       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell	 is  used.   See  also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets  the visual	bell message. message is printed to the	status line if
       the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell	is set to on, but  the
       terminal	 does not support a visual bell.  The default message is Wuff,
       Wuff!!.	Without	a parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define a	delay in seconds after each display of	screen's  visual  bell
       message.	The default is 1 second.

       verbose [ on | off ]

       If  verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever	a win-
       dow is created (or resurrected from  zombie  state).  Default  is  off.
       Without a parameter, the	current	setting	is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write  a	message	to all displays. The message will appear in the	termi-
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set  it  to  cols
       columns	if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal
       and the termcap entries Z0 and Z1.  See the termcap  command  for  more
       information.  You  can  also specify a new height if you	want to	change
       both values.  The -w option tells screen	to leave the display size  un-
       changed and just	set the	window size, -d	vice versa.

       windowlist [ -b ] [ -m ]	[ -g ]

       windowlist string [string]

       windowlist title	[title]

       Display	all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If	screen
       was in a	window group, screen will back out of the group	and then  dis-
       play the	windows	in that	group.	If the -b option is given, screen will
       switch to the blank window before presenting the	list, so that the cur-
       rent window is also selectable.	The -m option changes the order	of the
       windows,	instead	of sorting by window numbers screen uses its  internal
       most-recently-used  list.   The	-g option will show the	windows	inside
       any groups in that level	and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in windowlist:

       k, C-p, or up	  Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down	  Move down one	line.
       C-g or escape	  Exit windowlist.
       C-a or home	  Move to the first line.
       C-e or end	  Move to the last line.
       C-u or C-d	  Move one half	page up	or down.
       C-b or C-f	  Move one full	page up	or down.
       0..9		  Using	the number keys, move to the selected line.
       mouseclick	  Move to the selected line. Available when  mouse-
			  track	is set to on
       /		  Search.
       n		  Repeat search	in the forward direction.
       N		  Repeat search	in the backward	direction.
       m		  Toggle MRU.
       g		  Toggle group nesting.
       a		  All window view.
       C-h or backspace	  Back out the group.
       ,		  Switch numbers with the previous window.

       .		  Switch numbers with the next window.
       K		  Kill that window.
       space or	enter	  Select that window.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the
       title is	displayed as table heading, while the lines are	made by	 using
       the  string setting. The	default	setting	is Num Name%=Flags for the ti-
       tle and %3n %t%=%f for the lines.  See the STRING ESCAPES  chapter  for
       more codes (e.g.	color settings).

       Windowlist  needs  a  region  size of at	least 10 characters wide and 6
       characters high in order	to display.

       windows [ string	]

       Uses the	message	line to	display	a list of all the windows.  Each  win-
       dow  is listed by number	with the name of process that has been started
       in the window (or its title); the current window	is marked with a  `*';
       the  previous  window  is  marked  with a `-'; all the windows that are
       logged in are marked with a `$';	a background window that has  received
       a  bell	is  marked with	a `!'; a background window that	is being moni-
       tored and has had activity occur	is marked with an `@'; a window	 which
       has  output logging turned on is	marked with `(L)'; windows occupied by
       other users are marked with `&';	windows	in the zombie state are	marked
       with  `Z'.   If	this  list is too long to fit on the terminal's	status
       line only the portion around the	current	window is displayed.  The  op-
       tional  string  parameter follows the STRING ESCAPES format.  If	string
       parameter is passed, the	output size is unlimited.  The default command
       without any parameter is	limited	to a size of 1024 bytes.

       wrap [ on | off ]

       Sets  the  line-wrap setting for	the current window.  When line-wrap is
       on, the second consecutive printable character output at	the last  col-
       umn  of	a  line	 will  wrap to the start of the	following line.	 As an
       added feature, backspace	(^H) will also wrap through the	left margin to
       the  previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state of
       wrap is toggled.

       writebuf	[-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste	buffer to the specified	file,  or  the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is	given. This is
       thought of as a primitive means of communication	between	 screen	 users
       on  the	same host. If an encoding is specified the paste buffer	is re-
       coded on	the fly	to match the encoding.	The filename can be  set  with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to /tmp/screen-exchange.

       writelock [ on |	off | auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not	all users may be able to write
       to the same window at once. Per default,	writelock is  in  `auto'  mode
       and  grants  exclusive input permission to the user who is the first to
       switch to the particular	window.	When he	leaves the window, other users
       may  obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock	of the current
       window is disabled by the command writelock off.	If the user issues the
       command	writelock  on  he  keeps  the exclusive	write permission while
       switching to other windows.



       Insert a	CTRL-s / CTRL-q	character to the stdin queue  of  the  current

       zmodem [	off | auto | catch | pass ]

       zmodem sendcmd [string]

       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define  zmodem  support	for  screen.  Screen understands two different
       modes when it detects a zmodem request: pass and	catch.	If the mode is
       set  to	pass, screen will relay	all data to the	attacher until the end
       of the transmission is reached.	In catch mode screen acts as a	zmodem
       endpoint	 and  starts  the corresponding	rz/sz commands.	If the mode is
       set to auto, screen will	use catch if the window	is a tty (e.g.	a  se-
       rial line), otherwise it	will use pass.

       You  can	 define	the templates screen uses in catch mode	via the	second
       and the third form.

       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g. shell) exits. When a string	of two keys is
       specified to the	zombie command,	`dead'	windows	 will  remain  in  the
       list.   The  kill command may be	used to	remove such a window. Pressing
       the first key in	the dead window	has the	same effect. When pressing the
       second  key,  screen  will attempt to resurrect the window. The process
       that was	initially running in the window	will be	launched again.	 Call-
       ing  zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus mak-
       ing windows disappear when their	process	exits.

       As the zombie-setting is	manipulated globally  for  all	windows,  this
       command should probably be called defzombie, but	it isn't.

       Optionally you can put the word onerror after the keys. This will cause
       screen to monitor exit status of	the process running in the window.  If
       it  exits  normally  ('0'), the window disappears. Any other exit value
       causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g.  shell)  exits. If zombie keys are defined
       (compare	with above zombie command), it is possible to also set a time-
       out when	screen tries to	automatically reconnect	a dead screen window.

       Screen  displays	informational messages and other diagnostics in	a mes-
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to	appear at the top of the screen	during
       compilation.  If	your terminal has a status line	defined	in  its	 term-
       cap, screen will	use this for displaying	its messages, otherwise	a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily	interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on	termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning	to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application	running	in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try	something like:

	      echo '<esc>^Hello	world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow,	and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with  screen's screen command (see also the entry in chapter CUSTOMIZA-
       TION). The first	parameter to the screen	command	defines	which type  of
       window  is created. The different window	types are all special cases of
       the normal type.	They have been added in	order to allow	screen	to  be
       used efficiently	as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       o  The  normal  window  contains	 a  shell (default, if no parameter is
	  given) or any	other system command that could	 be  executed  from  a
	  shell	(e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       o  If  a	tty (character special device) name (e.g. /dev/ttya) is	speci-
	  fied as the first parameter, then the	window is  directly  connected
	  to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar  to screen cu -l
	  /dev/ttya.  Read and write access is required	on the device node, an
	  exclusive  open is attempted on the node to mark the connection line
	  as busy.  An optional	parameter is allowed  consisting  of  a	 comma
	  separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

		 Usually  300,	1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
		 as well as receive speed.

	  cs8 or cs7
		 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

	  ixon or -ixon
		 Enables (or disables) software	 flow-control  (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
		 for sending data.

	  ixoff	or -ixoff
		 Enables  (or  disables)  software  flow-control for receiving

	  istrip or -istrip
		 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received	byte.

	  You may want to specify as many of these options as applicable.  Un-
	  specified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parameter
	  values of the	connection.  These values are system dependent and may
	  be in	defaults or values saved from a	previous connection.

	  For  tty  windows,  the info command shows some of the modem control
	  lines	in the status line. These may  include	`RTS',	`CTS',	'DTR',
	  `DSR',  `CD'	and more.  This	depends	on the available ioctl()'s and
	  system header	files as well as the on	the physical  capabilities  of
	  the  serial  board.	Signals	 that  are logical low (inactive) have
	  their	name preceded by an exclamation	mark (!), otherwise the	signal
	  is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
	  available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

	  When the CLOCAL status bit is	true, the whole	set of	modem  signals
	  is  placed inside curly braces ({ and	}).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOC-
	  SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS'	or `CD'	are shown in parenthe-
	  sis, respectively.

	  For tty windows, the command break causes the	Data transmission line
	  (TxD)	to go low for a	specified period of time. This is expected  to
	  be  interpreted  as break signal on the other	side.  No data is sent
	  and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       o  If the first parameter is //telnet, the second parameter is expected
	  to be	a host name, and an optional third parameter may specify a TCP
	  port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect to  a	server
	  listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol to communi-
	  cate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about	the connection
       in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

	      b	     BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

	      e	     ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

	      c	     SGA.  The	connection  is	in  `character mode' (default:
		     `line mode').

	      t	     TTYPE. The	terminal type has been requested by the	remote
		     host.   Screen  sends  the	 name screen unless instructed
		     otherwise (see also the command `term').

	      w	     NAWS. The remote  site  is	 notified  about  window  size

	      f	     LFLOW.  The  remote  host will send flow control informa-
		     tion.  (Ignored at	the moment.)

	      Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC,	TSPEED
	      and NEWENV).

	      For  telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC
	      BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote	host.

	      This window type is only available if screen was	compiled  with
	      the ENABLE_TELNET	option defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one  exception: inside of a window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used in-

       Here is the full	list of	supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       e      encoding

       f      flags of the window, see windows for  meanings  of  the  various

       F      sets %? to true if the window has	the focus

       h      hardstatus of the	window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other	users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier:	up to the cur-
	      rent window; with	'+' qualifier: starting	with the window	 after
	      the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in	this windows

       ?      the  part	to the next '%?' is displayed only if a	'%' escape in-
	      side the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part	of '%?'

       =      pad the string to	the display's width (like TeX's	hfill).	 If  a
	      number  is  specified,  pad  to  the  percentage of the window's
	      width.  A	'0' qualifier tells screen to treat the	number as  ab-
	      solute  position.	  You  can specify to pad relative to the last
	      absolute pad position by adding a	'+' qualifier or to pad	 rela-
	      tive to the right	margin by using	'-'. The padding truncates the
	      string if	the specified position lies before the	current	 posi-
	      tion. Add	the 'L'	qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the	 current  text	position for the next truncation. When
	      screen needs to do truncation, it	tries to do it in a  way  that
	      the  marked  position  gets moved	to the specified percentage of
	      the output area. (The area starts	from the last absolute pad po-
	      sition  and  ends	 with the position specified by	the truncation
	      operator.) The 'L' qualifier tells screen	to mark	the  truncated
	      parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the	next }

       `      Substitute  with	the output of a	'backtick' command. The	length
	      qualifier	is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make  screen  use
       zero  instead  of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier also makes
       the '=' escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '='  escapes	under-
       stand a length qualifier	(e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window  flags  if
       'L' is given.

       An  attribute/color  modifier  is  used to change the attributes	or the
       color settings. Its format is [attribute	modifier] [color description].
       The  attribute  modifier	must be	prefixed by a change type indicator if
       it can be confused with a color description. The	following change types
       are known:

       +      add the specified	set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in	the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The  attribute set can either be	specified as a hexadecimal number or a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      /standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded	either as a hexadecimal	number or two letters specify-
       ing  the	 desired  background and foreground color (in that order). The
       following colors	are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions	of the letter specify bright colors.  You  can
       also  use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the
       color unchanged.
       A one digit/letter color	description is treated as foreground or	 back-
       ground  color  dependent	 on the	current	attributes: if reverse mode is
       set, the	background color is changed instead of the  foreground	color.
       If you don't like this, prefix the color	with a .. If you want the same
       behavior	for two-letter color descriptions, also	prefix them with a ..
       As a special case, %{-} restores	the attributes and  colors  that  were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the	color-
       change stack).


       G      set color	to bright green

       +b r   use bold red

       = yd   clear all	attributes, write in default  color  on	 yellow	 back-

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
	      The  available  windows centered at the current window and trun-
	      cated to the available width. The	current	 window	 is  displayed
	      white on blue.  This can be used with hardstatus alwayslastline.

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
	      The  window number and title and the window's hardstatus,	if one
	      is set.  Also use	a red background if this is the	active	focus.
	      Useful for caption string.

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the	XON and	XOFF characters	(and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When  flow-control is turned off, screen	ignores	the XON	and XOFF char-
       acters, which allows the	user to	send them to the  current  program  by
       simply  typing  them  (useful for the emacs editor, for instance).  The
       trade-off is that it will take longer for output	from a normal  program
       to  pause in response to	an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON and
       XOFF characters are used	to immediately pause the output	of the current
       window.	 You  can  still send these characters to the current program,
       but you must use	the appropriate	two-character screen  commands	(typi-
       cally  C-a  q  (xon) and	C-a s (xoff)).	The xon/xoff commands are also
       useful for typing C-s and C-q past a  terminal  that  intercepts	 these

       Each  window  has  an initial flow-control value	set with either	the -f
       option or the defflow .screenrc command.	Per default  the  windows  are
       set  to	automatic  flow-switching.  It can then	be toggled between the
       three states 'fixed on',	'fixed off' and	'automatic' interactively with
       the flow	command	bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control using the TI-
       OCPKT mode (like	rlogin does). If the tty driver	does not  support  TI-
       OCPKT,  screen  tries  to  find out the right mode based	on the current
       setting of the application keypad - when	it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned  off  and	visa versa.  Of	course,	you can	still manipulate flow-
       control manually	when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing  the
       interrupt  key  (usually	 C-c) does not interrupt the display until an-
       other 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the interrupt
       option  (add  the interrupt flag	to the flow command in your .screenrc,
       or use the -i command-line option).  This causes	the output that	screen
       has accumulated from the	interrupted program to be flushed.  One	disad-
       vantage is that the virtual terminal's memory contains the  non-flushed
       version of the output, which in rare cases can cause minor inaccuracies
       in the output.  For example, if you switch screens and return,  or  up-
       date  the screen	with C-a l you would see the version of	the output you
       would have gotten without interrupt being on.  Also, you	might need  to
       turn  off  flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to turn it off automati-
       cally) when running a program that expects you to  type	the  interrupt
       character  as  input,  as it is possible	to interrupt the output	of the
       virtual terminal	to your	physical terminal  when	 flow-control  is  en-
       abled.  If this happens,	a simple refresh of the	screen with C-a	l will
       restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode you find more

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the windows command (C-a	w)) by setting it with one of the  title  com-
       mands.	Normally  the name displayed is	the actual command name	of the
       program created in the window.  However,	it is sometimes	useful to dis-
       tinguish	 various  programs  of the same	name or	to change the name on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name	for all	shell windows can be set with  the  shelltitle
       command in the .screenrc	file, while all	other windows are created with
       a screen	command	and thus can have their	name set with the  -t  option.
       Interactively,	 there	  is	the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the title	command	(C-a A).  The  former  can  be
       output  from an application to control the window's name	under software
       control,	and the	latter will prompt for a name  when  typed.   You  can
       also  bind  pre-defined	names  to  keys	 with the title	command	to set
       things quickly without prompting. Changing title	 by  this  escape  se-
       quence can be controlled	by defdynamictitle and dynamictitle commands.

       Finally,	 screen	has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by set-
       ting the	window's name to search|name and arranging to have a null  ti-
       tle  escape-sequence  output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the	 name  portion
       specifies the default shell name	for the	window.	 If the	name ends in a
       `:' screen will add what	it believes to be the current command  running
       in  the	window	to the end of the window's shell name (e.g. name:cmd).
       Otherwise the current command name supersedes the shell name  while  it
       is running.

       Here's  how  it	works:	 you must modify your shell prompt to output a
       null title-escape-sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a  part  of	 your  prompt.
       The  last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you	speci-
       fied for	the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up,	screen
       will  use  the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name
       and get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline  is  received
       from  the shell,	a search is made for the end of	the prompt.  If	found,
       it will grab the	first word after the matched string and	use it as  the
       command	name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%',	or '^'
       screen will use the first word on the  following	 line  (if  found)  in
       preference  to  the  just-found	name.  This helps csh users get	better
       command names when using	job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

		       screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line	to your	.screenrc would	start a	nice-d version of  the
       top command in window 2 named top rather	than nice.

		       shelltitle '> |csh'
		       screen 1

       These  commands would start a shell with	the given shelltitle.  The ti-
       tle specified is	an auto-title that would expect	 the  prompt  and  the
       typed command to	look something like the	following:

		       /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it  looks  after  the  '>  ' for the command name).  The window	status
       would show the name trn while the command was running,  and  revert  to
       csh upon	completion.

		       bind R screen -t	'% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind	the key	sequence C-a R
       to the su command and give it an	auto-title name	of  root:.   For  this
       auto-title to work, the screen could look something like	this:

		       % !em
		       emacs file.c

       Here  the  user	typed the csh history command !em which	ran the	previ-
       ously entered emacs command.  The window	status would  show  root:emacs
       during  the execution of	the command, and revert	to simply root:	at its

		       bind o title
		       bind E title ""
		       bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so	it  would  prompt  you
       for  a  title  when  you	type C-a o.  The second	binding	would clear an
       auto-title's current setting (C-a E).  The third	binding	would set  the
       current window's	title to (unknown) (C-a	u).

       One  thing  to keep in mind when	adding a null title-escape-sequence to
       your prompt is that some	shells (like the csh) count all	 the  non-con-
       trol  characters	 as  part  of the prompt's length.  If these invisible
       characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a tab will  re-
       sult  in	 an incorrect display.	One way	to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

		       set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence <esc>[0000m not only	normalizes the	character  at-
       tributes,  but  all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac-
       ters up to 8.  Bash users will probably want to	echo  the  escape  se-
       quence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

		       PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used \134 to output a	`\' because of a bug in	bash v1.04).

       Each  window  in	 a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with some
       extra functions added. The VT100	emulator is hard-coded,	no other  ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually	screen	tries to emulate as much of the	VT100/ANSI standard as
       possible. But if	your terminal lacks certain capabilities,  the	emula-
       tion  may not be	complete. In these cases screen	has to tell the	appli-
       cations that some of the	features are missing. This is  no  problem  on
       machines	using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo	 this  method  fails.  Because of this,	screen offers a	way to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for  itself,  it	 first
       looks for an entry named	screen.<term>, where <term> is the contents of
       your $TERM variable.  If	no such	entry exists, screen tries screen  (or
       screen-w	if the terminal	is wide	(132 cols or more)).  If even this en-
       try cannot be found, vt100 is used as a substitute.

       The idea	is that	if you have a terminal which doesn't support an	impor-
       tant  feature  (e.g.  delete  char or clear to EOS) you can build a new
       termcap/terminfo	entry for screen (named	 screen.<dumbterm>)  in	 which
       this  capability	 has been disabled. If this entry is installed on your
       machines	you are	able to	do a rlogin and	still keep the	correct	 term-
       cap/terminfo  entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of
       all new windows.	 Screen	also sets the $TERMCAP variable	reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines	using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to	the window number of each win-

       The actual set of capabilities supported	by the	virtual	 terminal  de-
       pends  on the capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If, for
       instance, the physical  terminal	 does  not  support  underscore	 mode,
       screen  does  not  put the `us' and `ue'	capabilities into the window's
       $TERMCAP	variable, accordingly.	However, a minimum number of capabili-
       ties  must  be  supported  by a terminal	in order to run	screen;	namely
       scrolling, clear	screen,	and direct  cursor  addressing	(in  addition,
       screen  does  not  run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals that over-

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using  the
       termcap .screenrc command, or by	defining the variable $SCREENCAP prior
       to startup.  When the latter is defined,	its value will be copied  ver-
       batim  into  each  window's  $TERMCAP variable.	This can either	be the
       full terminal definition, or  a	filename  where	 the  terminal	screen
       (and/or screen-w) is defined.

       Note  that  screen  honors the terminfo .screenrc command if the	system
       uses the	terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When the	boolean	`G0' capability	is present in the  termcap  entry  for
       the terminal on which screen has	been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple	character sets.	 This allows an	application to
       make use	of, for	instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.	The following control functions	from ISO 2022 are sup-
       ported:	lock  shift  G0	 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock	shift G2, lock
       shift G3, single	shift G2, and single shift G3.	When a virtual	termi-
       nal  is	created	 or reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0
       through G3.  When the `G0' capability is	present, screen	evaluates  the
       capabilities  `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the
       terminal	uses to	enable and start the  graphics	character  set	rather
       than  SI.   `E0'	 is the	corresponding replacement for SO. `C0' gives a
       character by character translation string that  is  used	 during	 semi-
       graphics	 mode.	This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capabil-

       When the	`po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap  entry,  applications running in a screen window can	send output to
       the printer port	of the terminal.  This allows a	user to	have an	appli-
       cation  in one window sending output to a printer connected to the ter-
       minal, while all	other windows are still	active (the  printer  port  is
       enabled	and  disabled  again for each chunk of output).	 As a side-ef-
       fect, programs running in different windows  can	 send  output  to  the
       printer	simultaneously.	  Data sent to the printer is not displayed in
       the window.  The	info command displays a	line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen  maintains  a hardstatus line for	every window. If a window gets
       selected, the display's hardstatus will be updated to  match  the  win-
       dow's  hardstatus  line.	If the display has no hardstatus the line will
       be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can  be
       changed	  with	 the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command	(APC):
       ESC_<string>ESC\.  As  a	 convenience  for  xterm  users	 the  sequence
       ESC]0..2;<string>^G is also accepted.

       Some  capabilities  are only put	into the $TERMCAP variable of the vir-
       tual terminal if	they can be efficiently	implemented  by	 the  physical
       terminal.  For instance,	`dl' (delete line) is only put into the	$TERM-
       CAP variable if the terminal supports  either  delete  line  itself  or
       scrolling  regions. Note	that this may provoke confusion, when the ses-
       sion is reattached on a different terminal, as the  value  of  $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate	screen"	capability is not enabled by default.  Set the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The following is	a list of control sequences recognized by screen.  (V)
       and  (A)	 indicate  VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific functions,

       ESC E			  Next Line

       ESC D			  Index

       ESC M			  Reverse Index

       ESC H			  Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7		     (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8		     (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s		     (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u		     (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c			  Reset	to Initial State

       ESC g			  Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p			  Cursor Visibility (97801)

				  Pn = 6		     Invisible

				  Pn = 7		     Visible

       ESC =		     (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >		     (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8		     (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \		     (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^		     (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !			  Global Message String	(Message Line)

       ESC k			  A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P		     (A)  Device Control String.  Outputs a string di-
				  rectly  to  the host terminal	without	inter-

       ESC _		     (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string	^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus,	 xterm
				  title	hack)

       ESC ] 83	; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if
				  multi-user support is	compiled into  screen.
				  The  pseudo-user  :window:  is used to check
				  the access control list. Use addacl :window:
				  -rwx	#? to create a user with no rights and
				  allow	only the needed	commands.

       Control-N	     (A)  Lock Shift G1	(SO)

       Control-O	     (A)  Lock Shift G0	(SI)

       ESC n		     (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o		     (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N		     (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O		     (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn H		  Direct Cursor	Addressing

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn f		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn	J		  Erase	in Display

				  Pn = None or 0	     From  Cursor   to
							     End of Screen

				  Pn = 1		     From Beginning of
							     Screen to Cursor

				  Pn = 2		     Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn	K		  Erase	in Line

				  Pn = None or 0	     From  Cursor   to
							     End of Line

				  Pn = 1		     From Beginning of
							     Line to Cursor

				  Pn = 2		     Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn	X		  Erase	character

       ESC [ Pn	A		  Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn	B		  Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn	C		  Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn	D		  Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn	E		  Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn	F		  Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn	G		  Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn	`		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn	d		  Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps	;...; Ps m	  Select Graphic Rendition

				  Ps = None or 0	     Default Rendition

				  Ps = 1		     Bold

				  Ps = 2		(A)  Faint

				  Ps = 3		(A)  Standout	  Mode
							     (ANSI:	Itali-

				  Ps = 4		     Underlined

				  Ps = 5		     Blinking

				  Ps = 7		     Negative Image

				  Ps = 22		(A)  Normal Intensity

				  Ps = 23		(A)  Standout Mode off
							     (ANSI: Italicized

				  Ps = 24		(A)  Not Underlined

				  Ps = 25		(A)  Not Blinking

				  Ps = 27		(A)  Positive Image

				  Ps = 30		(A)  Foreground	Black

				  Ps = 31		(A)  Foreground	Red

				  Ps = 32		(A)  Foreground	Green

				  Ps = 33		(A)  Foreground	Yellow

				  Ps = 34		(A)  Foreground	Blue

				  Ps = 35		(A)  Foreground	   Ma-

				  Ps = 36		(A)  Foreground	Cyan

				  Ps = 37		(A)  Foreground	White

				  Ps = 39		(A)  Foreground	   De-

				  Ps = 40		(A)  Background	Black

				  Ps = ...

				  Ps = 49		(A)  Background	   De-

       ESC [ Pn	g		  Tab Clear

				  Pn = None or 0	     Clear Tab at Cur-
							     rent Position

				  Pn = 3		     Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn r	     (V)  Set Scrolling	Region

       ESC [ Pn	I	     (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn	Z	     (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn	L	     (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn	M	     (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn	@	     (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn	P	     (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn	S		  Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn	T		  Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn	^		  same as above

       ESC [ Ps	;...; Ps h	  Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps	;...; Ps l	  Reset	Mode

				  Ps = 4		(A)  Insert Mode

				  Ps = 20		(A)  Automatic	 Line-
							     feed Mode

				  Ps = 34		     Normal	Cursor

				  Ps = ?1		(V)  Application  Cur-
							     sor Keys

				  Ps = ?3		(V)  Change   Terminal
							     Width to 132 col-

				  Ps = ?5		(V)  Reverse Video

				  Ps = ?6		(V)  Origin Mode

				  Ps = ?7		(V)  Wrap Mode

				  Ps = ?9		     X10  mouse	track-

				  Ps = ?25		(V)  Visible Cursor

				  Ps = ?47		     Alternate	Screen
							     (old xterm	code)

				  Ps = ?1000		(V)  VT200	 mouse

				  Ps = ?1047		     Alternate	Screen
							     (new xterm	code)

				  Ps = ?1049		     Alternate	Screen
							     (new xterm	code)

       ESC [ 5 i	     (A)  Start	relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i	     (A)  Stop relay to	printer	(ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t	  Resize the window to	`Ph'  lines  and  `Pw'
				  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x			  Send Terminal	Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c		  Send	 VT220	 Secondary  Device  Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n		  Send Cursor Position Report

       In order	to do a	full VT100 emulation screen has	to detect that	a  se-
       quence of characters in the input stream	was generated by a keypress on
       the user's keyboard and insert the VT100	style escape sequence.	Screen
       has  a very flexible way	of doing this by making	it possible to map ar-
       bitrary commands	on arbitrary sequences	of  characters.	 For  standard
       VT100  emulation	 the  command will always insert a string in the input
       buffer of the window (see also command stuff  in	 the  command  table).
       Because	the sequences generated	by a keypress can change after a reat-
       tach from a different terminal type, it is possible to bind commands to
       the  termcap  name of the keys.	Screen will insert the correct binding
       after each reattach. See	the bindkey command for	further	details	on the
       syntax and examples.

       Here  is	the table of the default key bindings. The fourth is what com-
       mand is executed	if the keyboard	is switched into application mode.

       |Key name	| Termcap name | Command  | App	mode |
       |Cursor up	| ku	       | \033[A	  | \033OA   |
       |Cursor down	| kd	       | \033[B	  | \033OB   |
       |Cursor right	| kr	       | \033[C	  | \033OC   |
       |Cursor left	| kl	       | \033[D	  | \033OD   |
       |Function key 0	| k0	       | \033[10~ |	     |
       |Function key 1	| k1	       | \033OP	  |	     |
       |Function key 2	| k2	       | \033OQ	  |	     |
       |Function key 3	| k3	       | \033OR	  |	     |
       |Function key 4	| k4	       | \033OS	  |	     |
       |Function key 5	| k5	       | \033[15~ |	     |
       |Function key 6	| k6	       | \033[17~ |	     |
       |Function key 7	| k7	       | \033[18~ |	     |
       |Function key 8	| k8	       | \033[19~ |	     |
       |Function key 9	| k9	       | \033[20~ |	     |
       |Function key 10	| k;	       | \033[21~ |	     |
       |Function key 11	| F1	       | \033[23~ |	     |
       |Function key 12	| F2	       | \033[24~ |	     |
       |Home		| kh	       | \033[1~  |	     |
       |End		| kH	       | \033[4~  |	     |
       |Insert		| kI	       | \033[2~  |	     |
       |Delete		| kD	       | \033[3~  |	     |
       |Page up		| kP	       | \033[5~  |	     |
       |Page down	| kN	       | \033[6~  |	     |
       |Keypad 0	| f0	       | 0	  | \033Op   |
       |Keypad 1	| f1	       | 1	  | \033Oq   |
       |Keypad 2	| f2	       | 2	  | \033Or   |
       |Keypad 3	| f3	       | 3	  | \033Os   |
       |Keypad 4	| f4	       | 4	  | \033Ot   |
       |Keypad 5	| f5	       | 5	  | \033Ou   |
       |Keypad 6	| f6	       | 6	  | \033Ov   |
       |Keypad 7	| f7	       | 7	  | \033Ow   |
       |Keypad 8	| f8	       | 8	  | \033Ox   |
       |Keypad 9	| f9	       | 9	  | \033Oy   |
       |Keypad +	| f+	       | +	  | \033Ok   |
       |Keypad -	| f-	       | -	  | \033Om   |
       |Keypad *	| f*	       | *	  | \033Oj   |
       |Keypad /	| f/	       | /	  | \033Oo   |
       |Keypad =	| fq	       | =	  | \033OX   |
       |Keypad .	| f.	       | .	  | \033On   |
       |Keypad ,	| f,	       | ,	  | \033Ol   |
       |Keypad enter	| fe	       | \015	  | \033OM   |

       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are	recog-
       nized  by  screen  and are not in the termcap(5)	manual.	 You can place
       these capabilities in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap')  or  use
       them  with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in your
       screenrc	files. It is often not possible	to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal  has  VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note
		    that this capability is obsolete because screen  uses  the
		    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132	columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display. This capability has the desired width and
		    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control.	Send ^S	and ^Q	direct
		    to	the  application.  Same	as 'flow off'. The opposite of
		    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0'	to the specified charset.  Default  is

       E0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' back to standard charset. Default is

       C0   (str)   Use	the string as a	conversion table for font '0'. See the
		    'ac' capability for	more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn  on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more de-

       OL   (num)   Set	the output buffer limit. See the  'obuflimit'  command
		    for	more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set	 the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding' com-
		    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground	color in an ANSI conform  way.
		    This  capability  will  almost  always be set to '\E[3%dm'
		    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background	color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default  fg/bg  color  (\E[39m  /

       XC   (str)   Describe  a	translation of characters to strings depending
		    on the current font. More details follow in	the next  sec-

       XT   (bool)  Terminal  understands  special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold	to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)  Add	 missing  capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set
		    by default).

       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate  characters	 to  arbitrary
       strings depending on the	current	font and terminal type.	 Use this fea-
       ture if you want	to work	with a	common	standard  character  set  (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
       ters over several national language font	pages.

	   _charset-mapping_ :=	_designator__template_{,_mapping_}
	   _mapping_ :=	_char-to-be-mapped__template-arg_

       The things in braces may	be repeated any	number of times.

       A _charset-mapping_ tells screen	how to map characters in font  _desig-
       nator_  ('B':  Ascii,  'A':  UK,	 'K': German, etc.)  to	strings. Every
       _mapping_ describes to what string a single character  will  be	trans-
       lated. A	template mechanism is used, as most of the time	the codes have
       a lot in	common (for example strings to	switch	to  and	 from  another
       charset).  Each	occurrence  of '%' in _template_ gets substituted with
       the _template-arg_ specified  together  with  the  character.  If  your
       strings	are  not  similar at all, then use '%' as a template and place
       the full	string in _template-arg_. A quoting  mechanism	was  added  to
       make  it	 possible to use a real	'%'. The '\' character quotes the spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

	   termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to	translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B')  upper  case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a	German charset.	'\304'
       gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so on.  Note	that  this  line  gets
       parsed  *three* times before the	internal lookup	table is built,	there-
       fore a lot of quoting is	needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to  allow  more  emulation:	If  a  mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the	terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding _designator_. In this special
       case  the template is assumed to	be just	'%' because the	charset	switch
       sequence	and the	character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

	   termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K')	charset	is emulated on an  xterm.   If
       screen  has  to	change	to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will	be sent	to the
       terminal, i.e. the ASCII	charset	is used	instead. The template is  just
       '%',  so	 the mapping is	straightforward: '[' to	'\304',	'\' to '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.

       COLUMNS	      Number of	columns	on the terminal	(overrides termcap en-
       HOME	      Directory	in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES	      Number  of  lines	on the terminal	(overrides termcap en-
       LOCKPRG	      Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH	      Used for locating	programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a	terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate	socket directory.
       SCREENRC	      Alternate	user screenrc file.
       SHELL	      Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
		      /bin/sh).	 See also shell	.screenrc command.
       STY	      Alternate	socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate	system screenrc	file.
       TERM	      Terminal name.
       TERMCAP	      Terminal description.
       WINDOW	      Window number of a window	(at creation time).

       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples  in  the screen distribution
					 package for private and  global  ini-
					 tialization files.
       /usr/local/etc/screenrc		 screen	initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc			 Read in after /usr/local/etc/screenrc
       /local/screens/S-<login>		 Socket	directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>	 Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap	 Written by the	"termcap" output func-
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange	 or
       /tmp/screen-exchange		 screen	 `interprocess	 communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]			 Screen	images created by the hardcopy
       screenlog.[0-9]			 Output	log files created by  the  log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*		 or
       /etc/termcap			 Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp			 Login records
       $LOCKPRG				 Program that locks a terminal.

       Originally  created  by	Oliver Laumann.	For a long time	maintained and
       developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder,	Micah Cowan and	Sadrul
       Habib  Chowdhury. Since 2015 maintained and developed by	Amadeusz Slaw-
       inski <>	and Alexander  Naumov  <alexander_naumov@open->.

       Copyright (c) 2018-2022
	    Alexander Naumov <>
	    Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
	    Juergen Weigert <>
	    Alexander Naumov <>
	    Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
	    Juergen Weigert <>
	    Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
	    Juergen Weigert <>
	    Michael Schroeder <>
	    Micah Cowan	<>
	    Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
	    Juergen Weigert <>
	    Michael Schroeder <>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
       Free  Software  Foundation;  either  version 3, or (at your option) any
       later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it	will  be  useful,  but
       WITHOUT	ANY  WARRANTY;	without	 even  the  implied  warranty  of MER-
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received	a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program (see the file COPYING); if not,  write	 to  the  Free
       Software	 Foundation,  Inc.,  59	 Temple	 Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA
       02111-1307, USA

       Maarten ter Huurne <>,
       Jussi Kukkonen <>,
       Eric S. Raymond <>,
       Thomas Renninger	<>,
       Axel Beckert <>,
       Ken Beal	<>,
       Rudolf Koenig <>,
       Toerless	Eckert <>,
       Wayne Davison <>,
       Patrick Wolfe <, kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <>,
       Nathan Glasser <>,
       Larry W.	Virden <>,
       Howard Chu <>,
       Tim MacKenzie <>,
       Markku Jarvinen <mta@{cc,cs,ee}>,
       Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>,
       Doug Siebert <>,
       Ken Stillson <>,
       Ian Frechett <frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU>,
       Brian Koehmstedt	<>,
       Don Smith <>,
       Frank van der Linden <>,
       Martin Schweikert <>,
       David Vrona <>,
       E. Tye McQueen <>,
       Matthew Green <>,
       Christopher Williams <>,
       Matt Mosley <>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU>,
       Johannes	Zellner	<>,
       Pablo Averbuj <>.

       The latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp  from	or  any	 other GNU distribution	site. The home
       page of screen is and the git
       repo  is	If you want to
       help, send a note to

       o  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are not handled correctly	(they are  ig-
	  nored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen has no	clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
	  this is the only area	where vttest is	allowed	to fail.

       o  It is	not possible to	change the environment variable	$TERMCAP  when
	  reattaching under a different	terminal type.

       o  The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding extra
	  capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have	any effects.

       o  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       o  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most  systems
	  in  order to be able to correctly change the owner of	the tty	device
	  file for each	window.	 Special permission may	also  be  required  to
	  write	the file /etc/utmp.

       o  Entries  in  /etc/utmp  are  not  removed when screen	is killed with
	  SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs (like	"w" or "rwho") to  ad-
	  vertise that a user is logged	on who really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically	detach
	  (or quit) unless the device driver is	configured to  send  a	HANGUP
	  signal.   To	detach	a screen session use the -D or -d command line

       o  If a password	is set,	the command line options -d and	-D  still  de-
	  tach a session without asking.

       o  Both	breaktype  and defbreaktype change the break generating	method
	  used by all terminal devices.	The first should change	a window  spe-
	  cific	 setting,  where the latter should change only the default for
	  new windows.

       o  When attaching to a multiuser	session, the user's .screenrc file  is
	  not  sourced.	 Each  user's personal settings	have to	be included in
	  the .screenrc	file from which	the session is booted, or have	to  be
	  changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to	gain full advantage of all the

       Send bug-reports, fixes,	enhancements, t-shirts,	money, beer & pizza to

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1), tty(4), pty(7)

GNU Screen 4.9.0		  2022 Jan 30			     SCREEN(1)


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