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SENDMAIL(8)		    System Manager's Manual		   SENDMAIL(8)

       sendmail	- an electronic	mail transport agent

       sendmail	[flags]	[address ...]
       mailq [-v]

       Sendmail	sends a	message	to one or more recipients, routing the message
       over whatever networks are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork  for-
       warding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       Sendmail	 is  not  intended as a	user interface routine;	other programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-
       formatted messages.

       With  no	 flags,	sendmail reads its standard input up to	an end-of-file
       or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the  mes-
       sage  found  there  to  all of the addresses listed.  It	determines the
       network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in	 a  file  and  aliased	appropriately.
       Aliasing	 can  be  prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
       Beginning with 8.10, the	sender is included in  any  alias  expansions,
       e.g.,  if  `john'  sends	to `group', and	`group'	includes `john'	in the
       expansion, then the letter will also be delivered to `john'.

       -Ac    Use even if the	operation mode does  not  indicate  an
	      initial mail submission.

       -Am    Use even if the operation mode indicates an initial
	      mail submission.

       -Btype Set the body type	to type.  Current legal	 values	 are  7BIT  or

       -ba    Go  into	ARPANET	 mode.	All input lines	must end with a	CR-LF,
	      and all messages will be generated with  a  CR-LF	 at  the  end.
	      Also,  the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are examined for the
	      name of the sender.

       -bd    Run as a daemon.	Sendmail will fork and run in background  lis-
	      tening on	socket 25 for incoming SMTP connections.  This is nor-
	      mally run	from /etc/rc.

       -bD    Same as -bd except runs in foreground.

       -bh    Print the	persistent host	status database.

       -bH    Purge expired entries from the persistent	host status database.

       -bi    Initialize the alias database.

       -bm    Deliver mail in the usual	way (default).

       -bp    Print a listing of the queue(s).

       -bP    Print number of entries in the  queue(s);	 only  available  with
	      shared memory support.

       -bs    Use  the	SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on	standard input
	      and output.  This	flag implies all the  operations  of  the  -ba
	      flag that	are compatible with SMTP.

       -bt    Run  in  address test mode.  This	mode reads addresses and shows
	      the steps	in parsing; it is used for debugging configuration ta-

       -bv    Verify  names only - do not try to collect or deliver a message.
	      Verify mode is normally used for	validating  users  or  mailing

       -Cfile Use  alternate  configuration  file.   Sendmail gives up any en-
	      hanced (set-user-ID or set-group-ID) privileges if an  alternate
	      configuration file is specified.

       -D logfile
	      Send  debugging output to	the indicated log file instead of std-

	      Set the debugging	flag for category to level.  Category  is  ei-
	      ther an integer or a name	specifying the topic, and level	an in-
	      teger specifying the level of debugging output desired.	Higher
	      levels  generally	 mean  more output.  More than one flag	can be
	      specified	by separating them with	commas.	 A list	of numeric de-
	      bugging  categories  can	be found in the	TRACEFLAGS file	in the
	      sendmail source distribution.
	      The option -d0.1 prints the version of sendmail and the  options
	      it was compiled with.
	      Most  other  categories are only useful with, and	documented in,
	      sendmail's source	code.

	      Set the full name	of the sender.

       -fname Sets the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the envelope	sender
	      of the mail).  This address may also be used in the From:	header
	      if that header is	missing	during initial submission.  The	 enve-
	      lope sender address is used as the recipient for delivery	status
	      notifications and	may also appear	in a Return-Path: header.   -f
	      should only be used by ``trusted'' users (normally root, daemon,
	      and network) or if the person you	are trying to  become  is  the
	      same  as	the  person  you are.  Otherwise, an X-Authentication-
	      Warning header will be added to the message.

       -G     Relay (gateway) submission of a message, e.g., when rmail	 calls
	      sendmail .

       -hN    Set the hop count	to N.  The hop count is	incremented every time
	      the mail is processed.  When it reaches a	limit, the mail	is re-
	      turned  with  an	error message, the victim of an	aliasing loop.
	      If  not  specified,  ``Received:''  lines	 in  the  message  are

       -i     Do  not strip a leading dot from lines in	incoming messages, and
	      do not treat a dot on a line by itself as	the end	of an incoming
	      message.	 This  should  be  set	if you are reading data	from a

       -L tag Set the identifier used in syslog	messages to the	supplied tag.

       -N dsn Set delivery status notification conditions to dsn, which	can be
	      `never'  for  no	notifications or a comma separated list	of the
	      values `failure' to be notified if delivery failed,  `delay'  to
	      be notified if delivery is delayed, and `success'	to be notified
	      when the message is successfully delivered.

       -n     Don't do aliasing.

       -O option=value
	      Set option option	to the specified value.	 This form  uses  long
	      names.  See below	for more details.

       -ox value
	      Set  option  x  to  the  specified value.	 This form uses	single
	      character	names only.  The short names are not described in this
	      manual  page;  see the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide
	      for details.

	      Set the name of the protocol used	to receive the message.	  This
	      can be a simple protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or	a protocol and
	      hostname,	such as	``UUCP:ucbvax''.

	      Process saved messages in	the queue at given intervals.  If time
	      is  omitted,  process the	queue once.  Time is given as a	tagged
	      number, with `s' being seconds, `m' being	minutes	(default), `h'
	      being  hours, `d'	being days, and	`w' being weeks.  For example,
	      `-q1h30m'	or `-q90m' would both set  the	timeout	 to  one  hour
	      thirty  minutes.	 By  default,  sendmail	 will run in the back-
	      ground.  This option can be used safely with -bd.

	      Similar to -qtime, except	that instead of	periodically forking a
	      child  to	 process the queue, sendmail forks a single persistent
	      child for	each queue  that  alternates  between  processing  the
	      queue and	sleeping.  The sleep time is given as the argument; it
	      defaults to 1 second.  The process will always sleep at least  5
	      seconds if the queue was empty in	the previous queue run.

       -qf    Process  saved messages in the queue once	and do not fork(), but
	      run in the foreground.

	      Process jobs in queue group called name only.

	      Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
	      of the queue id or not when !  is	specified.

	      Limit  processed jobs to quarantined jobs	containing substr as a
	      substring	of the quarantine reason or not	when !	is specified.

	      Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
	      of one of	the recipients or not when !  is specified.

	      Limit  processed	jobs to	those containing substr	as a substring
	      of the sender or not when	!  is specified.

	      Quarantine a normal queue	items with the given reason or unquar-
	      antine  quarantined  queue  items	 if  no	reason is given.  This
	      should only be used with some sort of item matching using	as de-
	      scribed above.

       -R return
	      Set  the	amount	of  the	 message to be returned	if the message
	      bounces.	The return parameter can be `full' to return  the  en-
	      tire  message or `hdrs' to return	only the headers.  In the lat-
	      ter case also local bounces return only the headers.

       -rname An alternate and obsolete	form of	the -f flag.

       -t     Read message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines  will  be
	      scanned  for recipient addresses.	 The Bcc: line will be deleted
	      before transmission.

       -V envid
	      Set the original envelope	id.  This is propagated	across SMTP to
	      servers that support DSNs	and is returned	in DSN-compliant error

       -v     Go into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced, etc.

       -X logfile
	      Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the indicated log file.
	      This  should  only be used as a last resort for debugging	mailer
	      bugs.  It	will log a lot of data very quickly.

       --     Stop processing command flags and	use the	rest of	the  arguments
	      as addresses.

       There  are  also	 a number of processing	options	that may be set.  Nor-
       mally these will	only be	used by	a system administrator.	  Options  may
       be  set either on the command line using	the -o flag (for short names),
       the -O flag (for	long names), or	in the configuration file.  This is  a
       partial	list  limited to those options that are	likely to be useful on
       the command line	and only shows the long	names;	for  a	complete  list
       (and  details),	consult	the Sendmail Installation and Operation	Guide.
       The options are:

	      Use alternate alias file.

	      On mailers that are  considered  ``expensive''  to  connect  to,
	      don't initiate immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

	      Checkpoint  the  queue  file after every N successful deliveries
	      (default 10).  This avoids excessive duplicate  deliveries  when
	      sending to long mailing lists interrupted	by system crashes.

	      Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for interac-
	      tive (synchronous) delivery, `b' for  background	(asynchronous)
	      delivery,	`q' for	queue only - i.e., actual delivery is done the
	      next time	the queue is run, and `d' for deferred - the  same  as
	      `q'  except that database	lookups	for maps which have set	the -D
	      option (default for the host map)	are avoided.

	      Set error	processing to mode x.  Valid modes  are	 `m'  to  mail
	      back  the	error message, `w' to ``write''	back the error message
	      (or mail it back if the sender is	not logged in),	`p'  to	 print
	      the  errors  on  the terminal (default), `q' to throw away error
	      messages (only exit status is returned), and `e' to  do  special
	      processing  for  the BerkNet.  If	the text of the	message	is not
	      mailed back by modes `m' or `w' and if the sender	 is  local  to
	      this  machine,  a	 copy  of  the message is appended to the file
	      dead.letter in the sender's home directory.

	      Save UNIX-style From lines at the	front of messages.

	      The maximum number of times a message is allowed to ``hop''  be-
	      fore we decide it	is in a	loop.

	      Do  not  take dots on a line by themselves as a message termina-

	      Send error messages in MIME format.  If not set, the DSN (Deliv-
	      ery Status Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.

	      Set connection cache timeout.

	      Set connection cache size.

	      The log level.

	      Don't send to ``me'' (the	sender)	if I am	in an alias expansion.

	      Validate	the  right hand	side of	aliases	during a newaliases(1)

	      If set, this message may have old	style headers.	 If  not  set,
	      this message is guaranteed to have new style headers (i.e., com-
	      mas instead of spaces between addresses).	 If set,  an  adaptive
	      algorithm	 is used that will correctly determine the header for-
	      mat in most cases.

	      Select the directory in which to queue messages.

	      Save statistics in the named file.

	      Set the timeout on undelivered messages  in  the	queue  to  the
	      specified	 time.	 After delivery	has failed (e.g., because of a
	      host being down) for this	amount of time,	failed	messages  will
	      be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

	      If  set, a user database is consulted to get forwarding informa-
	      tion.  You can consider this an adjunct to the  aliasing	mecha-
	      nism,  except  that  the database	is intended to be distributed;
	      aliases are local	to a particular	host.  This may	not be	avail-
	      able  if	your sendmail does not have the	USERDB option compiled

	      Fork each	job during queue runs.	May be convenient  on  memory-
	      poor machines.

	      Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

	      Set the handling of eight	bit input to seven bit destinations to
	      mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit MIME format, p	(pass)
	      will  pass  it  as  eight	 bits  (but violates protocols), and s
	      (strict) will bounce the message.

	      Sets how long a job must ferment in the queue  between  attempts
	      to send it.

	      Sets  the	default	character set used to label 8-bit data that is
	      not otherwise labelled.

	      If opening a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime  seconds  and
	      try again.  Useful on dial-on-demand sites.

	      Set  the behaviour when there are	no recipient headers (To:, Cc:
	      or Bcc:) in the message to action: none leaves the  message  un-
	      changed,	add-to adds a To: header with the envelope recipients,
	      add-apparently-to	adds an	Apparently-To: header with  the	 enve-
	      lope  recipients,	add-bcc	adds an	empty Bcc: header, and add-to-
	      undisclosed  adds	 a  header  reading  `To:  undisclosed-recipi-

	      Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP	daemon
	      will allow to spawn at any time to N.

	      Sets the maximum number of connections per second	 to  the  SMTP
	      port to N.

       In  aliases,  the  first	 character  of a name may be a vertical	bar to
       cause interpretation of the rest	of the name as a command to  pipe  the
       mail  to.   It may be necessary to quote	the name to keep sendmail from
       suppressing the blanks from between arguments.  For example,  a	common
       alias is:

	      msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases	may also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to ask sendmail
       to read the named file for a list of recipients.	 For example, an alias
       such as:

	      poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would  read  /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of addresses	making
       up the group.

       Sendmail	returns	an exit	status describing what it did.	The codes  are
       defined in <sysexits.h>:

       EX_OK  Successful completion on all addresses.

	      User name	not recognized.

	      Catchall meaning necessary resources were	not available.

	      Syntax error in address.

	      Internal software	error, including bad arguments.

	      Temporary	operating system error,	such as	``cannot fork''.

	      Host name	not recognized.

	      Message could not	be sent	immediately, but was queued.

       If invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.  If
       invoked as mailq, sendmail will print the contents of the  mail	queue.
       If  invoked as hoststat,	sendmail will print the	persistent host	status
       database.  If invoked as	purgestat, sendmail will purge expired entries
       from  the  persistent host status database.  If invoked as smtpd, send-
       mail will act as	a daemon, as if	the -bd	option were specified.

       sendmail	often gets blamed for many problems that are actually the  re-
       sult of other problems, such as overly permissive modes on directories.
       For this	reason,	sendmail checks	the modes on  system  directories  and
       files  to  determine if they can	be trusted.  Although these checks can
       be turned off and your system security reduced  by  setting  the	 Dont-
       BlameSendmail  option,  the  permission	problems should	be fixed.  For
       more information, see:

       Except for the file /etc/mail/ itself	 the  following	 path-
       names  are  all specified in /etc/mail/  Thus, these	values
       are only	approximations.

	      raw data for alias names

	      data base	of alias names

	      configuration file

	      help file

	      collected	statistics

	      temp files

       mail(1),	 syslog(3),  aliases(5),  mailaddr(7),	mail.local(8),	rc(8),

       DARPA  Internet	Request	For Comments RFC819, RFC821, RFC822.  Sendmail
       Installation and	Operation Guide, No. 8,	SMM.

       US Patent Numbers 6865671, 6986037.

       The sendmail command appeared in	4.2BSD.

			 $Date:	2013-11-22 20:51:56 $		   SENDMAIL(8)


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