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STAT(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual		       STAT(1)

     stat, readlink -- display file status

     stat [-FHLnq] [-f format |	-l | -r	| -s | -x] [-t timefmt]	[file ...]
     readlink [-fn] [file ...]

     The stat utility displays information about the file pointed to by	file.
     Read, write, or execute permissions of the	named file are not required,
     but all directories listed	in the pathname	leading	to the file must be
     searchable.  If no	argument is given, stat	displays information about the
     file descriptor for standard input.

     When invoked as readlink, only the	target of the symbolic link is
     printed.  If the given argument is	not a symbolic link and	the -f option
     is	not specified, readlink	will print nothing and exit with an error.  If
     the -f option is specified, the output is canonicalized by	following ev-
     ery symlink in every component of the given path recursively.  readlink
     will resolve both absolute	and relative paths, and	return the absolute
     pathname corresponding to file.  In this case, the	argument does not need
     to	be a symbolic link.

     The information displayed is obtained by calling lstat(2) with the	given
     argument and evaluating the returned structure.  The default format dis-
     plays the st_dev, st_ino, st_mode,	st_nlink, st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev,
     st_size, st_atime,	st_mtime, st_ctime, st_birthtime, st_blksize,
     st_blocks,	and st_flags fields, in	that order.

     The options are as	follows:

     -F	     As	in ls(1), display a slash (`/')	immediately after each path-
	     name that is a directory, an asterisk (`*') after each that is
	     executable, an at sign (`@') after	each symbolic link, a percent
	     sign (`%')	after each whiteout, an	equal sign (`=') after each
	     socket, and a vertical bar	(`|') after each that is a FIFO.  The
	     use of -F implies -l.

     -H	     Treat each	argument as the	hexadecimal representation of an NFS
	     file handle, and use fhstat(2) instead of lstat(2).  This re-
	     quires root privileges.

     -L	     Use stat(2) instead of lstat(2).  The information reported	by
	     stat will refer to	the target of file, if file is a symbolic
	     link, and not to file itself.  If the link	is broken or the tar-
	     get does not exist, fall back on lstat(2) and report information
	     about the link.

     -n	     Do	not force a newline to appear at the end of each piece of out-

     -q	     Suppress failure messages if calls	to stat(2) or lstat(2) fail.
	     When run as readlink, error messages are automatically sup-

     -f	format
	     Display information using the specified format.  See the Formats
	     section for a description of valid	formats.

     -l	     Display output in ls -lT format.

     -r	     Display raw information.  That is,	for all	the fields in the stat
	     structure,	display	the raw, numerical value (for example, times
	     in	seconds	since the epoch, etc.).

     -s	     Display information in "shell output" format, suitable for	ini-
	     tializing variables.

     -t	timefmt
	     Display timestamps	using the specified format.  This format is
	     passed directly to	strftime(3).

     -x	     Display information in a more verbose way as known	from some
	     Linux distributions.

     Format strings are	similar	to printf(3) formats in	that they start	with
     %,	are then followed by a sequence	of formatting characters, and end in a
     character that selects the	field of the struct stat which is to be	for-
     matted.  If the % is immediately followed by one of n, t, %, or @,	then a
     newline character,	a tab character, a percent character, or the current
     file number is printed, otherwise the string is examined for the follow-

     Any of the	following optional flags:

     #	     Selects an	alternate output form for octal	and hexadecimal	out-
	     put.  Non-zero octal output will have a leading zero, and non-
	     zero hexadecimal output will have "0x" prepended to it.

     +	     Asserts that a sign indicating whether a number is	positive or
	     negative should always be printed.	 Non-negative numbers are not
	     usually printed with a sign.

     -	     Aligns string output to the left of the field, instead of to the

     0	     Sets the fill character for left padding to the `0' character,
	     instead of	a space.

     space   Reserves a	space at the front of non-negative signed output
	     fields.  A	`+' overrides a	space if both are used.

     Then the following	fields:

     size    An	optional decimal digit string specifying the minimum field

     prec    An	optional precision composed of a decimal point `.' and a deci-
	     mal digit string that indicates the maximum string	length,	the
	     number of digits to appear	after the decimal point	in floating
	     point output, or the minimum number of digits to appear in	nu-
	     meric output.

     fmt     An	optional output	format specifier which is one of D, O, U, X,
	     F,	or S.  These represent signed decimal output, octal output,
	     unsigned decimal output, hexadecimal output, floating point out-
	     put, and string output, respectively.  Some output	formats	do not
	     apply to all fields.  Floating point output only applies to
	     timespec fields (the a, m,	and c fields).

	     The special output	specifier S may	be used	to indicate that the
	     output, if	applicable, should be in string	format.	 May be	used
	     in	combination with:

	     amc     Display date in strftime(3) format.

	     dr	     Display actual device name.

	     f	     Display the flags of file as in ls	-lTdo.

	     gu	     Display group or user name.

	     p	     Display the mode of file as in ls -lTd.

	     N	     Displays the name of file.

	     T	     Displays the type of file.

	     Y	     Insert a "	-> " into the output.  Note that the default
		     output format for Y is a string, but if specified explic-
		     itly, these four characters are prepended.

     sub     An	optional sub field specifier (high, middle, low).  Only	ap-
	     plies to the p, d,	r, and T output	formats.  It can be one	of the

	     H	     "High" -- specifies the major number for devices from r
		     or	d, the "user" bits for permissions from	the string
		     form of p,	the file "type"	bits from the numeric forms of
		     p,	and the	long output form of T.

	     L	     "Low" -- specifies	the minor number for devices from r or
		     d,	the "other" bits for permissions from the string form
		     of	p, the "user", "group",	and "other" bits from the nu-
		     meric forms of p, and the ls -F style output character
		     for file type when	used with T (the use of	L for this is

	     M	     "Middle" -- specifies the "group" bits for	permissions
		     from the string output form of p, or the "suid", "sgid",
		     and "sticky" bits for the numeric forms of	p.

     datum   A required	field specifier, being one of the following:

	     d	     Device upon which file resides (st_dev).

	     i	     file's inode number (st_ino).

	     p	     File type and permissions (st_mode).

	     l	     Number of hard links to file (st_nlink).

	     u,	g    User ID and group ID of file's owner (st_uid, st_gid).

	     r	     Device number for character and block device special
		     files (st_rdev).

	     a,	m, c, B
		     The time file was last accessed or	modified, or when the
		     inode was last changed, or	the birth time of the inode
		     (st_atime,	st_mtime, st_ctime, st_birthtime).

	     z	     The size of file in bytes (st_size).

	     b	     Number of blocks allocated	for file (st_blocks).

	     k	     Optimal file system I/O operation block size

	     f	     User defined flags	for file.

	     v	     Inode generation number (st_gen).

	     The following five	field specifiers are not drawn directly	from
	     the data in struct	stat, but are:

	     N	     The name of the file.

	     R	     The absolute pathname corresponding to the	file.

	     T	     The file type, either as in ls -F or in a more descrip-
		     tive form if the sub field	specifier H is given.

	     Y	     The target	of a symbolic link.

	     Z	     Expands to	"major,minor" from the rdev field for charac-
		     ter or block special devices and gives size output	for
		     all others.

     Only the %	and the	field specifier	are required.  Most field specifiers
     default to	U as an	output form, with the exception	of p which defaults to
     O;	a, m, and c which default to D;	and Y, T, and N	which default to S.

     The stat and readlink utilities exit 0 on success,	and >0 if an error oc-

     If	no options are specified, the default format is	"%d %i %Sp %l %Su %Sg
     %r	%z \"%Sa\" \"%Sm\" \"%Sc\" \"%SB\" %k %b %#Xf %N".

	   > stat /tmp/bar
	   0 78852 -rw-r--r-- 1	root wheel 0 0 "Jul  8 10:26:03	2004" "Jul  8 10:26:03 2004" "Jul  8 10:28:13 2004" "Jan  1 09:00:00 1970" 16384 0 0 /tmp/bar

     Given a symbolic link "foo" that points from /tmp/foo to /, you would use
     stat as follows:

	   > stat -F /tmp/foo
	   lrwxrwxrwx 1	jschauma cs 1 Apr 24 16:37:28 2002 /tmp/foo@ ->	/

	   > stat -LF /tmp/foo
	   drwxr-xr-x 16 root wheel 512	Apr 19 10:57:54	2002 /tmp/foo/

     To	initialize some	shell variables, you could use the -s flag as follows:

	   > csh
	   % eval set `stat -s .cshrc`
	   % echo $st_size $st_mtimespec
	   1148	1015432481

	   > sh
	   $ eval $(stat -s .profile)
	   $ echo $st_size $st_mtimespec
	   1148	1015432481

     In	order to get a list of file types including files pointed to if	the
     file is a symbolic	link, you could	use the	following format:

	   $ stat -f "%N: %HT%SY" /tmp/*
	   /tmp/bar: Symbolic Link -> /tmp/foo
	   /tmp/output25568: Regular File
	   /tmp/blah: Directory
	   /tmp/foo: Symbolic Link -> /

     In	order to get a list of the devices, their types	and the	major and mi-
     nor device	numbers, formatted with	tabs and linebreaks, you could use the
     following format:

	   stat	-f "Name: %N%n%tType: %HT%n%tMajor: %Hr%n%tMinor: %Lr%n%n" /dev/*
	   Name: /dev/wt8
		   Type: Block Device
		   Major: 3
		   Minor: 8

	   Name: /dev/zero
		   Type: Character Device
		   Major: 2
		   Minor: 12

     In	order to determine the permissions set on a file separately, you could
     use the following format:

	   > stat -f "%Sp -> owner=%SHp	group=%SMp other=%SLp" .
	   drwxr-xr-x -> owner=rwx group=r-x other=r-x

     In	order to determine the three files that	have been modified most	re-
     cently, you could use the following format:

	   > stat -f "%m%t%Sm %N" /tmp/* | sort	-rn | head -3 |	cut -f2-
	   Apr 25 11:47:00 2002	/tmp/blah
	   Apr 25 10:36:34 2002	/tmp/bar
	   Apr 24 16:47:35 2002	/tmp/foo

     To	display	a file's modification time:

	   > stat -f %m	/tmp/foo

     To	display	the same modification time in a	readable format:

	   > stat -f %Sm /tmp/foo
	   Apr 27 11:15:33 2007

     To	display	the same modification time in a	readable and sortable format:

	   > stat -f %Sm -t %Y%m%d%H%M%S /tmp/foo

     To	display	the same in UTC:

	   > sh
	   $ TZ= stat -f %Sm -t	%Y%m%d%H%M%S /tmp/foo

     file(1), ls(1), lstat(2), readlink(2), stat(2), printf(3),	strftime(3)

     The stat utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6 and FreeBSD 4.10.

     The stat utility was written by Andrew Brown <>.	This
     man page was written by Jan Schaumann <>.

FreeBSD	13.0			 June 22, 2017			  FreeBSD 13.0


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