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SMARTD(8)		    SMART Monitoring Tools		     SMARTD(8)

       smartd -	SMART Disk Monitoring Daemon

       smartd [options]

       [This  man  page	is generated for the FreeBSD version of	smartmontools.
       It does not contain info	specific to other platforms.]

       smartd is a daemon that monitors	the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and  Re-
       porting Technology (SMART) system built into most ATA/SATA and SCSI/SAS
       hard drives and solid-state drives.  The	purpose	of SMART is to monitor
       the  reliability	 of  the hard drive and	predict	drive failures,	and to
       carry out different types of drive self-tests.  This version of	smartd
       is  compatible  with  ACS-3,  ACS-2,  ATA8-ACS, ATA/ATAPI-7 and earlier
       standards (see REFERENCES below).

       smartd will attempt to enable SMART monitoring on ATA devices  (equiva-
       lent  to	smartctl -s on)	and polls these	and SCSI devices every 30 min-
       utes (configurable), logging SMART errors  and  changes	of  SMART  At-
       tributes	via the	SYSLOG interface.  The default location	for these SYS-
       LOG  notifications  and	 warnings   is	 system-dependent   (typically
       /var/log/messages  or  /var/log/syslog).	  To change this default loca-
       tion, please see	the '-l' command-line option described below.

       In addition to logging to a file, smartd	can also be configured to send
       email  warnings	if  problems are detected.  Depending upon the type of
       problem,	you may	want to	run self-tests on the disk, back up the	 disk,
       replace the disk, or use	a manufacturer's utility to force reallocation
       of bad or unreadable disk sectors.   If	disk  problems	are  detected,
       please  see the smartctl	manual page and	the smartmontools web page/FAQ
       for further guidance.

       If you send a USR1 signal to smartd it will immediately check the  sta-
       tus  of	the  disks, and	then return to polling the disks every 30 min-
       utes.  See the '-i' option below	for additional details.

       smartd can be configured	 at  start-up  using  the  configuration  file
       /usr/local/etc/smartd.conf  (Windows: EXEDIR/smartd.conf).  If the con-
       figuration file is subsequently modified, smartd	can be told to re-read
       the configuration file by sending it a HUP signal, for example with the
       killall -HUP smartd.

       On startup, if smartd finds a syntax error in the  configuration	 file,
       it will print an	error message and then exit.  However if smartd	is al-
       ready running, then is told with	a HUP signal to	re-read	the configura-
       tion  file, and then find a syntax error	in this	file, it will print an
       error message and then continue,	ignoring the contents of the  (faulty)
       configuration file, as if the HUP signal	had never been received.

       When  smartd  is	running	in debug mode, the INT signal (normally	gener-
       ated from a shell with CONTROL-C) is treated in the same	way as	a  HUP
       signal:	it makes smartd	reload its configuration file.	To exit	smartd
       use CONTROL-\.

       On  startup,  in	 the  absence  of  the	configuration  file   /usr/lo-
       cal/etc/smartd.conf, the	smartd daemon first scans for all devices that
       support SMART.  The scanning is done as follows:

       FREEBSD:	Authoritative list of disk devices is obtained from SCSI (CAM)
		and ATA	subsystems.  Disks behind RAID controllers are not in-

       smartd then monitors for	all possible SMART  errors  (corresponding  to
       the  '-a'  Directive  in	the configuration file;	see the	smartd.conf(5)
       man page).

       -A PREFIX, --attributelog=PREFIX
	      Writes smartd attribute information (normalized and  raw	attri-
	      bute  values)  to	 files 'PREFIX''MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv' or 'PRE-
	      FIX''VENDOR-MODEL-SERIAL.scsi.csv'.  At  each  check  cycle  at-
	      tributes are logged as a line of semicolon separated triplets of
	      the    form    "attribute-ID;attribute-norm-value;attribute-raw-
	      value;".	 For  SCSI  devices  error  counters  and  temperature
	      recorded in the form "counter-name;counter-value;".   Each  line
	      is  led  by  a date string of the	form "yyyy-mm-dd HH:MM:SS" (in

	      MODEL and	SERIAL are build from drive identify information,  in-
	      valid characters are replaced by underline.

	      If    the	   PREFIX    has    the	   form	  '/path/dir/'	 (e.g.
	      '/var/lib/smartd/'), then	files 'MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv' are  cre-
	      ated  in	directory  '/path/dir'.	  If  the  PREFIX has the form
	      '/path/name' (e.g. '/var/lib/misc/attrlog-'), then files 'nameM-
	      ODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv'  are	 created  in  directory	'/path/'.  The
	      path must	be absolute, except if debug mode is enabled.

       -B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
	      [ATA only] Read the drive	database from FILE.  The new  database
	      replaces the built in database by	default.  If '+' is specified,
	      then the new entries prepend the built in	entries.   Please  see
	      the smartctl(8) man page for further details.

       -c FILE,	--configfile=FILE
	      Read  smartd configuration Directives from FILE, instead of from
	      the  default   location	/usr/local/etc/smartd.conf   (Windows:
	      EXEDIR/smartd.conf).   If	 FILE does not exist, then smartd will
	      print an error message and exit with nonzero status.  Thus,  '-c
	      /usr/local/etc/smartd.conf'  can be used to verify the existence
	      of the default configuration file.

	      By using '-' for FILE, the configuration is read	from  standard
	      input.  This is useful for commands like:
	      echo /dev/sdb -m user@home -M test | smartd -c - -q onecheck
	      to perform quick and simple checks without a configuration file.

       -d, --debug
	      Runs  smartd  in "debug" mode.  In this mode, it displays	status
	      information to STDOUT rather than	logging	it to SYSLOG and  does
	      not  fork(2) into	the background and detach from the controlling
	      terminal.	 In this mode, smartd also prints more verbose	infor-
	      mation  about  what  it is doing than when operating in "daemon"
	      mode.  In	this mode, the INT signal (normally generated  from  a
	      terminal	with  CONTROL-C) makes smartd reload its configuration
	      file.  Please use	CONTROL-\ to exit

       -D, --showdirectives
	      Prints a list (to	STDOUT)	of all the possible  Directives	 which
	      may appear in the	configuration file /usr/local/etc/smartd.conf,
	      and  then	 exits.	  These	 Directives  are  described   in   the
	      smartd.conf(5)  man  page.  They may appear in the configuration
	      file following the device	name.

       -h, --help, --usage
	      Prints usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -i N, --interval=N
	      Sets the interval	between	disk checks to N seconds, where	N is a
	      decimal integer.	The minimum allowed value is ten and the maxi-
	      mum is the largest positive integer that can be  represented  on
	      your system (often 2^31-1).  The default is 1800 seconds.

	      Note  that the superuser can make	smartd check the status	of the
	      disks at any time	by sending it the SIGUSR1 signal, for  example
	      with the command:
	      kill -SIGUSR1 <pid>
	      where  <pid>  is	the process id number of smartd.  One may also
	      killall -USR1 smartd
	      for the same purpose.

       -l FACILITY, --logfacility=FACILITY
	      Uses syslog facility FACILITY to log the messages	 from  smartd.
	      Here  FACILITY  is one of	local0,	local1,	..., local7, or	daemon
	      [default].  If this command-line option is not used, then	by de-
	      fault messages from smartd are logged to the facility daemon.

	      If you would like	to have	smartd messages	logged somewhere other
	      than the default location, include (for example) '-l local3'  in
	      its  start  up argument list.  Tell the syslog daemon to log all
	      messages	  from	  facility    local3	to    (for    example)

	      For more detailed	information, please refer to the man pages for
	      the local	syslog daemon, typically syslogd(8),  syslog-ng(8)  or

       -n, --no-fork
	      Do  not  fork into background; this is useful when executed from
	      modern init methods like initng, minit, supervise	or systemd.

       -p NAME,	--pidfile=NAME
	      Writes pidfile NAME containing  the  smartd  Process  ID	number
	      (PID).   To  avoid  symlink  attacks  make sure the directory to
	      which pidfile is written is only	writable  for  root.   Without
	      this  option,  or	if the --debug option is given,	no PID file is
	      written on startup.  If smartd is	killed with a maskable	signal
	      then the pidfile is removed.

       -q WHEN,	--quit=WHEN
	      Specifies	 when,	if  ever, smartd should	exit.  The valid argu-
	      ments are	to this	option are:

	      nodev - Exit if there are	no devices to monitor, or if  any  er-
	      rors  are	 found	at startup in the configuration	file.  This is
	      the default.

	      errors - Exit if there are no devices to monitor,	or if any  er-
	      rors    are   found   in	 the   configuration   file   /usr/lo-
	      cal/etc/smartd.conf at startup or	whenever it is reloaded.

	      nodevstartup - Exit if  there  are  no  devices  to  monitor  at
	      startup.	 But  continue to run if no devices are	found whenever
	      the configuration	file is	reloaded.

	      never - Only exit	if a fatal error occurs	(no  remaining	system
	      memory,  invalid command line arguments).	 In this mode, even if
	      there are	no devices to monitor, or if  the  configuration  file
	      /usr/local/etc/smartd.conf  has  errors, smartd will continue to
	      run, waiting to load a configuration file	listing	valid devices.

	      onecheck - Start smartd in debug mode,  then  register  devices,
	      then  check  device's SMART status once, and then	exit with zero
	      exit status if all of these steps	worked correctly.

	      This last	option is intended for 'distribution-writers' who want
	      to create	automated scripts to determine whether or not to auto-
	      matically	start up smartd	after installing smartmontools.	 After
	      starting	smartd	with  this  command-line option, the distribu-
	      tion's install scripts should wait a reasonable length  of  time
	      (say ten seconds).  If smartd has	not exited with	zero status by
	      that time, the script should send	smartd a  SIGTERM  or  SIGKILL
	      and  assume  that	smartd will not	operate	correctly on the host.
	      Conversely, if smartd exits with zero status, then it is safe to
	      run  smartd in normal daemon mode.  If smartd is unable to moni-
	      tor any devices or encounters other problems then	it will	return
	      with non-zero exit status.

	      showtests	 -  Start smartd in debug mode,	then register devices,
	      then write a list	of future scheduled self tests to stdout,  and
	      then  exit  with	zero  exit status if all of these steps	worked
	      correctly.  Device's SMART status	is not checked.

	      This option is intended to test whether the  '-s	REGEX'	direc-
	      tives  in	 smartd.conf will have the desired effect.  The	output
	      lists the	next test schedules, limited to	5 tests	per  type  and
	      device.	This is	followed by a summary of all tests of each de-
	      vice within the next 90 days.

       -r TYPE,	--report=TYPE
	      Intended primarily to help smartmontools	developers  understand
	      the  behavior  of	smartmontools on non-conforming	or poorly-con-
	      forming hardware.	 This option reports details of	smartd	trans-
	      actions with the device.	The option can be used multiple	times.
	      When used	just once, it shows a record of	the  ioctl()  transac-
	      tions  with the device.  When used more than once, the detail of
	      these ioctl() transactions are reported in greater detail.   The
	      valid arguments to this option are:

	      ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

	      ataioctl - report	only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

	      scsiioctl	- report only ioctl() transactions with	SCSI devices.

	      nvmeioctl	- report only ioctl() transactions with	NVMe devices.

	      Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
	      of detail	that should be reported.  The argument should be  fol-
	      lowed  by	a comma	then the integer with no spaces.  For example,
	      ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so '-r	 ataioctl,1'  and  '-r
	      ataioctl'	are equivalent.

       -s PREFIX, --savestates=PREFIX
	      Reads/writes   smartd  state  information	 from/to  files	 'PRE-
	      FIX''MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state'    or     'PREFIX''VENDOR-MODEL-SE-
	      RIAL.scsi.state'.	  This	preserves  SMART attributes, drive min
	      and max temperatures (-W directive), info	about last sent	 warn-
	      ing  email  (-m  directive),  and	 the time of next check	of the
	      self-test	REGEXP (-s directive) across boot cycles.

	      MODEL and	SERIAL are build from drive identify information,  in-
	      valid characters are replaced by underline.

	      If    the	   PREFIX    has    the	   form	  '/path/dir/'	 (e.g.
	      '/var/lib/smartd/'),  then  files	 'MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state'  are
	      created  in  directory  '/path/dir'.  If the PREFIX has the form
	      '/path/name' (e.g. '/var/lib/misc/smartd-'), then	files 'nameMO-
	      DEL-SERIAL.ata.state'  are  created  in directory	'/path/'.  The
	      path must	be absolute, except if debug mode is enabled.

	      The state	information files are read  on	smartd	startup.   The
	      files  are  always  (re)written  after reading the configuration
	      file, before rereading the configuration file  (SIGHUP),	before
	      smartd  shutdown,	 and after a check forced by SIGUSR1.  After a
	      normal check cycle, a file is only  rewritten  if	 an  important
	      change (which usually results in a SYSLOG	output)	occurred.

       -w PATH,	--warnexec=PATH
	      Run  the	executable  PATH  instead  of  the default script when
	      smartd needs to send warning messages.  PATH must	 point	to  an
	      executable  binary  file	or  script.   The  default  script  is

       -V, --version, --license, --copyright
	      Prints version, copyright, license, home page and	 SVN  revision
	      information for your copy	of smartd to STDOUT and	then exits.

       Runs  the daemon	in forked mode.	 This is the normal way	to run smartd.
       Entries are logged to SYSLOG.

       smartd -d -i 30
       Run in foreground (debug) mode, checking	the disk status	every 30  sec-

       smartd -q onecheck
       Registers  devices,  and	checks the status of the devices exactly once.
       The exit	status (the shell $?  variable)	will be	zero if	all went well,
       and  nonzero  if	no devices were	detected or some other problem was en-

       Note  that  smartmontools  provides  a  start-up	 script	 in   /usr/lo-
       cal/etc/rc.d/smartd  which is responsible for starting and stopping the
       daemon via the normal init interface.  Using this script, you can start
       smartd by giving	the command:
       /usr/local/etc/rc.d/smartd start
       and stop	it by using the	command:
       /usr/local/etc/rc.d/smartd stop

       The syntax of the smartd.conf(5)	file is	discussed separately.

       smartd  will  make  log	entries	at loglevel LOG_INFO if	the Normalized
       SMART Attribute values have changed, as reported	using the '-t',	 '-p',
       or '-u' Directives.  For	example:
       'Device:	 /dev/sda,  SMART  Attribute:  194 Temperature_Celsius changed
       from 94 to 93'
       Note that in this message, the value given is the 'Normalized' not  the
       'Raw'  Attribute	 value	(the disk temperature in this case is about 22
       Celsius).  The '-R' and '-r' Directives modify this behavior,  so  that
       the information is printed with the Raw values as well, for example:
       'Device:	 /dev/sda,  SMART  Attribute:  194 Temperature_Celsius changed
       from 94 [Raw 22]	to 93 [Raw 23]'
       Here the	Raw values are the actual disk temperatures in	Celsius.   The
       way  in which the Raw values are	printed, and the names under which the
       Attributes are reported,	is governed by the  various  '-v  Num,Descrip-
       tion' Directives	described previously.

       Please see the smartctl manual page for further explanation of the dif-
       ferences	between	Normalized and Raw Attribute values.

       smartd will make	log entries at loglevel	LOG_CRIT if a SMART  Attribute
       has failed, for example:
       'Device:	/dev/sdc, Failed SMART Attribute: 5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct'
	This  loglevel	is  used  for  reporting  enabled  by  the  '-H', -f',
       '-l selftest', and '-l error' Directives.  Entries reporting failure of
       SMART  Prefailure  Attributes should not	be ignored: they mean that the
       disk is failing.	 Use the smartctl utility to investigate.

       When smartd makes log entries, these are	time-stamped.  The time	stamps
       are in the computer's local time	zone, which is generally set using ei-
       ther the	environment variable 'TZ' or using a time-zone	file  such  as
       /etc/localtime.	 You  may  wish	to change the timezone while smartd is
       running (for example, if	you carry a laptop  to	a  new	time-zone  and
       don't  reboot  it).  Due	to a bug in the	tzset(3) function of many unix
       standard	C libraries, the time-zone stamps of smartd might not  change.
       For some	systems, smartd	will work around this problem if the time-zone
       is set using /etc/localtime.  The work-around fails if the time-zone is
       set using the 'TZ' variable (or a file that it points to).

       The exit	status (return value) of smartd	can have the following values:

       0:     Daemon startup successful, or smartd was killed by a SIGTERM (or
	      in debug mode, a SIGQUIT).

       1:     Commandline did not parse.

       2:     There was	a syntax error in the config file.

       3:     Forking the daemon failed.

       4:     Couldn't create PID file.

       5:     Config file does not exist (only returned	 in  conjunction  with
	      the '-c' option).

       6:     Config file exists, but cannot be	read.

       8:     smartd ran out of	memory during startup.

       10:    An inconsistency was found in smartd's internal data structures.
	      This should never	happen.	 It must be due	to either a coding  or
	      compiler	bug.  Please report such failures to smartmontools de-
	      velopers,	see REPORTING BUGS below.

       16:    A	device explicitly listed in  /usr/local/etc/smartd.conf	 can't
	      be monitored.

       17:    smartd didn't find any devices to	monitor.

       254:   When in daemon mode, smartd received a SIGINT or SIGQUIT.	 (Note
	      that in debug mode, SIGINT has the same effect  as  SIGHUP,  and
	      makes  smartd  reload  its  configuration	file.  SIGQUIT has the
	      same effect as SIGTERM and causes	smartd to exit with zero  exit

       132 and above
	      smartd  was  killed  by  a  signal that is not explicitly	listed
	      above.  The exit status is then 128 plus the signal number.  For
	      example  if smartd is killed by SIGKILL (signal 9) then the exit
	      status is	137.

	      full path	of this	executable.

	      configuration file (see smartd.conf(5) man page).

	      script run on warnings (see '-w' option above and	'-M exec'  di-
	      rective on smartd.conf(5)	man page).

	      plugin  directory	 for smartd warning script (see	'-m' directive
	      on smartd.conf(5)	man page).

	      drive database (see '-B' option).

	      optional local drive database (see '-B' option).

       Bruce Allen (project initiator),
       Christian Franke	 (project  manager,  Windows  port  and	 all  sort  of
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem),
       Volker Kuhlmann (moderator of support and database mailing list),
       Gabriele	Pohl (wiki & development team support),
       Alex Samorukov (FreeBSD port and	more, new Trac wiki).

       Many other individuals have made	contributions and corrections, see AU-
       THORS, ChangeLog	and repository files.

       The first smartmontools code was	derived	from the  smartsuite  package,
       written by Michael Cornwell and Andre Hedrick.

       To submit a bug report, create a	ticket in smartmontools	wiki:
       Alternatively send the info to the smartmontools	support	mailing	list:

       smartd.conf(5), smartctl(8).

       Please see the following	web site for more info:	<https://www.smartmon->

       An introductory article about smartmontools is  Monitoring  Hard	 Disks
       with  SMART,  by	Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004, pages	74-77.
       See <>.

       If you would like to understand better how SMART	 works,	 and  what  it
       does,  a	good place to start is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the first
       volume of the 'AT Attachment  with  Packet  Interface-7'	 (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification  Revision	4b.   This  documents  the SMART functionality
       which the smartmontools utilities provide access	to.

       The functioning of SMART	was originally defined by the SFF-8035i	 revi-
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i	revision 1.4 specifications.  These are	publi-
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.

       Links to	these and other	documents may be found on the  Links  page  of
       the smartmontools Wiki at <>.

       smartmontools-7.2 2020-12-30 r5155
       $Id:	4861 2018-12-16	18:24:57Z chrfranke $

smartmontools-7.2		  2020-12-30			     SMARTD(8)


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