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SETKEY(8)		FreeBSD	System Manager's Manual		     SETKEY(8)

     setkey -- manually	manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database

     setkey [-v] -c
     setkey [-v] -f filename
     setkey [-Pgltv] -D
     setkey [-Pv] -F
     setkey [-h] -x

     The setkey	utility	adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association
     Database (SAD) entries as well as Security	Policy Database	(SPD) entries
     in	the kernel.

     The setkey	utility	takes a	series of operations from the standard input
     (if invoked with -c) or the file named filename (if invoked with -f

     -D	     Dump the SAD entries.  If with -P,	the SPD	entries	are dumped.

     -F	     Flush the SAD entries.  If	with -P, the SPD entries are flushed.

     -g	     Only SPD entries with global scope	are dumped with	-D and -P

     -t	     Only SPD entries with ifnet scope are dumped with -D and -P
	     flags.  Such SPD entries are linked to the	corresponding
	     if_ipsec(4) virtual tunneling interface.

     -h	     Add hexadecimal dump on -x	mode.

     -l	     Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -v	     Be	verbose.  The program will dump	messages exchanged on PF_KEY
	     socket, including messages	sent from other	processes to the ker-

     -x	     Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted	to PF_KEY
	     socket.  -xx makes	each timestamp unformatted.

   Configuration syntax
     With -c or	-f on the command line,	setkey accepts the following configu-
     ration syntax.  Lines starting with hash signs (`#') are treated as com-
     ment lines.

     add [-46n]	src dst	protocol spi [extensions] algorithm ...	;
	     Add an SAD	entry.	add can	fail with multiple reasons, including
	     when the key length does not match	the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n]	src dst	protocol spi ;
	     Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi	;
	     Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
	     Remove all	SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush [protocol] ;
	     Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
	     line achieves the same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
	     Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
	     line achieves the same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec policy	;
	     Add an SPD	entry.

     spddelete [-46n] src_range	dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
	     Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
	     Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the	command	line achieves the same

     spddump ;
	     Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the	command	line achieves the same

     Meta-arguments are	as follows:

     dst     Source/destination	of the secure communication is specified as
	     IPv4/v6 address.  The setkey utility can resolve a	FQDN into nu-
	     meric addresses.  If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses,
	     setkey will install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by
	     trying all	possible combinations.	-4, -6 and -n restricts	the
	     address resolution	of FQDN	in certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict
	     results into IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.	 -n avoids
	     FQDN resolution and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

	     protocol is one of	following:
	     esp	 ESP based on rfc2406
	     esp-old	 ESP based on rfc1827
	     ah		 AH based on rfc2402
	     ah-old	 AH based on rfc1826
	     ipcomp	 IPComp
	     tcp	 TCP-MD5 based on rfc2385

     spi     Security Parameter	Index (SPI) for	the SAD	and the	SPD.  spi must
	     be	a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with `0x' prefix.
	     SPI values	between	0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
	     and they cannot be	used.

	     take some of the following:
	     -m	mode	 Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
			 one of	following: transport, tunnel or	any.  The de-
			 fault value is	any.
	     -r	size	 Specify the bitmap size in octets of the anti-replay
			 window.  size is a 32-bit unsigned integer, and its
			 value is one eighth of	the anti-replay	window size in
			 packets.  If size is zero or not specified, an	anti-
			 replay	check does not take place.
	     -u	id	 Specify the identifier	of the policy entry in SPD.
			 See policy.
	     -f	pad_option
			 defines the content of	the ESP	padding.  pad_option
			 is one	of following:
			 zero-pad    All of the	padding	are zero.
			 random-pad  A series of randomized values are set.
			 seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
				     started from 1 are	set.
	     -f	nocyclic-seq
			 Do not	allow cyclic sequence number.
	     -lh time
	     -ls time	 Specify hard/soft life	time duration of the SA.

	     -E	ealgo key
			 Specify an encryption or Authenticated	Encryption
			 with Associated Data (AEAD) algorithm ealgo for ESP.
	     -E	ealgo key -A aalgo key
			 Specify a encryption algorithm	ealgo, as well as a
			 payload authentication	algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
	     -A	aalgo key
			 Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
	     -C	calgo [-R]
			 Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is
			 specified, the	spi field value	will be	used as	the
			 IPComp	CPI (compression parameter index) on wire as
			 is.  If -R is not specified, the kernel will use
			 well-known CPI	on wire, and spi field will be used
			 only as an index for kernel internal usage.

	     key must be double-quoted character string, or a series of	hexa-
	     decimal digits preceded by	`0x'.

	     Possible values for ealgo,	aalgo and calgo	are specified in sepa-
	     rate section.

	     These are selections of the secure	communication specified	as
	     IPv4/v6 address or	IPv4/v6	address	range, and it may accompany
	     TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes the following form:


	     prefixlen and port	must be	a decimal number.  The square brackets
	     around port are necessary and are not manpage metacharacters.
	     For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and dst apply
	     here as well.

	     The upper layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of the
	     words in /etc/protocols as	upperspec, as well as icmp6, ip4, or
	     any.  The word any	stands for "any	protocol".  The	protocol num-
	     ber may also be used to specify the upperspec.  A type and	code
	     related to	ICMPv6 may also	be specified as	an upperspec.  The
	     type is specified first, followed by a comma and then the rele-
	     vant code.	 The specification must	be placed after	icmp6.	The
	     kernel considers a	zero to	be a wildcard but cannot distinguish
	     between a wildcard	and an ICMPv6 type which is zero.  The follow-
	     ing example shows a policy	where IPSec is not required for	in-
	     bound Neighbor Solicitations:

		   spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0	-P in none;

	     NOTE: upperspec does not work in the forwarding case at this mo-
	     ment, as it requires extra	reassembly at forwarding node, which
	     is	not implemented	at this	moment.	 Although there	are many pro-
	     tocols in /etc/protocols, protocols other than TCP, UDP and ICMP
	     may not be	suitable to use	with IPsec.

     policy  policy is expressed in one	of the following three formats:

	     -P	direction discard
	     -P	direction none
	     -P	direction ipsec	protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

	     The direction of a	policy must be specified as one	of: out	or in.
	     The direction is followed by one of the following policy levels:
	     discard, none, or ipsec.  The discard policylevel means that
	     packets matching the supplied indices will	be discarded while
	     none means	that IPsec operations will not take place on the
	     packet and	ipsec means that IPsec operation will take place onto
	     the packet.  The protocol/mode/src-dst/level statement gives the
	     rule for how to process the packet.  The protocol is specified as
	     ah, esp or	ipcomp.	 The mode is either transport or tunnel.  If
	     mode is tunnel, you must specify the end-point addresses of the
	     SA	as src and dst with a dash, `-', between the addresses.	 If
	     mode is transport,	both src and dst can be	omitted.  The level is
	     one of the	following: default, use, require or unique.  If	the SA
	     is	not available in every level, the kernel will request the SA
	     from the key exchange daemon.  A value of default tells the ker-
	     nel to use	the system wide	default	protocol e.g., the one from
	     the esp_trans_deflev sysctl variable, when	the kernel processes
	     the packet.  A value of use means that the	kernel will use	an SA
	     if	it is available, otherwise the kernel will pass	the packet as
	     it	would normally.	 A value of require means that an SA is	re-
	     quired whenever the kernel	sends a	packet matched that matches
	     the policy.  The unique level is the same as require but, in ad-
	     dition, it	allows the policy to bind with the unique out-bound
	     SA.  For example, if you specify the policy level unique,
	     racoon(8) will configure the SA for the policy.  If you configure
	     the SA by manual keying for that policy, you can put the decimal
	     number as the policy identifier after unique separated by colon
	     `:' as in the following example: unique:number.  In order to bind
	     this policy to the	SA, number must	be between 1 and 32767,	which
	     corresponds to extensions -u of manual SA configuration.

	     When you want to use an SA	bundle,	you can	define multiple	rules.
	     For example, if an	IP header was followed by an AH	header fol-
	     lowed by an ESP header followed by	an upper layer protocol
	     header, the rule would be:

		   esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;

	     The rule order is very important.

	     Note that "discard" and "none" are	not in the syntax described in
	     ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are small, but	important, differences
	     in	the syntax.  See ipsec_set_policy(3) for details.

     The following lists show the supported algorithms.

   Authentication Algorithms
     The following authentication algorithms can be used as aalgo in the -A
     aalgo of the protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   keylen (bits)   comment
	   hmac-sha1	   160		   ah/esp: rfc2404
			   160		   ah-old/esp-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   null		   0 to	2048	   for debugging
	   hmac-sha2-256   256		   ah/esp: 128bit ICV (RFC4868)
			   256		   ah-old/esp-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-sha2-384   384		   ah/esp: 192bit ICV (RFC4868)
			   384		   ah-old/esp-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-sha2-512   512		   ah/esp: 256bit ICV (RFC4868)
			   512		   ah-old/esp-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   aes-xcbc-mac	   128		   ah/esp: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
			   128		   ah-old/esp-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   tcp-md5	   8 to	640	   tcp:	rfc2385

   Encryption Algorithms
     The following encryption algorithms can be	used as	the ealgo in the -E
     ealgo of the protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   keylen (bits)   comment
	   null		   0 to	2048	   rfc2410
	   aes-cbc	   128/192/256	   rfc3602
	   aes-ctr	   160/224/288	   rfc3686
	   aes-gcm-16	   160/224/288	   AEAD; rfc4106

     Note that the first 128/192/256 bits of a key for aes-ctr or aes-gcm-16
     will be used as the AES key, and the remaining 32 bits will be used as
     the nonce.

     AEAD encryption algorithms	such as	aes-gcm-16 include authentication and
     should not	be paired with a separate authentication algorithm via -A.

   Compression Algorithms
     The following compression algorithms can be used as the calgo in the -C
     calgo of the protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   comment
	   deflate	   rfc2394

     The setkey	utility	exits 0	on success, and	>0 if an error occurs.

     Add an ESP	SA between two IPv6 addresses using the	AES-GCM	AEAD algo-

	   add 3ffe:501:4819::1	3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
		   -E aes-gcm-16 0x3ffe050148193ffe050148193ffe050148193ffe ;

     Add an authentication SA between two FQDN specified hosts:

	   add -6 ah 123456
		   -A hmac-sha2-256 "AH	SA configuration!" ;

     Get the SA	information associated with first example above:

	   get 3ffe:501:4819::1	3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     Flush all entries from the	database:

	   flush ;

     Dump the ESP entries from the database:

	   dump	esp ;

     Add a security policy between two networks	that uses ESP in tunnel	mode:

	   spdadd[21][any] any
		   -P out ipsec	esp/tunnel/ ;

     Use TCP MD5 between two numerically specified hosts:

	   add tcp 0x1000	-A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP	secret"	;
	   add tcp 0x1001	-A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP	secret"	;

     ipsec_set_policy(3), if_ipsec(4), racoon(8), sysctl(8)

     Changed manual key	configuration for IPsec,, October 1999.

     The setkey	utility	first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
     kit.  The utility was completely re-designed in June 1998.	 It first ap-
     peared in FreeBSD 4.0.

     The setkey	utility	should report and handle syntax	errors better.

     For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range	and dst_range with TCP/UDP
     port number do not	work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets (can-
     not inspect upper-layer headers).

FreeBSD	13.0		      September	13, 2022		  FreeBSD 13.0


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