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SENDFILE(2)		    BSD	System Calls Manual		   SENDFILE(2)

     sendfile -- send a	file to	a socket

     Standard C	Library	(libc, -lc)

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/socket.h>
     #include <sys/uio.h>

     sendfile(int fd, int s, off_t offset, size_t nbytes,
	 struct	sf_hdtr	*hdtr, off_t *sbytes, int flags);

     The sendfile() system call	sends a	regular	file specified by descriptor
     fd	out a stream socket specified by descriptor s.

     The offset	argument specifies where to begin in the file.	Should offset
     fall beyond the end of file, the system will return success and report 0
     bytes sent	as described below.  The nbytes	argument specifies how many
     bytes of the file should be sent, with 0 having the special meaning of
     send until	the end	of file	has been reached.

     An	optional header	and/or trailer can be sent before and after the	file
     data by specifying	a pointer to a struct sf_hdtr, which has the following

	   struct sf_hdtr {
		   struct iovec	*headers;  /* pointer to header	iovecs */
		   int hdr_cnt;		   /* number of	header iovecs */
		   struct iovec	*trailers; /* pointer to trailer iovecs	*/
		   int trl_cnt;		   /* number of	trailer	iovecs */

     The headers and trailers pointers,	if non-NULL, point to arrays of	struct
     iovec structures.	See the	writev() system	call for information on	the
     iovec structure.  The number of iovecs in these arrays is specified by
     hdr_cnt and trl_cnt.

     If	non-NULL, the system will write	the total number of bytes sent on the
     socket to the variable pointed to by sbytes.

     The flags argument	has one	possible value:	SF_NODISKIO.  This flag	causes
     any sendfile() call which would block on disk I/O to instead return
     EBUSY.  Busy servers may benefit by transferring requests that would
     block to a	separate I/O worker thread.

     When using	a socket marked	for non-blocking I/O, sendfile() may send
     fewer bytes than requested.  In this case,	the number of bytes success-
     fully written is returned in *sbytes (if specified), and the error	EAGAIN
     is	returned.

     The FreeBSD implementation	of sendfile() is "zero-copy", meaning that it
     has been optimized	so that	copying	of the file data is avoided.

     Internally, this system call uses a special sendfile() buffer (struct
     sf_buf) to	handle sending file data to the	client.	 If the	sending	socket
     is	blocking, and there are	not enough sendfile() buffers available,
     sendfile()	will block and report a	state of "sfbufa".  If the sending
     socket is non-blocking and	there are not enough sendfile()	buffers	avail-
     able, the call will block and wait	for the	necessary buffers to become
     available before finishing	the call.

     The number	of sf_buf's allocated should be	proportional to	the number of
     nmbclusters used to send data to a	client via sendfile().	Tune accord-
     ingly to avoid blocking!  Busy installations that make extensive use of
     sendfile()	may want to increase these values to be	inline with their
     kern.ipc.nmbclusters (see tuning(7) for details).

     The number	of sendfile() buffers available	is determined at boot time by
     either the	kern.ipc.nsfbufs loader.conf(5)	variable or the	NSFBUFS	kernel
     configuration tunable.  The number	of sendfile() buffers scales with
     kern.maxusers.  The kern.ipc.nsfbufsused and kern.ipc.nsfbufspeak read-
     only sysctl(8) variables show current and peak sendfile() buffers usage
     respectively.  These values may also be viewed through netstat -m.

     The sendfile() function returns the value 0 if successful;	otherwise the
     value -1 is returned and the global variable errno	is set to indicate the

     [EBADF]		The fd argument	is not a valid file descriptor.

     [EBADF]		The s argument is not a	valid socket descriptor.

     [EBUSY]		Completing the entire transfer would have required
			disk I/O, so it	was aborted.  Partial data may have
			been sent.  (This error	can only occur when
			SF_NODISKIO is specified.)

     [ENOTSOCK]		The s argument is not a	socket.

     [EINVAL]		The fd argument	is not a regular file.

     [EINVAL]		The s argument is not a	SOCK_STREAM type socket.

     [EINVAL]		The offset argument is negative.

     [ENOTCONN]		The s argument points to an unconnected	socket.

     [EPIPE]		The socket peer	has closed the connection.

     [EIO]		An error occurred while	reading	from fd.

     [EFAULT]		An invalid address was specified for an	argument.

     [EINTR]		A signal interrupted sendfile()	before it could	be
			completed.  If specified, the number of	bytes success-
			fully sent will	be returned in *sbytes.

     [EAGAIN]		The socket is marked for non-blocking I/O and not all
			data was sent due to the socket	buffer being filled.
			If specified, the number of bytes successfully sent
			will be	returned in *sbytes.

     netstat(1), open(2), send(2), socket(2), writev(2), tuning(7)

     The sendfile() system call	first appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.	This manual
     page first	appeared in FreeBSD 3.1.

     The sendfile() system call	and this manual	page were written by David G.
     Lawrence <>.

BSD			       October 16, 2004				   BSD


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