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SENDMAIL(8)                                                        SENDMAIL(8)

       sendmail - an electronic mail transport agent

       sendmail [flags] [address ...]
       mailq [-v]

       Sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients, routing the message
       over whatever networks are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork  for-
       warding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       Sendmail  is  not  intended as a user interface routine; other programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-
       formatted messages.

       With  no  flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file
       or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the  mes-
       sage  found  there  to  all of the addresses listed.  It determines the
       network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in  a  file  and  aliased  appropriately.
       Aliasing  can  be  prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
       Beginning with 8.10, the sender is included in  any  alias  expansions,
       e.g.,  if  `john'  sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in the
       expansion, then the letter will also be delivered to `john'.

       -Ac    Use even if the operation mode does  not  indicate  an
              initial mail submission.

       -Am    Use even if the operation mode indicates an initial
              mail submission.

       -Btype Set the body type to type.  Current legal  values  are  7BIT  or

       -ba    Go  into  ARPANET  mode.  All input lines must end with a CR-LF,
              and all messages will be generated with  a  CR-LF  at  the  end.
              Also,  the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are examined for the
              name of the sender.

       -bd    Run as a daemon.  Sendmail will fork and run in background  lis-
              tening on socket 25 for incoming SMTP connections.  This is nor-
              mally run from /etc/rc.

       -bD    Same as -bd except runs in foreground.

       -bh    Print the persistent host status database.

       -bH    Purge expired entries from the persistent host status  database.

       -bi    Initialize the alias database.

       -bm    Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp    Print a listing of the queue(s).

       -bP    Print  number  of  entries  in the queue(s); only available with
              shared memory support.

       -bs    Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on  standard  input
              and  output.   This  flag  implies all the operations of the -ba
              flag that are compatible with SMTP.

       -bt    Run in address test mode.  This mode reads addresses  and  shows
              the  steps  in  parsing;  it is used for debugging configuration

       -bv    Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a  message.
              Verify  mode  is  normally  used for validating users or mailing

       -Cfile Use  alternate  configuration  file.   Sendmail  gives  up   any
              enhanced  (set-user-ID  or set-group-ID) privileges if an alter-
              nate configuration file is specified.

       -D logfile
              Send debugging output to the indicated log file instead of  std-

              Set  the  debugging  flag  for  category  to level.  Category is
              either an integer or a name specifying the topic, and  level  an
              integer  specifying  the  level  of  debugging  output  desired.
              Higher levels generally mean more output.  More  than  one  flag
              can  be  specified  by  separating  them with commas.  A list of
              numeric debugging categories can be found in the TRACEFLAGS file
              in the sendmail source distribution.
              The  option -d0.1 prints the version of sendmail and the options
              it was compiled with.
              Most other categories are only useful with, and  documented  in,
              sendmail's source code.

              Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname Sets  the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the envelope sender
              of the mail).  This address may also be used in the From: header
              if  that header is missing during initial submission.  The enve-
              lope sender address is used as the recipient for delivery status
              notifications  and may also appear in a Return-Path: header.  -f
              should only be used by ``trusted'' users (normally root, daemon,
              and  network)  or  if the person you are trying to become is the
              same as the person you  are.   Otherwise,  an  X-Authentication-
              Warning header will be added to the message.

       -G     Relay  (gateway) submission of a message, e.g., when rmail calls
              sendmail .

       -hN    Set the hop count to N.  The hop count is incremented every time
              the  mail  is  processed.   When it reaches a limit, the mail is
              returned with an error message, the victim of an aliasing  loop.
              If  not  specified,  ``Received:''  lines  in  the  message  are

       -i     Ignore dots alone on lines by themselves in  incoming  messages.
              This should be set if you are reading data from a file.

       -L tag Set  the identifier used in syslog messages to the supplied tag.

       -N dsn Set delivery status notification conditions to dsn, which can be
              `never'  for  no  notifications or a comma separated list of the
              values `failure' to be notified if delivery failed,  `delay'  to
              be notified if delivery is delayed, and `success' to be notified
              when the message is successfully delivered.

       -n     Don't do aliasing.

       -O option=value
              Set option option to the specified value.  This form  uses  long
              names.  See below for more details.

       -ox value
              Set  option  x  to  the  specified value.  This form uses single
              character names only.  The short names are not described in this
              manual  page;  see the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide
              for details.

              Set the name of the protocol used to receive the message.   This
              can be a simple protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or a protocol and
              hostname, such as ``UUCP:ucbvax''.

              Process saved messages in the queue at given intervals.  If time
              is  omitted,  process the queue once.  Time is given as a tagged
              number, with `s' being seconds, `m' being minutes (default), `h'
              being  hours, `d' being days, and `w' being weeks.  For example,
              `-q1h30m' or `-q90m' would both set  the  timeout  to  one  hour
              thirty  minutes.   By  default,  sendmail  will run in the back-
              ground.  This option can be used safely with -bd.

              Similar to -qtime, except that instead of periodically forking a
              child  to  process the queue, sendmail forks a single persistent
              child for each queue  that  alternates  between  processing  the
              queue and sleeping.  The sleep time is given as the argument; it
              defaults to 1 second.  The process will always sleep at least  5
              seconds if the queue was empty in the previous queue run.

       -qf    Process  saved messages in the queue once and do not fork(), but
              run in the foreground.

       -qG name
              Process jobs in queue group called name only.

              Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
              of the queue id or not when !  is specified.

              Limit  processed jobs to quarantined jobs containing substr as a
              substring of the quarantine reason or not when !  is  specified.

              Limit  processed  jobs to those containing substr as a substring
              of one of the recipients or not when !  is specified.

              Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
              of the sender or not when !  is specified.

              Quarantine a normal queue items with the given reason or unquar-
              antine quarantined queue items if  no  reason  is  given.   This
              should  only  be  used  with some sort of item matching using as
              described above.

       -R return
              Set the amount of the message to  be  returned  if  the  message
              bounces.   The  return  parameter  can  be  `full' to return the
              entire message or `hdrs' to return only  the  headers.   In  the
              latter case also local bounces return only the headers.

       -rname An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.

       -t     Read  message  for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be
              scanned for recipient addresses.  The Bcc: line will be  deleted
              before transmission.

       -V envid
              Set the original envelope id.  This is propagated across SMTP to
              servers that support DSNs and is returned in DSN-compliant error

       -v     Go  into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced, etc.

       -X logfile
              Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the indicated log file.
              This  should  only be used as a last resort for debugging mailer
              bugs.  It will log a lot of data very quickly.

       --     Stop processing command flags and use the rest of the  arguments
              as addresses.

       There  are  also  a number of processing options that may be set.  Nor-
       mally these will only be used by a system administrator.   Options  may
       be  set either on the command line using the -o flag (for short names),
       the -O flag (for long names), or in the configuration file.  This is  a
       partial  list  limited to those options that are likely to be useful on
       the command line and only shows the long names;  for  a  complete  list
       (and  details),  consult the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide.
       The options are:

              Use alternate alias file.

              On mailers that are  considered  ``expensive''  to  connect  to,
              don't initiate immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

              Checkpoint  the  queue  file after every N successful deliveries
              (default 10).  This avoids excessive duplicate  deliveries  when
              sending to long mailing lists interrupted by system crashes.

              Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for interac-
              tive (synchronous) delivery, `b' for  background  (asynchronous)
              delivery, `q' for queue only - i.e., actual delivery is done the
              next time the queue is run, and `d' for deferred - the  same  as
              `q'  except that database lookups for maps which have set the -D
              option (default for the host map) are avoided.

              Set error processing to mode x.  Valid modes  are  `m'  to  mail
              back  the error message, `w' to ``write'' back the error message
              (or mail it back if the sender is not logged in), `p'  to  print
              the  errors  on  the terminal (default), `q' to throw away error
              messages (only exit status is returned), and `e' to  do  special
              processing  for  the BerkNet.  If the text of the message is not
              mailed back by modes `m' or `w' and if the sender  is  local  to
              this  machine,  a  copy  of  the message is appended to the file
              dead.letter in the sender's home directory.

              Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.

              The maximum number of times a  message  is  allowed  to  ``hop''
              before we decide it is in a loop.

              Do  not  take dots on a line by themselves as a message termina-

              Send error messages in MIME format.  If not set, the DSN (Deliv-
              ery Status Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.

              Set connection cache timeout.

              Set connection cache size.

              The log level.

              Don't send to ``me'' (the sender) if I am in an alias expansion.

              Validate the right hand side of aliases during  a  newaliases(1)

              If  set,  this  message may have old style headers.  If not set,
              this message is guaranteed to have new style headers (i.e., com-
              mas  instead  of spaces between addresses).  If set, an adaptive
              algorithm is used that will correctly determine the header  for-
              mat in most cases.

              Select the directory in which to queue messages.

              Save statistics in the named file.

              Set  the  timeout  on  undelivered  messages in the queue to the
              specified time.  After delivery has failed (e.g., because  of  a
              host  being  down) for this amount of time, failed messages will
              be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

              If set, a user database is consulted to get forwarding  informa-
              tion.   You  can consider this an adjunct to the aliasing mecha-
              nism, except that the database is intended  to  be  distributed;
              aliases  are local to a particular host.  This may not be avail-
              able if your sendmail does not have the USERDB  option  compiled

              Fork  each  job during queue runs.  May be convenient on memory-
              poor machines.

              Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

              Set the handling of eight bit input to seven bit destinations to
              mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit MIME format, p (pass)
              will pass it as eight  bits  (but  violates  protocols),  and  s
              (strict) will bounce the message.

              Sets  how  long a job must ferment in the queue between attempts
              to send it.

              Sets the default character set used to label 8-bit data that  is
              not otherwise labelled.

              If  opening  a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime seconds and
              try again.  Useful on dial-on-demand sites.

              Set the behaviour when there are no recipient headers (To:,  Cc:
              or  Bcc:)  in  the  message  to  action: none leaves the message
              unchanged, add-to adds a To: header with  the  envelope  recipi-
              ents,  add-apparently-to  adds an Apparently-To: header with the
              envelope recipients, add-bcc adds an empty Bcc: header, and add-
              to-undisclosed  adds  a  header reading `To: undisclosed-recipi-

              Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP daemon
              will allow to spawn at any time to N.

              Sets  the  maximum  number of connections per second to the SMTP
              port to N.

       In aliases, the first character of a name may  be  a  vertical  bar  to
       cause  interpretation  of the rest of the name as a command to pipe the
       mail to.  It may be necessary to quote the name to keep  sendmail  from
       suppressing  the  blanks from between arguments.  For example, a common
       alias is:

              msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases may also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to ask  sendmail
       to read the named file for a list of recipients.  For example, an alias
       such as:

              poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would read /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of  addresses  making
       up the group.

       Sendmail  returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes are
       defined in <sysexits.h>:

       EX_OK  Successful completion on all addresses.

              User name not recognized.

              Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available.

              Syntax error in address.

              Internal software error, including bad arguments.

              Temporary operating system error, such as ``cannot fork''.

              Host name not recognized.

              Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.

       If invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.  If
       invoked  as  mailq, sendmail will print the contents of the mail queue.
       If invoked as hoststat, sendmail will print the persistent host  status
       database.  If invoked as purgestat, sendmail will purge expired entries
       from the persistent host status database.  If invoked as  smtpd,  send-
       mail will act as a daemon, as if the -bd option were specified.

       sendmail  often  gets  blamed  for  many problems that are actually the
       result of other problems, such as overly permissive modes  on  directo-
       ries.  For this reason, sendmail checks the modes on system directories
       and files to determine if they can be trusted.  Although  these  checks
       can be turned off and your system security reduced by setting the Dont-
       BlameSendmail option, the permission problems  should  be  fixed.   For
       more information, see:

       Except  for  the  file /etc/mail/ itself the following path-
       names are all specified in /etc/mail/  Thus,  these  values
       are only approximations.

              raw data for alias names

              data base of alias names

              configuration file

              help file

              collected statistics

              temp files

       mail(1),  syslog(3),  aliases(5),  mailaddr(7),  mail.local(8),  rc(8),

       DARPA Internet Request For Comments RFC819, RFC821,  RFC822.   Sendmail
       Installation and Operation Guide, No. 8, SMM.

       The sendmail command appeared in 4.2BSD.

                         $Date: 2003/12/01 17:02:41 $              SENDMAIL(8)


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