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SETKEY(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		     SETKEY(8)

     setkey -- manually	manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database

     setkey [-v] -c
     setkey [-v] -f filename
     setkey [-aPlv] -D
     setkey [-Pv] -F
     setkey [-h] -x

     The setkey	utility	adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association
     Database (SAD) entries as well as Security	Policy Database	(SPD) entries
     in	the kernel.

     The setkey	utility	takes a	series of operations from the standard input
     (if invoked with -c) or the file named filename (if invoked with -f

     -D	     Dump the SAD entries.  If with -P,	the SPD	entries	are dumped.

     -F	     Flush the SAD entries.  If	with -P, the SPD entries are flushed.

     -a	     The setkey	utility	usually	does not display dead SAD entries with
	     -D.  If with -a, the dead SAD entries will	be displayed as	well.
	     A dead SAD	entry means that it has	been expired but remains in
	     the system	because	it is referenced by some SPD entries.

     -h	     Add hexadecimal dump on -x	mode.

     -l	     Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -v	     Be	verbose.  The program will dump	messages exchanged on PF_KEY
	     socket, including messages	sent from other	processes to the ker-

     -x	     Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted	to PF_KEY
	     socket.  -xx makes	each timestamps	unformatted.

   Configuration syntax
     With -c or	-f on the command line,	setkey accepts the following configu-
     ration syntax.  Lines starting with hash signs (`#') are treated as com-
     ment lines.

     add [-46n]	src dst	protocol spi [extensions] algorithm ...	;
	     Add an SAD	entry.	add can	fail with multiple reasons, including
	     when the key length does not match	the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n]	src dst	protocol spi ;
	     Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi	;
	     Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
	     Remove all	SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush [protocol] ;
	     Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
	     line achieves the same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
	     Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
	     line achieves the same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec policy	;
	     Add an SPD	entry.

     spddelete [-46n] src_range	dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
	     Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
	     Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the	command	line achieves the same

     spddump ;
	     Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the	command	line achieves the same

     Meta-arguments are	as follows:

     dst     Source/destination	of the secure communication is specified as
	     IPv4/v6 address.  The setkey utility can resolve a	FQDN into nu-
	     meric addresses.  If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses,
	     setkey will install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by
	     trying all	possible combinations.	-4, -6 and -n restricts	the
	     address resolution	of FQDN	in certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict
	     results into IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.	 -n avoids
	     FQDN resolution and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

	     protocol is one of	following:
	     esp	 ESP based on rfc2406
	     esp-old	 ESP based on rfc1827
	     ah		 AH based on rfc2402
	     ah-old	 AH based on rfc1826
	     ipcomp	 IPComp
	     tcp	 TCP-MD5 based on rfc2385

     spi     Security Parameter	Index (SPI) for	the SAD	and the	SPD.  spi must
	     be	a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with `0x' prefix.
	     SPI values	between	0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
	     and they cannot be	used.  TCP-MD5 associations must use 0x1000
	     and therefore only	have per-host granularity at this time.

	     take some of the following:
	     -m	mode	 Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
			 one of	following: transport, tunnel or	any.  The de-
			 fault value is	any.
	     -r	size	 Specify window	size of	bytes for replay prevention.
			 size must be decimal number in	32-bit word.  If size
			 is zero or not	specified, replay check	does not take
	     -u	id	 Specify the identifier	of the policy entry in SPD.
			 See policy.
	     -f	pad_option
			 defines the content of	the ESP	padding.  pad_option
			 is one	of following:
			 zero-pad    All of the	padding	are zero.
			 random-pad  A series of randomized values are set.
			 seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
				     started from 1 are	set.
	     -f	nocyclic-seq
			 Do not	allow cyclic sequence number.
	     -lh time
	     -ls time	 Specify hard/soft life	time duration of the SA.

	     -E	ealgo key
			 Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
	     -E	ealgo key -A aalgo key
			 Specify a encryption algorithm	ealgo, as well as a
			 payload authentication	algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
	     -A	aalgo key
			 Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
	     -C	calgo [-R]
			 Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is
			 specified, spi	field value will be used as the	IPComp
			 CPI (compression parameter index) on wire as is.  If
			 -R is not specified, the kernel will use well-known
			 CPI on	wire, and spi field will be used only as an
			 index for kernel internal usage.

	     key must be double-quoted character string, or a series of	hexa-
	     decimal digits preceded by	`0x'.

	     Possible values for ealgo,	aalgo and calgo	are specified in sepa-
	     rate section.

	     These are selections of the secure	communication specified	as
	     IPv4/v6 address or	IPv4/v6	address	range, and it may accompany
	     TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes the following form:


	     prefixlen and port	must be	decimal	number.	 The square bracket
	     around port is really necessary.  They are	not manpage metachar-
	     acters.  For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable	to src and dst
	     apply here	as well.

	     Upper-layer protocol to be	used.  You can use one of words	in
	     /etc/protocols as upperspec.  Or icmp6, ip4, and any can be spec-
	     ified.  any stands	for "any protocol".  Also you can use the pro-
	     tocol number.  You	can specify a type and/or a code of ICMPv6
	     when upper-layer protocol is ICMPv6.  The specification can be
	     placed after icmp6.  A type is separated with a code by single
	     comma.  A code must be specified anytime.	When a zero is speci-
	     fied, the kernel deals with it as a wildcard.  Note that the ker-
	     nel cannot	distinguish a wildcard from that a type	of ICMPv6 is
	     zero.  For	example, the following means the policy	does not re-
	     quire IPsec for any inbound Neighbor Solicitation:

		   spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0	-P in none;

	     NOTE: upperspec does not work against forwarding case at this mo-
	     ment, as it requires extra	reassembly at forwarding node (not im-
	     plemented at this moment).	 We have many protocols	in
	     /etc/protocols, but protocols except of TCP, UDP and ICMP may not
	     be	suitable to use	with IPsec.  You have to consider and be care-
	     ful to use	them.

     policy  policy is the one of the following	three formats:

	   -P direction	discard
	   -P direction	none
	   -P direction	ipsec protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

	     You must specify the direction of its policy as direction.	 Ei-
	     ther out or in are	used.  discard means the packet	matching in-
	     dexes will	be discarded.  none means that IPsec operation will
	     not take place onto the packet.  ipsec means that IPsec operation
	     will take place onto the packet.  The part	of
	     protocol/mode/src-dst/level specifies the rule how	to process the
	     packet.  Either ah, esp or	ipcomp is to be	set as protocol.  mode
	     is	either transport or tunnel.  If	mode is	tunnel,	you must spec-
	     ify the end-points	addresses of the SA as src and dst with	`-'
	     between these addresses which is used to specify the SA to	use.
	     If	mode is	transport, both	src and	dst can	be omitted.  level is
	     to	be one of the following: default, use, require or unique.  If
	     the SA is not available in	every level, the kernel	will request
	     getting SA	to the key exchange daemon.  default means the kernel
	     consults to the system wide default against protocol you speci-
	     fied, e.g., esp_trans_deflev sysctl variable, when	the kernel
	     processes the packet.  use	means that the kernel use a SA if it
	     is	available, otherwise the kernel	keeps normal operation.
	     require means SA is required whenever the kernel sends a packet
	     matched with the policy.  unique is the same to require.  In ad-
	     dition, it	allows the policy to bind with the unique out-bound
	     SA.  You just specify the policy level unique, racoon(8) will
	     configure the SA for the policy.  If you configure	the SA by man-
	     ual keying	for that policy, you can put the decimal number	as the
	     policy identifier after unique separated by colon `:' like	the
	     following;	unique:number.	In order to bind this policy to	the
	     SA, number	must be	between	1 and 32767.  It corresponds to
	     extensions	-u of the manual SA configuration.  When you want to
	     use SA bundle, you	can define multiple rules.  For	example, if an
	     IP	header was followed by AH header followed by ESP header	fol-
	     lowed by an upper layer protocol header, the rule would be:
		   esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;
	     The rule order is very important.

	     Note that "discard" and "none" are	not in the syntax described in
	     ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are little differences	in the syntax.
	     See ipsec_set_policy(3) for detail.

     The following list	shows the supported algorithms.	 protocol and
     algorithm are almost orthogonal.  Followings are the list of authentica-
     tion algorithms that can be used as aalgo in -A aalgo of protocol parame-

	   algorithm	   keylen (bits)   comment
	   hmac-md5	   128		   ah: rfc2403
			   128		   ah-old: rfc2085
	   hmac-sha1	   160		   ah: rfc2404
			   160		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   keyed-md5	   128		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   128		   ah-old: rfc1828
	   keyed-sha1	   160		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   160		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   null		   0 to	2048	   for debugging
	   hmac-sha2-256   256		   ah: 96bit ICV
			   256		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-sha2-384   384		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   384		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-sha2-512   512		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   512		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-ripemd160  160		   ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
					   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   aes-xcbc-mac	   128		   ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
			   128		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   tcp-md5	   8 to	640	   tcp:	rfc2385

     Followings	are the	list of	encryption algorithms that can be used as
     ealgo in -E ealgo of protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   keylen (bits)   comment
	   des-cbc	   64		   esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
	   3des-cbc	   192		   rfc2451
	   null		   0 to	2048	   rfc2410
	   blowfish-cbc	   40 to 448	   rfc2451
	   cast128-cbc	   40 to 128	   rfc2451
	   des-deriv	   64		   ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01
	   3des-deriv	   192		   no document
	   rijndael-cbc	   128/192/256	   rfc3602
	   aes-ctr	   160/224/288	   draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ctr-03

     Note that the first 128 bits of a key for aes-ctr will be used as AES
     key, and remaining	32 bits	will be	used as	nonce.

     Followings	are the	list of	compression algorithms that can	be used	as
     calgo in -C calgo of protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   comment
	   deflate	   rfc2394

     The setkey	utility	exits 0	on success, and	>0 if an error occurs.

     add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
	     -E	des-cbc	0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

     add -6 ah 123456
	     -A	hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

     add esp 0x10001
	     -E	des-cbc	0x3ffe05014819ffff
	     -A	hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

     get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     flush ;

     dump esp ;

     spdadd[21][any] any
	     -P	out ipsec esp/tunnel/ ;

     add tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP secret" ;

     ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(8), sysctl(8)

     Changed manual key	configuration for IPsec, October 1999,

     The setkey	utility	first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
     kit.  The utility was completely re-designed in June 1998.

     The setkey	utility	should report and handle syntax	errors better.

     For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range	and dst_range with TCP/UDP
     port number do not	work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets (can-
     not inspect upper-layer headers).

BSD			       November	20, 2000			   BSD


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