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SOUND(4)	       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual		      SOUND(4)

     sound, pcm, snd --	FreeBSD	PCM audio device infrastructure

     To	compile	this driver into the kernel, place the following line in your
     kernel configuration file:

	   device sound

     The sound driver is the main component of the FreeBSD sound system.  It
     works in conjunction with a bridge	device driver on supported devices and
     provides PCM audio	record and playback once it attaches.  Each bridge de-
     vice driver supports a specific set of audio chipsets and needs to	be en-
     abled together with the sound driver.  PCI	and ISA	PnP audio devices
     identify themselves so users are usually not required to add anything to

     Some of the main features of the sound driver are:	multichannel audio,
     per-application volume control, dynamic mixing through virtual sound
     channels, true full duplex	operation, bit perfect audio, rate conversion
     and low latency modes.

     The sound driver is enabled by default, along with	several	bridge device
     drivers.  Those not enabled by default can	be loaded during runtime with
     kldload(8)	or during boot via loader.conf(5).  The	following bridge de-
     vice drivers are available:

     o	 snd_ad1816(4)
     o	 snd_ai2s(4) (enabled by default on powerpc)
     o	 snd_als4000(4)
     o	 snd_atiixp(4)
     o	 snd_audiocs(4)	(enabled by default on sparc64)
     o	 snd_cmi(4) (enabled by	default	on amd64, i386)
     o	 snd_cs4281(4)
     o	 snd_csa(4) (enabled by	default	on amd64, i386)
     o	 snd_davbus(4) (enabled	by default on powerpc)
     o	 snd_ds1(4)
     o	 snd_emu10k1(4)
     o	 snd_emu10kx(4)	(enabled by default on amd64, i386)
     o	 snd_envy24(4)
     o	 snd_envy24ht(4)
     o	 snd_es137x(4) (enabled	by default on amd64, i386, sparc64)
     o	 snd_ess(4)
     o	 snd_fm801(4)
     o	 snd_gusc(4)
     o	 snd_hda(4) (enabled by	default	on amd64, i386)
     o	 snd_hdspe(4)
     o	 snd_ich(4) (enabled by	default	on amd64, i386)
     o	 snd_maestro(4)
     o	 snd_maestro3(4)
     o	 snd_mss(4)
     o	 snd_neomagic(4)
     o	 snd_sb16
     o	 snd_sb8
     o	 snd_sbc(4)
     o	 snd_solo(4)
     o	 snd_spicds(4)
     o	 snd_t4dwave(4)	(enabled by default on sparc64)
     o	 snd_uaudio(4) (enabled	by default on amd64, i386, powerpc, sparc64)
     o	 snd_via8233(4)	(enabled by default on amd64, i386)
     o	 snd_via82c686(4)
     o	 snd_vibes(4)

     Refer to the manual page for each bridge device driver for	driver spe-
     cific settings and	information.

   Legacy Hardware
     For old legacy ISA	cards, the driver looks	for MSS	cards at addresses
     0x530 and 0x604.  These values can	be overridden in /boot/device.hints.
     Non-PnP sound cards require the following lines in	device.hints(5):"isa"

     Apart from	the usual parameters, the flags	field is used to specify the
     secondary DMA channel (generally used for capture in full duplex cards).
     Flags are set to 0	for cards not using a secondary	DMA channel, or	to
     0x10 + C to specify channel C.

   Boot	Variables
     In	general, the module snd_foo corresponds	to device snd_foo and can be
     loaded by the boot	loader(8) via loader.conf(5) or	from the command line
     using the kldload(8) utility.  Options which can be specified in
     /boot/loader.conf include:

	   snd_driver_load  ("NO") If set to "YES", this option	loads all
			    available drivers.

	   snd_hda_load	    ("NO") If set to "YES", only the Intel High	Defi-
			    nition Audio bridge	device driver and dependent
			    modules will be loaded.

	   snd_foo_load	    ("NO") If set to "YES", load driver	for
			    card/chipset foo.

     To	define default values for the different	mixer channels,	set the	chan-
     nel to the	preferred value	using hints, e.g.: hint.pcm.0.line="0".	 This
     will mute the input channel per default.

   Multichannel	Audio
     Multichannel audio, popularly referred to as "surround sound" is sup-
     ported and	enabled	by default.  The FreeBSD multichannel matrix processor
     supports up to 18 interleaved channels, but the limit is currently	set to
     8 channels	(as commonly used for 7.1 surround sound).  The	internal ma-
     trix mapping can handle reduction,	expansion or re-routing	of channels.
     This provides a base interface for	related	multichannel ioctl() support.
     Multichannel audio	works both with	and without VCHANs.

     Most bridge device	drivers	are still missing multichannel matrixing sup-
     port, but in most cases this should be trivial to implement.  Use the
     dev.pcm.%d.[play|rec].vchanformat sysctl(8) to adjust the number of chan-
     nels used.	 The current multichannel interleaved structure	and arrange-
     ment was implemented by inspecting	various	popular	UNIX applications.
     There were	no single standard, so much care has been taken	to try to sat-
     isfy each possible	scenario, despite the fact that	each application has
     its own conflicting standard.

     The Parametric Software Equalizer (EQ) enables the	use of "tone" controls
     (bass and treble).	 Commonly used for ear-candy or	frequency compensation
     due to the	vast difference	in hardware quality.  EQ is disabled by	de-
     fault, but	can be enabled with the	hint.pcm.%d.eq tunable.

     Each device can optionally	support	more playback and recording channels
     than physical hardware provides by	using "virtual channels" or VCHANs.
     VCHAN options can be configured via the sysctl(8) interface but can only
     be	manipulated while the device is	inactive.

     FreeBSD supports independent and individual volume	controls for each ac-
     tive application, without touching	the master sound volume.  This is
     sometimes referred	to as Volume Per Channel (VPC).	 The VPC feature is
     enabled by	default.

   Loader Tunables
     The following loader tunables are used to set driver configuration	at the
     loader(8) prompt before booting the kernel, or they can be	stored in
     /boot/loader.conf in order	to automatically set them before booting the
     kernel.  It is also possible to use kenv(1) to change these tunables be-
     fore loading the sound driver.  The following tunables can	not be changed
     during runtime using sysctl(8).

	     Set to 1 or 0 to explicitly enable	(1) or disable (0) the equal-
	     izer.  Requires a driver reload if	changed.  Enabling this	will
	     make bass and treble controls appear in mixer applications.  This
	     tunable is	undefined by default.  Equalizing is disabled by de-

	     Set to 1 or 0 to explicitly enable	(1) or disable (0) the VPC
	     feature.  This tunable is undefined by default.  VPC is however
	     enabled by	default.

   Runtime Configuration
     There are a number	of sysctl(8) variables available which can be modified
     during runtime.  These values can also be stored in /etc/sysctl.conf in
     order to automatically set	them during the	boot process.  hw.snd.*	are
     global settings and dev.pcm.* are device specific.

	     Linux mmap(2) compatibility.  The following values	are supported
	     (default is 0):

	     -1	 Force disabling/denying PROT_EXEC mmap(2) requests.

	     0	 Auto detect proc/ABI type, allow mmap(2) for Linux applica-
		 tions,	and deny for everything	else.

	     1	 Always	allow PROT_EXEC	page mappings.

	     Automatically assign the default sound unit.  The following val-
	     ues are supported (default	is 1):

	     0	 Do not	assign the default sound unit automatically.

	     1	 Use the best available	sound device based on playing and
		 recording capabilities	of the device.

	     2	 Use the most recently attached	device.

	     Default sound card	for systems with multiple sound	cards.	When
	     using devfs(5), the default device	for /dev/dsp.  Equivalent to a
	     symlink from /dev/dsp to /dev/dsp${hw.snd.default_unit}.

	     Only certain rates	are allowed for	precise	processing.  The de-
	     fault behavior is however to allow	sloppy processing for all
	     rates, even the unsupported ones.	Enable to toggle this require-
	     ment and only allow processing for	supported rates.

	     Maximum allowable sample rate.

	     Minimum allowable sample rate.

	     Adjust to set the maximum number of allowed polyphase entries
	     during the	process	of building resampling filters.	 Disabling
	     polyphase resampling has the benefit of reducing memory usage, at
	     the expense of slower and lower quality conversion.  Only appli-
	     cable when	the SINC interpolator is used.	Default	value is
	     183040.  Set to 0 to disable polyphase resampling.

	     Sample rate converter quality.  Default value is 1, linear	inter-
	     polation.	Available options include:

	     0	 Zero Order Hold, ZOH.	Very fast, but with poor quality.

	     1	 Linear	interpolation.	Fast, quality is subject to personal
		 preference.  Technically the quality is poor however, due to
		 the lack of anti-aliasing filtering.

	     2	 Bandlimited SINC interpolator.	 Implements polyphase banking
		 to boost the conversion speed,	at the cost of memory usage,
		 with multiple high quality polynomial interpolators to	im-
		 prove the conversion accuracy.	 100% fixed point, 64bit accu-
		 mulator with 32bit coefficients and high precision sample
		 buffering.  Quality values are	100dB stopband,	8 taps and 85%

	     3	 Continuation of the bandlimited SINC interpolator, with 100dB
		 stopband, 36 taps and 90% bandwidth as	quality	values.

	     4	 Continuation of the bandlimited SINC interprolator, with
		 100dB stopband, 164 taps and 97% bandwidth as quality values.

	     Sample rate rounding threshold, to	avoid large prime division at
	     the cost of accuracy.  All	requested sample rates will be rounded
	     to	the nearest threshold value.  Possible values range between 0
	     (disabled)	and 500.  Default is 25.

	     Configure the buffering latency.  Only affects applications that
	     do	not explicitly request blocksize / fragments.  This tunable
	     provides finer granularity	than the hw.snd.latency_profile	tun-
	     able.  Possible values range between 0 (lowest latency) and 10
	     (highest latency).

	     Define sets of buffering latency conversion tables	for the
	     hw.snd.latency tunable.  A	value of 0 will	use a low and aggres-
	     sive latency profile which	can result in possible underruns if
	     the application cannot keep up with a rapid irq rate, especially
	     during high workload.  The	default	value is 1, which is consid-
	     ered a moderate/safe latency profile.

	     Global VCHAN setting that only affects devices with at least one
	     playback or recording channel available.  The sound system	will
	     dynamically create	up to this many	VCHANs.	 Set to	"0" if no
	     VCHANs are	desired.  Maximum value	is 256.

	     Controls the internal format conversion if	it is available	trans-
	     parently to the application software.  When disabled or not
	     available,	the application	will only be able to select formats
	     the device	natively supports.

	     Enable seamless channel matrixing even if the hardware does not
	     support it.  Makes	it possible to play multichannel streams even
	     with a simple stereo sound	card.

	     Level of verbosity	for the	/dev/sndstat device.  Higher values
	     include more output and the highest level,	four, should be	used
	     when reporting problems.  Other options include:

	     0	 Installed devices and their allocated bus resources.

	     1	 The number of playback, record, virtual channels, and flags
		 per device.

	     2	 Channel information per device	including the channel's	cur-
		 rent format, speed, and pseudo	device statistics such as buf-
		 fer overruns and buffer underruns.

	     3	 File names and	versions of the	currently loaded sound mod-

	     4	 Various messages intended for debugging.

	     Default value for sound volume.  Increase to give more room for
	     attenuation control.  Decrease for	more amplification, with the
	     possible cost of sound clipping.

	     When a channel is closed the channel volume will be reset to 0db.
	     This means	that any changes to the	volume will be lost.  Enabling
	     this will preserve	the volume, at the cost	of possible confusion
	     when applications tries to	re-open	the same device.

	     The recommended way to use	the VPC	feature	is to teach applica-
	     tions to use the correct ioctl(): SNDCTL_DSP_GETPLAYVOL,
	     SNDCTL_DSP_SETRECVOL. This	is however not always possible.	 En-
	     able this to allow	applications to	use their own existing mixer
	     logic to control their own	channel	volume.

	     Enable to restore all channel volumes back	to the default value
	     of	0db.

	     Enable or disable bitperfect mode.	 When enabled, channels	will
	     skip all dsp processing, such as channel matrixing, rate convert-
	     ing and equalizing.  The pure sound stream	will be	fed directly
	     to	the hardware.  If VCHANs are enabled, the bitperfect mode will
	     use the VCHAN format/rate as the definitive format/rate target.
	     The recommended way to use	bitperfect mode	is to disable VCHANs
	     and enable	this sysctl.  Default is disabled.

	     The current number	of VCHANs allocated per	device.	 This can be
	     set to preallocate	a certain number of VCHANs.  Setting this
	     value to "0" will disable VCHANs for this device.

	     Format for	VCHAN mixing.  All playback paths will be converted to
	     this format before	the mixing process begins.  By default only 2
	     channels are enabled.  Available options include:


		 Stereo, 2 channels (left, right).

		 3 channels (left, right, LFE).

		 3 channels (left, right, rear center).

		 Quadraphonic, 4 channels (front/rear left and right).

		 5 channels (4.0 + LFE).

		 5 channels (4.0 + center).

		 6 channels (4.0 + center + LFE).

		 6 channels (4.0 + front/rear center).

		 7 channels (6.0 + LFE).

		 8 channels (4.0 + center + LFE	+ left and right side).

	     VCHAN format/rate selection.  Available options include:

		 Channel mixing	is done	using fixed format/rate.  Advanced op-
		 erations such as digital passthrough will not work.  Can be
		 considered as a "legacy" mode.	 This is the default mode for
		 hardware channels which lack support for digital formats.

		 Channel mixing	is done	using fixed format/rate, but advanced
		 operations such as digital passthrough	also work.  All	chan-
		 nels will produce sound as usual until	a digital format play-
		 back is requested.  When this happens all other channels will
		 be muted and the latest incoming digital format will be al-
		 lowed to pass through undisturbed.  Multiple concurrent digi-
		 tal streams are supported, but	the latest stream will take
		 precedence and	mute all other streams.

		 Works like the	"passthrough" mode, but	is a bit smarter, es-
		 pecially for multiple sound channels with different for-
		 mat/rate.  When a new channel is about	to start, the entire
		 list of virtual channels will be scanned, and the channel
		 with the best format/rate (usually the	highest/biggest) will
		 be selected.  This ensures that mixing	quality	depends	on the
		 best channel.	The downside is	that the hardware DMA mode
		 needs to be restarted,	which may cause	annoying pops or

	     Sample rate speed for VCHAN mixing.  All playback paths will be
	     converted to this sample rate before the mixing process begins.

	     Experimental polling mode support where the driver	operates by
	     querying the device state on each tick using a callout(9) mecha-
	     nism.  Disabled by	default	and currently only available for a few
	     device drivers.

   Recording Channels
     On	devices	that have more than one	recording source (ie: mic and line),
     there is a	corresponding /dev/dsp%d.r%d device.  The mixer(8) utility can
     be	used to	start and stop recording from an specific device.

     Channel statistics	are only kept while the	device is open.	 So with situ-
     ations involving overruns and underruns, consider the output while	the
     errant application	is open	and running.

   IOCTL Support
     The driver	supports most of the OSS ioctl() functions, and	most applica-
     tions work	unmodified.  A few differences exist, while memory mapped
     playback is supported natively and	in Linux emulation, memory mapped
     recording is not due to VM	system design.	As a consequence, some appli-
     cations may need to be recompiled with a slightly modified	audio module.
     See <sys/soundcard.h> for a complete list of the supported	ioctl()	func-

     The sound drivers may create the following	device nodes:

     /dev/audio%d.%d  Sparc-compatible audio device.
     /dev/dsp%d.%d    Digitized	voice device.
     /dev/dspW%d.%d   Like /dev/dsp, but 16 bits per sample.
     /dev/dsp%d.p%d   Playback channel.
     /dev/dsp%d.r%d   Record channel.
     /dev/dsp%d.vp%d  Virtual playback channel.
     /dev/dsp%d.vr%d  Virtual recording	channel.
     /dev/sndstat     Current sound status, including all channels and driv-

     The first number in the device node represents the	unit number of the
     sound device.  All	sound devices are listed in /dev/sndstat.  Additional
     messages are sometimes recorded when the device is	probed and attached,
     these messages can	be viewed with the dmesg(8) utility.

     The above device nodes are	only created on	demand through the dynamic
     devfs(5) clone handler.  Users are	strongly discouraged to	access them
     directly.	For specific sound card	access,	please instead use /dev/dsp or

     Use the sound metadriver to load all sound	bridge device drivers at once
     (for example if it	is unclear which the correct driver to use is):

	   kldload snd_driver

     Load a specific bridge device driver, in this case	the Intel High Defini-
     tion Audio	driver:

	   kldload snd_hda

     Check the status of all detected sound devices:

	   cat /dev/sndstat

     Change the	default	sound device, in this case to the second device.  This
     is	handy if there are multiple sound devices available:

	   sysctl hw.snd.default_unit=1

     pcm%d:play:%d:dsp%d.p%d: play interrupt timeout, channel dead  The	hard-
     ware does not generate interrupts to serve	incoming (play)	or outgoing
     (record) data.

     unsupported subdevice XX  A device	node is	not created properly.

     snd_ad1816(4), snd_ai2s(4), snd_als4000(4), snd_atiixp(4),
     snd_audiocs(4), snd_cmi(4), snd_cs4281(4),	snd_csa(4), snd_davbus(4),
     snd_ds1(4), snd_emu10k1(4), snd_emu10kx(4), snd_envy24(4),
     snd_envy24ht(4), snd_es137x(4), snd_ess(4), snd_fm801(4), snd_gusc(4),
     snd_hda(4), snd_hdspe(4), snd_ich(4), snd_maestro(4), snd_maestro3(4),
     snd_mss(4), snd_neomagic(4), snd_sbc(4), snd_solo(4), snd_spicds(4),
     snd_t4dwave(4), snd_uaudio(4), snd_via8233(4), snd_via82c686(4),
     snd_vibes(4), devfs(5), device.hints(5), loader.conf(5), dmesg(8),
     kldload(8), mixer(8), sysctl(8)

     Cookbook formulae for audio EQ biquad filter coefficients,	by Robert

     Julius O'Smith's Digital Audio Resampling,

     Polynomial	Interpolators for High-Quality Resampling of Oversampled
     Audio, by Olli Niemitalo,

     The OSS API,

     The sound device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 2.2.6 as	pcm, written
     by	Luigi Rizzo.  It was later rewritten in	FreeBSD	4.0 by Cameron Grant.
     The API evolved from the VOXWARE standard which later became OSS stan-

     Luigi Rizzo <> initially	wrote the pcm device driver
     and this manual page.  Cameron Grant <> later
     revised the device	driver for FreeBSD 4.0.	 Seigo Tanimura
     <> revised this manual page.  It was then
     rewritten for FreeBSD 5.2.

     Some features of your sound card (e.g., global volume control) might not
     be	supported on all devices.

FreeBSD	13.0			March 22, 2012			  FreeBSD 13.0


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