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TERMCAP(5)		    BSD	File Formats Manual		    TERMCAP(5)

     termcap --	terminal capability data base


     The termcap file is a data	base describing	terminals, used, for example,
     by	vi(1) and ncurses(3).  Terminals are described in termcap by giving a
     set of capabilities that they have	and by describing how operations are
     performed.	 Padding requirements and initialization sequences are in-
     cluded in termcap.

     Entries in	termcap	consist	of a number of `:'-separated fields.  The
     first entry for each terminal gives the names that	are known for the ter-
     minal, separated by `|' characters.  The first name given is the most
     common abbreviation for the terminal.  The	last name given	should be a
     long name fully identifying the terminal, and all others are understood
     as	synonyms for the terminal name.	 All names but the last	should be in
     lower case	and contain no blanks; the last	name may well contain upper
     case characters and blanks	for readability.

     Terminal names (except for	the last, verbose entry) should	be chosen us-
     ing the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware making
     up	the terminal should have a root	name chosen, thus "hp2621" This	name
     should not	contain	hyphens.  Modes	that the hardware can be in or user
     preferences should	be indicated by	appending a hyphen and an indicator of
     the mode.	Therefore, a "vt100" in	132-column mode	would be "vt100-w".
     The following suffixes should be used where possible:

	   Suffix    Meaning					   Example
	   -w	     Wide mode (more than 80 columns)		   vt100-w
	   -am	     With automatic margins (usually default)	   vt100-am
	   -nam	     Without automatic margins			   vt100-nam
	   -n	     Number of lines on	screen			   aaa-60
	   -na	     No	arrow keys (leave them in local)	   concept100-na
	   -np	     Number of pages of	memory			   concept100-4p
	   -rv	     Reverse video				   concept100-rv

     The description field attempts to convey the semantics of the capability.
     You may find some codes in	the description	field:

     (P)     indicates that padding may	be specified.

     #[1-9]  in	the description	field indicates	that the string	is passed
	     through tparm(3) or tgoto(3) with parms as	given (#i).

     (P*)    indicates that padding may	vary in	proportion to the number of
	     lines affected.

     (#i)    indicates the ith parameter.

     These are the boolean capabilities:

     Boolean		     TCap    Description
     Variables		     Code
     auto_left_margin	     bw	     cursor_left wraps from column 0 to	last
     auto_right_margin	     am	     terminal has automatic margins
     no_esc_ctlc	     xb	     beehive (f1=escape, f2=ctrl C)
     ceol_standout_glitch    xs	     standout not erased by overwriting	(hp)
     eat_newline_glitch	     xn	     newline ignored after 80 cols (concept)
     erase_overstrike	     eo	     can erase overstrikes with	a blank
     generic_type	     gn	     generic line type
     hard_copy		     hc	     hardcopy terminal
     has_meta_key	     km	     Has a meta	key, sets msb high
     has_status_line	     hs	     has extra status line
     insert_null_glitch	     in	     insert mode distinguishes nulls
     memory_above	     da	     display may be retained above the screen
     memory_below	     db	     display may be retained below the screen
     move_insert_mode	     mi	     safe to move while	in insert mode
     move_standout_mode	     ms	     safe to move while	in standout mode
     over_strike	     os	     terminal can overstrike
     status_line_esc_ok	     es	     escape can	be used	on the status line
     dest_tabs_magic_smso    xt	     tabs destructive, magic so	char (t1061)
     tilde_glitch	     hz	     cannot print ~'s (hazeltine)
     transparent_underline   ul	     underline character overstrikes
     xon_xoff		     xo	     terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking
     needs_xon_xoff	     nx	     padding will not work, xon/xoff required
     prtr_silent	     5i	     printer will not echo on screen
     hard_cursor	     HC	     cursor is hard to see
     non_rev_rmcup	     NR	     enter_ca_mode does	not reverse exit_ca_mode
     no_pad_char	     NP	     pad character does	not exist
     non_dest_scroll_region  ND	     scrolling region is non-destructive
     can_change		     cc	     terminal can re-define existing colors
     back_color_erase	     ut	     screen erased with	background color
     hue_lightness_saturation	     hl	     terminal uses only	HLS color
					     notation (tektronix)
     col_addr_glitch	     YA	     only positive motion for column address and
				     micro_column_address caps
     cr_cancels_micro_mode   YB	     using cr turns off	micro mode
     has_print_wheel	     YC	     printer needs operator to change character
     row_addr_glitch	     YD	     only positive motion for row_address and
				     micro_row_address caps
     semi_auto_right_margin  YE	     printing in last column causes cr
     cpi_changes_res	     YF	     changing character	pitch changes resolution
     lpi_changes_res	     YG	     changing line pitch changes resolution

     These are the numeric capabilities:

     Numeric		     TCap    Description
     Variables		     Code
     columns		     co	     number of columns in aline
     init_tabs		     it	     tabs initially every # spaces
     lines		     li	     number of lines on	screen or page
     lines_of_memory	     lm	     lines of memory if	> line.	0 => varies
     magic_cookie_glitch     sg	     number of blank chars left	by
				     enter_standout_mode or exit_standout_mode
     padding_baud_rate	     pb	     lowest baud rate where padding needed
     virtual_terminal	     vt	     virtual terminal number (CB/unix)
     width_status_line	     ws	     columns in	status line
     num_labels		     Nl	     number of labels on screen
     label_height	     lh	     rows in each label
     label_width	     lw	     columns in	each label
     max_attributes	     ma	     maximum combined attributes terminal can
     maximum_windows	     MW	     maximum number of definable windows
     magic_cookie_glitch_ul  ug	     number of blanks left by underline
     # These came in with SVr4's color support
     max_colors		     Co	     maximum numbers of	colors on screen
     max_pairs		     pa	     maximum number of color-pairs on the screen
     no_color_video	     NC	     video attributes that cannot be used with
     # The following numeric capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term
     # structure, but are not yet documented in	the man	page.
     # They came in with SVr4's	printer	support.
     buffer_capacity	     Ya	     numbers of	bytes buffered before printing
     dot_vert_spacing	     Yb	     spacing of	pins vertically	in pins	per inch
     dot_horz_spacing	     Yc	     spacing of	dots horizontally in dots per
     max_micro_address	     Yd	     maximum value in micro_..._address
     max_micro_jump	     Ye	     maximum value in parm_..._micro
     micro_char_size	     Yf	     character size when in micro mode
     micro_line_size	     Yg	     line size when in micro mode
     number_of_pins	     Yh	     numbers of	pins in	print-head
     output_res_char	     Yi	     horizontal	resolution in units per	line
     output_res_line	     Yj	     vertical resolution in units per line
     output_res_horz_inch    Yk	     horizontal	resolution in units per	inch
     output_res_vert_inch    Yl	     vertical resolution in units per inch
     print_rate		     Ym	     print rate	in chars per second
     wide_char_size	     Yn	     character step size when in double	wide
     buttons		     BT	     number of buttons on mouse
     bit_image_entwining     Yo	     number of passed for each bit-image row
     bit_image_type	     Yp	     type of bit-image device

     These are the string capabilities:

     String		     TCap    Description
     Variables		     Code
     back_tab		     bt	     back tab (P)
     bell		     bl	     audible signal (bell) (P)
     carriage_return	     cr	     carriage return (P*)
     change_scroll_region    cs	     change region to line #1 to line #2 (P)
     clear_all_tabs	     ct	     clear all tab stops (P)
     clear_screen	     cl	     clear screen and home cursor (P*)
     clr_eol		     ce	     clear to end of line (P)
     clr_eos		     cd	     clear to end of screen (P*)
     column_address	     ch	     horizontal	position #1, absolute (P)
     command_character	     CC	     terminal settable cmd character in
     cursor_address	     cm	     move to row #1 columns #2
     cursor_down	     do	     down one line
     cursor_home	     ho	     home cursor
     cursor_invisible	     vi	     make cursor invisible
     cursor_left	     le	     move left one space
     cursor_mem_address	     CM	     memory relative cursor addressing
     cursor_normal	     ve	     make cursor appear	normal (undo
     cursor_right	     nd	     move right	one space
     cursor_to_ll	     ll	     last line,	first column
     cursor_up		     up	     up	one line
     cursor_visible	     vs	     make cursor very visible
     delete_character	     dc	     delete character (P*)
     delete_line	     dl	     delete line (P*)
     dis_status_line	     ds	     disable status line
     down_half_line	     hd	     half a line down
     enter_alt_charset_mode  as	     start alternate character set (P)
     enter_blink_mode	     mb	     turn on blinking
     enter_bold_mode	     md	     turn on bold (extra bright) mode
     enter_ca_mode	     ti	     string to start programs using
     enter_delete_mode	     dm	     enter delete mode
     enter_dim_mode	     mh	     turn on half-bright mode
     enter_insert_mode	     im	     enter insert mode
     enter_secure_mode	     mk	     turn on blank mode	(characters invisible)
     enter_protected_mode    mp	     turn on protected mode
     enter_reverse_mode	     mr	     turn on reverse video mode
     enter_standout_mode     so	     begin standout mode
     enter_underline_mode    us	     begin underline mode
     erase_chars	     ec	     erase #1 characters (P)
     exit_alt_charset_mode   ae	     end alternate character set (P)
     exit_attribute_mode     me	     turn off all attributes
     exit_ca_mode	     te	     strings to	end programs using cup
     exit_delete_mode	     ed	     end delete	mode
     exit_insert_mode	     ei	     exit insert mode
     exit_standout_mode	     se	     exit standout mode
     exit_underline_mode     ue	     exit underline mode
     flash_screen	     vb	     visible bell (may not move	cursor)
     form_feed		     ff	     hardcopy terminal page eject (P*)
     from_status_line	     fs	     return from status	line
     init_1string	     i1	     initialization string
     init_2string	     is	     initialization string
     init_3string	     i3	     initialization string
     init_file		     if	     name of initialization file
     insert_character	     ic	     insert character (P)
     insert_line	     al	     insert line (P*)
     insert_padding	     ip	     insert padding after inserted character
     key_backspace	     kb	     backspace key
     key_catab		     ka	     clear-all-tabs key
     key_clear		     kC	     clear-screen or erase key
     key_ctab		     kt	     clear-tab key
     key_dc		     kD	     delete-character key
     key_dl		     kL	     delete-line key
     key_down		     kd	     down-arrow	key
     key_eic		     kM	     sent by rmir or smir in insert mode
     key_eol		     kE	     clear-to-end-of-line key
     key_eos		     kS	     clear-to-end-of-screen key
     key_f0		     k0	     F0	function key
     key_f1		     k1	     F1	function key
     key_f10		     k;	     F10 function key
     key_f2		     k2	     F2	function key
     key_f3		     k3	     F3	function key
     key_f4		     k4	     F4	function key
     key_f5		     k5	     F5	function key
     key_f6		     k6	     F6	function key
     key_f7		     k7	     F7	function key
     key_f8		     k8	     F8	function key
     key_f9		     k9	     F9	function key
     key_home		     kh	     home key
     key_ic		     kI	     insert-character key
     key_il		     kA	     insert-line key
     key_left		     kl	     left-arrow	key
     key_ll		     kH	     last-line key
     key_npage		     kN	     next-page key
     key_ppage		     kP	     prev-page key
     key_right		     kr	     right-arrow key
     key_sf		     kF	     scroll-forward key
     key_sr		     kR	     scroll-backward key
     key_stab		     kT	     set-tab key
     key_up		     ku	     up-arrow key
     keypad_local	     ke	     leave 'keyboard_transmit' mode
     keypad_xmit	     ks	     enter 'keyboard_transmit' mode
     lab_f0		     l0	     label on function key f0 if not f0
     lab_f1		     l1	     label on function key f1 if not f1
     lab_f10		     la	     label on function key f10 if not f10
     lab_f2		     l2	     label on function key f2 if not f2
     lab_f3		     l3	     label on function key f3 if not f3
     lab_f4		     l4	     label on function key f4 if not f4
     lab_f5		     l5	     label on function key f5 if not f5
     lab_f6		     l6	     label on function key f6 if not f6
     lab_f7		     l7	     label on function key f7 if not f7
     lab_f8		     l8	     label on function key f8 if not f8
     lab_f9		     l9	     label on function key f9 if not f9
     meta_off		     mo	     turn off meta mode
     meta_on		     mm	     turn on meta mode (8th-bit	on)
     newline		     nw	     newline (behave like cr followed by lf)
     pad_char		     pc	     padding char (instead of null)
     parm_dch		     DC	     delete #1 chars (P*)
     parm_delete_line	     DL	     delete #1 lines (P*)
     parm_down_cursor	     DO	     down #1 lines (P*)
     parm_ich		     IC	     insert #1 chars (P*)
     parm_index		     SF	     scroll forward #1 lines (P)
     parm_insert_line	     AL	     insert #1 lines (P*)
     parm_left_cursor	     LE	     move #1 chars to the left (P)
     parm_right_cursor	     RI	     move #1 chars to the right	(P*)
     parm_rindex	     SR	     scroll back #1 lines (P)
     parm_up_cursor	     UP	     up	#1 lines (P*)
     pkey_key		     pk	     program function key #1 to	type string #2
     pkey_local		     pl	     program function key #1 to	execute
				     string #2
     pkey_xmit		     px	     program function key #1 to	transmit
				     string #2
     print_screen	     ps	     print contents of screen
     prtr_off		     pf	     turn off printer
     prtr_on		     po	     turn on printer
     repeat_char	     rp	     repeat char #1 #2 times (P*)
     reset_1string	     r1	     reset string
     reset_2string	     r2	     reset string
     reset_3string	     r3	     reset string
     reset_file		     rf	     name of reset file
     restore_cursor	     rc	     restore cursor to last position of
     row_address	     cv	     vertical position #1 absolute (P)
     save_cursor	     sc	     save current cursor position (P)
     scroll_forward	     sf	     scroll text up (P)
     scroll_reverse	     sr	     scroll text down (P)
     set_attributes	     sa	     define video attributes #1-#9 (PG9)
     set_tab		     st	     set a tab in every	row, current columns
     set_window		     wi	     current window is lines #1-#2 cols	#3-#4
     tab		     ta	     tab to next 8-space hardware tab stop
     to_status_line	     ts	     move to status line
     underline_char	     uc	     underline char and	move past it
     up_half_line	     hu	     half a line up
     init_prog		     iP	     path name of program for initialization
     key_a1		     K1	     upper left	of keypad
     key_a3		     K3	     upper right of keypad
     key_b2		     K2	     center of keypad
     key_c1		     K4	     lower left	of keypad
     key_c3		     K5	     lower right of keypad
     prtr_non		     pO	     turn on printer for #1 bytes
     termcap_init2	     i2	     secondary initialization string
     termcap_reset	     rs	     terminal reset string
     # SVr1 capabilities stop here.  IBM's version of terminfo is the same as
     # SVr4 up to this point, but has a	different set afterwards.
     char_padding	     rP	     like insert_padding but when in insert mode
     acs_chars		     ac	     graphics charset pairs - def=vt100
     plab_norm		     pn	     program label #1 to show string #2
     key_btab		     kB	     back-tab key
     enter_xon_mode	     SX	     turn on xon/xoff handshaking
     exit_xon_mode	     RX	     turn off xon/xoff handshaking
     enter_am_mode	     SA	     turn on automatic margins
     exit_am_mode	     RA	     turn off automatic	margins
     xon_character	     XN	     XON character
     xoff_character	     XF	     XOFF character
     ena_acs		     eA	     enable alternate char set
     label_on		     LO	     turn on soft labels
     label_off		     LF	     turn off soft labels
     key_beg		     @1	     begin key
     key_cancel		     @2	     cancel key
     key_close		     @3	     close key
     key_command	     @4	     command key
     key_copy		     @5	     copy key
     key_create		     @6	     create key
     key_end		     @7	     end key
     key_enter		     @8	     enter/send	key
     key_exit		     @9	     exit key
     key_find		     @0	     find key
     key_help		     %1	     help key
     key_mark		     %2	     mark key
     key_message	     %3	     message key
     key_move		     %4	     move key
     key_next		     %5	     next key
     key_open		     %6	     open key
     key_options	     %7	     options key
     key_previous	     %8	     previous key
     key_print		     %9	     print key
     key_redo		     %0	     redo key
     key_reference	     &1	     reference key
     key_refresh	     &2	     refresh key
     key_replace	     &3	     replace key
     key_restart	     &4	     restart key
     key_resume		     &5	     resume key
     key_save		     &6	     save key
     key_suspend	     &7	     suspend key
     key_undo		     &8	     undo key
     key_sbeg		     &9	     shifted key
     key_scancel	     &0	     shifted key
     key_scommand	     *1	     shifted key
     key_scopy		     *2	     shifted key
     key_screate	     *3	     shifted key
     key_sdc		     *4	     shifted key
     key_sdl		     *5	     shifted key
     key_select		     *6	     select key
     key_send		     *7	     shifted key
     key_seol		     *8	     shifted key
     key_sexit		     *9	     shifted key
     key_sfind		     *0	     shifted key
     key_shelp		     #1	     shifted key
     key_shome		     #2	     shifted key
     key_sic		     #3	     shifted key
     key_sleft		     #4	     shifted key
     key_smessage	     %a	     shifted key
     key_smove		     %b	     shifted key
     key_snext		     %c	     shifted key
     key_soptions	     %d	     shifted key
     key_sprevious	     %e	     shifted key
     key_sprint		     %f	     shifted key
     key_sredo		     %g	     shifted key
     key_sreplace	     %h	     shifted key
     key_sright		     %i	     shifted key
     key_srsume		     %j	     shifted key
     key_ssave		     !1	     shifted key
     key_ssuspend	     !2	     shifted key
     key_sundo		     !3	     shifted key
     req_for_input	     RF	     send next input char (for ptys)
     key_f11		     F1	     F11 function key
     key_f12		     F2	     F12 function key
     key_f13		     F3	     F13 function key
     key_f14		     F4	     F14 function key
     key_f15		     F5	     F15 function key
     key_f16		     F6	     F16 function key
     key_f17		     F7	     F17 function key
     key_f18		     F8	     F18 function key
     key_f19		     F9	     F19 function key
     key_f20		     FA	     F20 function key
     key_f21		     FB	     F21 function key
     key_f22		     FC	     F22 function key
     key_f23		     FD	     F23 function key
     key_f24		     FE	     F24 function key
     key_f25		     FF	     F25 function key
     key_f26		     FG	     F26 function key
     key_f27		     FH	     F27 function key
     key_f28		     FI	     F28 function key
     key_f29		     FJ	     F29 function key
     key_f30		     FK	     F30 function key
     key_f31		     FL	     F31 function key
     key_f32		     FM	     F32 function key
     key_f33		     FN	     F33 function key
     key_f34		     FO	     F34 function key
     key_f35		     FP	     F35 function key
     key_f36		     FQ	     F36 function key
     key_f37		     FR	     F37 function key
     key_f38		     FS	     F38 function key
     key_f39		     FT	     F39 function key
     key_f40		     FU	     F40 function key
     key_f41		     FV	     F41 function key
     key_f42		     FW	     F42 function key
     key_f43		     FX	     F43 function key
     key_f44		     FY	     F44 function key
     key_f45		     FZ	     F45 function key
     key_f46		     Fa	     F46 function key
     key_f47		     Fb	     F47 function key
     key_f48		     Fc	     F48 function key
     key_f49		     Fd	     F49 function key
     key_f50		     Fe	     F50 function key
     key_f51		     Ff	     F51 function key
     key_f52		     Fg	     F52 function key
     key_f53		     Fh	     F53 function key
     key_f54		     Fi	     F54 function key
     key_f55		     Fj	     F55 function key
     key_f56		     Fk	     F56 function key
     key_f57		     Fl	     F57 function key
     key_f58		     Fm	     F58 function key
     key_f59		     Fn	     F59 function key
     key_f60		     Fo	     F60 function key
     key_f61		     Fp	     F61 function key
     key_f62		     Fq	     F62 function key
     key_f63		     Fr	     F63 function key
     clr_bol		     cb	     Clear to beginning	of line
     clear_margins	     MC	     clear right and left soft margins
     set_left_margin	     ML	     set left soft margin
     set_right_margin	     MR	     set right soft margin
     label_format	     Lf	     label format
     set_clock		     SC	     set clock,	#1 hrs #2 mins #3 secs
     display_clock	     DK	     display clock at (#1,#2)
     remove_clock	     RC	     remove clock
     create_window	     CW	     define a window #1	from #2, #3 to #4, #5
     goto_window	     WG	     go	to window #1
     hangup		     HU	     hang-up phone
     dial_phone		     DI	     dial number #1
     quick_dial		     QD	     dial number #1 without checking
     tone		     TO	     select touch tone dialing
     pulse		     PU	     select pulse dialling
     flash_hook		     fh	     flash switch hook
     fixed_pause	     PA	     pause for 2-3 seconds
     wait_tone		     WA	     wait for dial-tone
     user0		     u0	     User string #0
     user1		     u1	     User string #1
     user2		     u2	     User string #2
     user3		     u3	     User string #3
     user4		     u4	     User string #4
     user5		     u5	     User string #5
     user6		     u6	     User string #6
     user7		     u7	     User string #7
     user8		     u8	     User string #8
     user9		     u9	     User string #9
     # SVr4 added these	capabilities to	support	color
     orig_pair		     op	     Set default pair to its original value
     orig_colors	     oc	     Set all color pairs to the	original ones
     initialize_color	     Ic	     initialize	color #1 to (#2,#3,#4)
     initialize_pair	     Ip	     Initialize	color pair #1 to fg=(#2,#3,#4),
     set_color_pair	     sp	     Set current color pair to #1
     set_foreground	     Sf	     Set foreground color #1
     set_background	     Sb	     Set background color #1
     # SVr4 added these	capabilities to	support	printers
     change_char_pitch	     ZA	     Change number of characters per inch
     change_line_pitch	     ZB	     Change number of lines per	inch
     change_res_horz	     ZC	     Change horizontal resolution
     change_res_vert	     ZD	     Change vertical resolution
     define_char	     ZE	     Define a character
     enter_doublewide_mode   ZF	     Enter double-wide mode
     enter_draft_quality     ZG	     Enter draft-quality mode
     enter_italics_mode	     ZH	     Enter italic mode
     enter_leftward_mode     ZI	     Start leftward carriage motion
     enter_micro_mode	     ZJ	     Start micro-motion	mode
     enter_near_letter_quality	     ZK	     Enter NLQ mode
     enter_normal_quality    ZL	     Enter normal-quality mode
     enter_shadow_mode	     ZM	     Enter shadow-print	mode
     enter_subscript_mode    ZN	     Enter subscript mode
     enter_superscript_mode  ZO	     Enter superscript mode
     enter_upward_mode	     ZP	     Start upward carriage motion
     exit_doublewide_mode    ZQ	     End double-wide mode
     exit_italics_mode	     ZR	     End italic	mode
     exit_leftward_mode	     ZS	     End left-motion mode
     exit_micro_mode	     ZT	     End micro-motion mode
     exit_shadow_mode	     ZU	     End shadow-print mode
     exit_subscript_mode     ZV	     End subscript mode
     exit_superscript_mode   ZW	     End superscript mode
     exit_upward_mode	     ZX	     End reverse character motion
     micro_column_address    ZY	     Like column_address in micro mode
     micro_down		     ZZ	     Like cursor_down in micro mode
     micro_left		     Za	     Like cursor_left in micro mode
     micro_right	     Zb	     Like cursor_right in micro	mode
     micro_row_address	     Zc	     Like row_address in micro mode
     micro_up		     Zd	     Like cursor_up in micro mode
     order_of_pins	     Ze	     Match software bits to print-head pins
     parm_down_micro	     Zf	     Like parm_down_cursor in micro mode
     parm_left_micro	     Zg	     Like parm_left_cursor in micro mode
     parm_right_micro	     Zh	     Like parm_right_cursor in micro mode
     parm_up_micro	     Zi	     Like parm_up_cursor in micro mode
     select_char_set	     Zj	     Select character set
     set_bottom_margin	     Zk	     Set bottom	margin at current line
     set_bottom_margin_parm  Zl	     Set bottom	margin at line #1 or #2	lines
				     from bottom
     set_left_margin_parm    Zm	     Set left (right) margin at	column #1 (#2)
     set_right_margin_parm   Zn	     Set right margin at column	#1
     set_top_margin	     Zo	     Set top margin at current line
     set_top_margin_parm     Zp	     Set top (bottom) margin at	row #1 (#2)
     start_bit_image	     Zq	     Start printing bit	image graphics
     start_char_set_def	     Zr	     Start character set definition
     stop_bit_image	     Zs	     Stop printing bit image graphics
     stop_char_set_def	     Zt	     End definition of character aet
     subscript_characters    Zu	     List of subscriptible characters
     superscript_characters  Zv	     List of superscriptible characters
     these_cause_cr	     Zw	     Printing any of these chars causes	CR
     zero_motion	     Zx	     No	motion for subsequent character
     # The following string capabilities are present in	the SVr4.0 term
     # structure, but are not documented in the	man page.
     char_set_names	     Zy	     List of character set names
     key_mouse		     Km	     Mouse event has occurred
     mouse_info		     Mi	     Mouse status information
     req_mouse_pos	     RQ	     Request mouse position
     get_mouse		     Gm	     Curses should get button events
     set_a_foreground	     AF	     Set ANSI foreground color
     set_a_background	     AB	     Set ANSI background color
     pkey_plab		     xl	     Program function key #1 to	type string #2
				     and show string #3
     device_type	     dv	     Indicate language/codeset support
     code_set_init	     ci	     Init sequence for multiple	codesets
     set0_des_seq	     s0	     Shift to code set 0 (EUC set 0, ASCII)
     set1_des_seq	     s1	     Shift to code set 1
     set2_des_seq	     s2	     Shift to code set 2
     set3_des_seq	     s3	     Shift to code set 3
     set_lr_margin	     ML	     Set both left and right margins to	#1, #2
     set_tb_margin	     MT	     Sets both top and bottom margins to #1, #2
     bit_image_repeat	     Xy	     Repeat bit	image cell #1 #2 times
     bit_image_newline	     Zz	     Move to next row of the bit image
     bit_image_carriage_return	     Yv	     Move to beginning of same row
     color_names	     Yw	     Give name for color #1
     define_bit_image_region Yx	     Define rectangular	bit image region
     end_bit_image_region    Yy	     End a bit-image region
     set_color_band	     Yz	     Change to ribbon color #1
     set_page_length	     YZ	     Set page length to	#1 lines
     # SVr4 added these	capabilities for direct	PC-clone support
     display_pc_char	     S1	     Display PC	character
     enter_pc_charset_mode   S2	     Enter PC character	display	mode
     exit_pc_charset_mode    S3	     Exit PC character display mode
     enter_scancode_mode     S4	     Enter PC scancode mode
     exit_scancode_mode	     S5	     Exit PC scancode mode
     pc_term_options	     S6	     PC	terminal options
     scancode_escape	     S7	     Escape for	scancode emulation
     alt_scancode_esc	     S8	     Alternate escape for scancode emulation
     # The XSI Curses standard added these.
     enter_horizontal_hl_mode	     Xh	     Enter horizontal highlight	mode
     enter_left_hl_mode	     Xl	     Enter left	highlight mode
     enter_low_hl_mode	     Xo	     Enter low highlight mode
     enter_right_hl_mode     Xr	     Enter right highlight mode
     enter_top_hl_mode	     Xt	     Enter top highlight mode
     enter_vertical_hl_mode  Xv	     Enter vertical highlight mode

     Obsolete termcap capabilities.  New software should not rely on them at

     Boolean		     TCap    Description
     Variables		     Code
     linefeed_is_newline     NL	     move down with ^J
     even_parity	     EP	     terminal requires even parity
     odd_parity		     OP	     terminal requires odd parity
     half_duplex	     HD	     terminal is half-duplex
     lower_case_only	     LC	     terminal has only lower case
     upper_case_only	     UC	     terminal has only upper case
     has_hardware_tabs	     pt	     has 8-char	tabs invoked with ^I
     return_does_clr_eol     xr	     return clears the line
     tek_4025_insert_line    xx	     Tektronix 4025 insert-line	glitch
     backspaces_with_bs	     bs	     uses ^H to	move left
     crt_no_scrolling	     ns	     crt cannot	scroll
     no_correctly_working_cr nc	     no	way to go to start of line

     Number		     TCap    Description
     Variables		     Code
     backspace_delay	     dB	     padding required for ^H
     form_feed_delay	     dF	     padding required for ^L
     horizontal_tab_delay    dT	     padding required for ^I
     vertical_tab_delay	     dV	     padding required for ^V
     number_of_function_keys kn	     count of function keys
     carriage_return_delay   dC	     pad needed	for CR
     new_line_delay	     dN	     pad needed	for LF

     String		     TCap    Description
     Variables		     Code
     other_non_function_keys ko	     list of self-mapped keycaps
     arrow_key_map	     ma	     map arrow keys
     memory_lock_above	     ml	     lock visible screen memory	above the
				     current line
     memory_unlock	     mu	     unlock visible screen memory above	the
				     current line
     linefeed_if_not_lf	     nl	     use to move down
     backspace_if_not_bs     bc	     move left,	if not ^H

   A Sample Entry
     The following entry, which	describes the Concept-100, is among the	more
     complex entries in	the termcap file as of this writing.

     ca|concept100|c100|concept|c104|concept100-4p|HDS Concept-100:\
	     :al=3*\E^R:am:bl=^G:cd=16*\E^C:ce=16\E^U:cl=2*^L:cm=\Ea%+ %+ :\^M:db:dc=16\E^A:dl=3*\E^B:do=^J:ei=\E\200:eo:im=\E^P:in:\
	     :mr=\ED:nd=\E=:pb#9600:rp=0.2*\Er%.%+ :se=\Ed\Ee:sf=^J:so=\EE\ED:\
	     :.ta=8\t:te=\Ev	\200\200\200\200\200\200\Ep\r\n:\
	     :ti=\EU\Ev	 8p\Ep\r:ue=\Eg:ul:up=\E;:us=\EG:\

     Entries may continue onto multiple	lines by giving	a \ as the last	char-
     acter of a	line, and empty	fields may be included for readability (here
     between the last field on a line and the first field on the next).	 Com-
     ments may be included on lines beginning with "#".

   Types of Capabilities
     Capabilities in termcap are of three types: Boolean capabilities, which
     indicate particular features that the terminal has; numeric capabilities,
     giving the	size of	the display or the size	of other attributes; and
     string capabilities, which	give character sequences that can be used to
     perform particular	terminal operations.  All capabilities have two-letter
     codes.  For instance, the fact that the Concept has automatic margins (an
     automatic return and linefeed when	the end	of a line is reached) is indi-
     cated by the Boolean capability am.  Hence	the description	of the Concept
     includes am.

     Numeric capabilities are followed by the character	`#' then the value.
     In	the example above co, which indicates the number of columns the	dis-
     play has, gives the value `80' for	the Concept.

     Finally, string-valued capabilities, such as ce (clear-to-end-of-line se-
     quence) are given by the two-letter code, an `=', then a string ending at
     the next following	`:'.  A	delay in milliseconds may appear after the `='
     in	such a capability, which causes	padding	characters to be supplied by
     tputs(3) after the	remainder of the string	is sent	to provide this	delay.
     The delay can be either a number, such as `20', or	a number followed by
     an	`*', such as `3*'.  An `*' indicates that the padding required is pro-
     portional to the number of	lines affected by the operation, and the
     amount given is the per-affected-line padding required.  (In the case of
     insert-character, the factor is still the number of lines affected; this
     is	always 1 unless	the terminal has in and	the software uses it.)	When
     an	`*' is specified, it is	sometimes useful to give a delay of the	form
     `3.5' to specify a	delay per line to tenths of milliseconds.  (Only one
     decimal place is allowed.)

     A number of escape	sequences are provided in the string-valued capabili-
     ties for easy encoding of control characters there.  \E maps to an	ESC
     character,	^X maps	to a control-X for any appropriate X, and the se-
     quences \n	\r \t \b \f map	to linefeed, return, tab, backspace, and form-
     feed, respectively.  Finally, characters may be given as three octal dig-
     its after a \, and	the characters ^ and \ may be given as \^ and \\.  If
     it	is necessary to	place a	: in a capability it must be escaped as	\: or
     be	encoded	as \072.  If it	is necessary to	place a	NUL character in a
     string capability it must be encoded as \200.  (The routines that deal
     with termcap use C	strings	and strip the high bits	of the output very
     late, so that a \200 comes	out as a \000 would.)

     Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this, put
     a period before the capability name.  For example,	see the	first cr and
     ta	in the example above.

   Preparing Descriptions
     The most effective	way to prepare a terminal description is by imitating
     the description of	a similar terminal in termcap and to build up a	de-
     scription gradually, using	partial	descriptions with vi(1)	to check that
     they are correct.	Be aware that a	very unusual terminal may expose defi-
     ciencies in the ability of	the termcap file to describe it	or bugs	in
     vi(1).  To	easily test a new terminal description you are working on you
     can put it	in your	home directory in a file called	.termcap and programs
     will look there before looking in /usr/share/misc/termcap.	 You can also
     set the environment variable TERMPATH to a	list of	absolute file path-
     names (separated by spaces	or colons), one	of which contains the descrip-
     tion you are working on, and programs will	search them in the order
     listed, and nowhere else.	See termcap(3).	 The TERMCAP environment vari-
     able is usually set to the	termcap	entry itself to	avoid reading files
     when starting up a	program.

     To	get the	padding	for insert-line	right (if the terminal manufacturer
     did not document it), a severe test is to use vi(1) to edit /etc/passwd
     at	9600 baud, delete roughly 16 lines from	the middle of the screen, then
     hit the `u' key several times quickly.  If	the display messes up, more
     padding is	usually	needed.	 A similar test	can be used for	insert-charac-

   Basic Capabilities
     The number	of columns on each line	of the display is given	by the co nu-
     meric capability.	If the display is a CRT, then the number of lines on
     the screen	is given by the	li capability.	If the display wraps around to
     the beginning of the next line when the cursor reaches the	right margin,
     then it should have the am	capability.  If	the terminal can clear its
     screen, the code to do this is given by the cl string capability.	If the
     terminal overstrikes (rather than clearing	the position when a character
     is	overwritten), it should	have the os capability.	 If the	terminal is a
     printing terminal,	with no	soft copy unit,	give it	both hc	and os.	 (os
     applies to	storage	scope terminals, such as the Tektronix 4010 series, as
     well as to	hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there	is a code to move the
     cursor to the left	edge of	the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
     this will be carriage-return, ^M.)	 If there is a code to produce an au-
     dible signal (bell, beep, etc.), give this	as bl.

     If	there is a code	(such as backspace) to move the	cursor one position to
     the left, that capability should be given as le.  Similarly, codes	to
     move to the right,	up, and	down should be given as	nd, up,	and do,	re-
     spectively.  These	local cursor motions should not	alter the text they
     pass over;	for example, you would not normally use	"nd= " unless the ter-
     minal has the os capability, because the space would erase	the character
     moved over.

     A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
     termcap have undefined behavior at	the left and top edges of a CRT	dis-
     play.  Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge,
     unless bw is given, and never attempt to go up off	the top	using local
     cursor motions.

     In	order to scroll	text up, a program goes	to the bottom left corner of
     the screen	and sends the sf (index) string.  To scroll text down, a pro-
     gram goes to the top left corner of the screen and	sends the sr (reverse
     index) string.  The strings sf and	sr have	undefined behavior when	not on
     their respective corners of the screen.  Parameterized versions of	the
     scrolling sequences are SF	and SR,	which have the same semantics as sf
     and sr except that	they take one parameter	and scroll that	many lines.
     They also have undefined behavior except at the appropriate corner	of the

     The am capability tells whether the cursor	sticks at the right edge of
     the screen	when text is output there, but this does not necessarily apply
     to	nd from	the last column.  Leftward local motion	is defined from	the
     left edge only when bw is given; then an le from the left edge will move
     to	the right edge of the previous row.  This is useful for	drawing	a box
     around the	edge of	the screen, for	example.  If the terminal has switch-
     selectable	automatic margins, the termcap description usually assumes
     that this feature is on, i.e., am.	 If the	terminal has a command that
     moves to the first	column of the next line, that command can be given as
     nw	(newline).  It is permissible for this to clear	the remainder of the
     current line, so if the terminal has no correctly-working CR and LF it
     may still be possible to craft a working nw out of	one or both of them.

     These capabilities	suffice	to describe hardcopy and "glass-tty" termi-
     nals.  Thus the Teletype model 33 is described as

	   T3|tty33|33|tty|Teletype model 33:\

     and the Lear Siegler ADM-3	is described as

	   l3|adm3|3|LSI ADM-3:\

   Parameterized Strings
     Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters are described by
     a parameterized string capability,	with printf(3)-like escapes %x in it,
     while other characters are	passed through unchanged.  For example,	to ad-
     dress the cursor the cm capability	is given, using	two parameters:	the
     row and column to move to.	 (Rows and columns are numbered	from zero and
     refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen mem-
     ory.  If the terminal has memory-relative cursor addressing, that can be
     indicated by an analogous CM capability.)

     The % encodings have the following	meanings:

     %%	      output `%'
     %d	      output value as in printf(3) %d
     %2	      output value as in printf(3) %2d
     %3	      output value as in printf(3) %3d
     %.	      output value as in printf(3) %c
     %+x      add x to value, then do %.
     %>xy     if value > x then	add y, no output
     %r	      reverse order of two parameters, no output
     %i	      increment	by one,	no output
     %n	      exclusive-or all parameters with 0140 (Datamedia 2500)
     %B	      BCD (16*(value/10)) + (value%10),	no output
     %D	      Reverse coding (value - 2*(value%16)), no	output (Delta Data).

     Consider the Hewlett-Packard 2645,	which, to get to row 3 and column 12,
     needs to be sent "\E&a12c03Y" padded for 6	milliseconds.  Note that the
     order of the row and column coordinates is	reversed here and that the row
     and column	are sent as two-digit integers.	 Thus its cm capability	is

     The Datamedia 2500	needs the current row and column sent encoded in bi-
     nary using	"%.".  Terminals that use "%." need to be able to backspace
     the cursor	(le) and to move the cursor up one line	on the screen (up).
     This is necessary because it is not always	safe to	transmit \n, ^D, and
     \r, as the	system may change or discard them.  (Programs using termcap
     must set terminal modes so	that tabs are not expanded, so \t is safe to
     send.  This turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

     A final example is	the Lear Siegler ADM-3a, which offsets row and column
     by	a blank	character, thus	"cm=\E=%+ %+ ".

     Row or column absolute cursor addressing can be given as single parameter
     capabilities ch (horizontal position absolute) and	cv (vertical position
     absolute).	 Sometimes these are shorter than the more general two-parame-
     ter sequence (as with the Hewlett-Packard 2645) and can be	used in	pref-
     erence to cm.  If there are parameterized local motions (e.g., move n po-
     sitions to	the right) these can be	given as DO, LE, RI, and UP with a
     single parameter indicating how many positions to move.  These are	pri-
     marily useful if the terminal does	not have cm, such as the Tektronix

   Cursor Motions
     If	the terminal has a fast	way to home the	cursor (to the very upper left
     corner of the screen), this can be	given as ho.  Similarly, a fast	way of
     getting to	the lower left-hand corner can be given	as ll; this may	in-
     volve going up with up from the home position, but	a program should never
     do	this itself (unless ll does), because it can make no assumption	about
     the effect	of moving up from the home position.  Note that	the home posi-
     tion is the same as cursor	address	(0,0): to the top left corner of the
     screen, not of memory.  (Therefore, the "\EH" sequence on Hewlett-Packard
     terminals cannot be used for ho.)

   Area	Clears
     If	the terminal can clear from the	current	position to the	end of the
     line, leaving the cursor where it is, this	should be given	as ce.	If the
     terminal can clear	from the current position to the end of	the display,
     this should be given as cd.  cd must only be invoked from the first col-
     umn of a line.  (Therefore, it can	be simulated by	a request to delete a
     large number of lines, if a true cd is not	available.)

   Insert/Delete Line
     If	the terminal can open a	new blank line before the line containing the
     cursor, this should be given as al; this must be invoked only from	the
     first position of a line.	The cursor must	then appear at the left	of the
     newly blank line.	If the terminal	can delete the line that the cursor is
     on, this should be	given as dl; this must only be used from the first po-
     sition on the line	to be deleted.	Versions of al and dl which take a
     single parameter and insert or delete that	many lines can be given	as AL
     and DL.  If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the
     VT100), the command to set	this can be described with the cs capability,
     which takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling re-
     gion.  The	cursor position	is, alas, undefined after using	this command.
     It	is possible to get the effect of insert	or delete line using this com-
     mand -- the sc and	rc (save and restore cursor) commands are also useful.
     Inserting lines at	the top	or bottom of the screen	can also be done using
     sr	or sf on many terminals	without	a true insert/delete line, and is of-
     ten faster	even on	terminals with those features.

     If	the terminal has the ability to	define a window	as part	of memory
     which all commands	affect,	it should be given as the parameterized	string
     wi.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines	in memory and
     the starting and ending columns in	memory,	in that	order.	(This
     terminfo(5) capability is described for completeness.  It is unlikely
     that any termcap-using program will support it.)

     If	the terminal can retain	display	memory above the screen, then the da
     capability	should be given; if display memory can be retained below, then
     db	should be given.  These	indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
     bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back	with sr	may
     bring down	non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
     There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals	with respect to	in-
     sert/delete character that	can be described using termcap.	 The most com-
     mon insert/delete character operations affect only	the characters on the
     current line and shift characters off the end of the line rigidly.	 Other
     terminals,	such as	the Concept-100	and the	Perkin Elmer Owl, make a dis-
     tinction between typed and	untyped	blanks on the screen, shifting upon an
     insert or delete only to an untyped blank on the screen which is either
     eliminated	or expanded to two untyped blanks.  You	can determine the kind
     of	terminal you have by clearing the screen then typing text separated by
     cursor motions.  Type "abc	   def"	using local cursor motions (not	spa-
     ces) between the "abc" and	the "def".  Then position the cursor before
     the "abc" and put the terminal in insert mode.  If	typing characters
     causes the	rest of	the line to shift rigidly and characters to fall off
     the end, then your	terminal does not distinguish between blanks and un-
     typed positions.  If the "abc" shifts over	to the "def" which then	move
     together around the end of	the current line and onto the next as you in-
     sert, then	you have the second type of terminal and should	give the capa-
     bility in,	which stands for "insert null".	 While these are two logically
     separate attributes (one line vs.	multi-line insert mode,	and special
     treatment of untyped spaces), we have seen	no terminals whose insert mode
     cannot be described with the single attribute.

     The termcap entries can describe both terminals that have an insert mode
     and terminals that	send a simple sequence to open a blank position	on the
     current line.  Give as im the sequence to get into	insert mode.  Give as
     ei	the sequence to	leave insert mode.  Now	give as	ic any sequence	that
     needs to be sent just before each character to be inserted.  Most termi-
     nals with a true insert mode will not give	ic; terminals that use a se-
     quence to open a screen position should give it here.  (If	your terminal
     has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ic.	 Do not	give both un-
     less the terminal actually	requires both to be used in combination.)  If
     post-insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds in
     ip	(a string option).  Any	other sequence that may	need to	be sent	after
     insertion of a single character can also be given in ip.  If your termi-
     nal needs to be placed into an `insert mode' and needs a special code
     preceding each inserted character,	then both im/ ei and ic	can be given,
     and both will be used.  The IC capability,	with one parameter n, will re-
     peat the effects of ic n times.

     It	is occasionally	necessary to move around while in insert mode to
     delete characters on the same line	(e.g., if there	is a tab after the in-
     sertion position).	 If your terminal allows motion	while in insert	mode,
     you can give the capability mi to speed up	inserting in this case.	 Omit-
     ting mi will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably Datamedia's)
     must not have mi because of the way their insert mode works.

     Finally, you can specify dc to delete a single character, DC with one pa-
     rameter n to delete n characters, and delete mode by giving dm and	ed to
     enter and exit delete mode	(which is any mode the terminal	needs to be
     placed in for dc to work).

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
     If	your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
     be	represented in a number	of different ways.  You	should choose one dis-
     play form as standout mode, representing a	good high-contrast, easy-on-
     the-eyes format for highlighting error messages and other attention get-
     ters.  (If	you have a choice, reverse video plus half-bright is good, or
     reverse video alone.)  The	sequences to enter and exit standout mode are
     given as so and se, respectively.	If the code to change into or out of
     standout mode leaves one or even two blank	spaces or garbage characters
     on	the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do,	then sg	should be
     given to tell how many characters are left.

     Codes to begin underlining	and end	underlining can	be given as us and ue,
     respectively.  Underline mode change garbage is specified by ug, similar
     to	sg.  If	the terminal has a code	to underline the current character and
     move the cursor one position to the right,	such as	the Microterm Mime,
     this can be given as uc.

     Other capabilities	to enter various highlighting modes include mb (blink-
     ing), md (bold or extra bright), mh (dim or half-bright), mk (blanking or
     invisible text), mp (protected), mr (reverse video), me (turn off all at-
     tribute modes), as	(enter alternate character set mode), and ae (exit al-
     ternate character set mode).  Turning on any of these modes singly	may or
     may not turn off other modes.

     If	there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of mode, this	should
     be	given as sa (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each parameter is
     either 0 or 1, as the corresponding attributes is on or off.  The 9 pa-
     rameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse, blink, dim, bold,
     blank, protect, and alternate character set.  Not all modes need be sup-
     ported by sa, only	those for which	corresponding attribute	commands ex-
     ist.  (It is unlikely that	a termcap-using	program	will support this ca-
     pability, which is	defined	for compatibility with terminfo(5).)

     Terminals with the	"magic cookie" glitches	(sg and	ug), rather than main-
     taining extra attribute bits for each character cell, instead deposit
     special "cookies",	or "garbage characters", when they receive mode-set-
     ting sequences, which affect the display algorithm.

     Some terminals, such as the Hewlett-Packard 2621, automatically leave
     standout mode when	they move to a new line	or when	the cursor is ad-
     dressed.  Programs	using standout mode should exit	standout mode on such
     terminals before moving the cursor	or sending a newline.  On terminals
     where this	is not a problem, the ms capability should be present to say
     that this overhead	is unnecessary.

     If	the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
     quietly (a	bell replacement), this	can be given as	vb; it must not	move
     the cursor.

     If	the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is	not on
     the bottom	line (to change, for example, a	non-blinking underline into an
     easier-to-find block or blinking underline), give this sequence as	vs.
     If	there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible,	give that as
     vi.  The capability ve, which undoes the effects of both of these modes,
     should also be given.

     If	your terminal correctly	displays underlined characters (with no	spe-
     cial codes	needed)	even though it does not	overstrike, then you should
     give the capability ul.  If overstrikes are erasable with a blank,	this
     should be indicated by giving eo.

     If	the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the	keys are
     pressed, this information can be given.  Note that	it is not possible to
     handle terminals where the	keypad only works in local mode	(this applies,
     for example, to the unshifted Hewlett-Packard 2621	keys).	If the keypad
     can be set	to transmit or not transmit, give these	codes as ks and	ke.
     Otherwise the keypad is assumed to	always transmit.  The codes sent by
     the left-arrow, right-arrow, up-arrow, down-arrow,	and home keys can be
     given as kl, kr, ku, kd, and kh, respectively.  If	there are function
     keys such as f0, f1, ..., f9, the codes they send can be given as k0, k1,
     ..., k9.  If these	keys have labels other than the	default	f0 through f9,
     the labels	can be given as	l0, l1,	..., l9.  The codes transmitted	by
     certain other special keys	can be given: kH (home down), kb (backspace),
     ka	(clear all tabs), kt (clear the	tab stop in this column), kC (clear
     screen or erase), kD (delete character), kL (delete line),	kM (exit in-
     sert mode), kE (clear to end of line), kS (clear to end of	screen), kI
     (insert character or enter	insert mode), kA (insert line),	kN (next
     page), kP (previous page),	kF (scroll forward/down), kR (scroll back-
     ward/up), and kT (set a tab stop in this column).	In addition, if	the
     keypad has	a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow	keys, then the
     other five	keys can be given as K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5.  These keys are
     useful when the effects of	a 3 by 3 directional pad are needed.  The ob-
     solete ko capability formerly used	to describe "other" function keys has
     been completely supplanted	by the above capabilities.

     The ma entry is also used to indicate arrow keys on terminals that	have
     single-character arrow keys.  It is obsolete but still in use in version
     2 of vi which must	be run on some minicomputers due to memory limita-
     tions.  This field	is redundant with kl, kr, ku, kd, and kh.  It consists
     of	groups of two characters.  In each group, the first character is what
     an	arrow key sends, and the second	character is the corresponding vi com-
     mand.  These commands are h for kl, j for kd, k for ku, l for kr, and H
     for kh.  For example, the Mime would have "ma=^Hh^Kj^Zk^Xl" indicating
     arrow keys	left (^H), down	(^K), up (^Z), and right (^X).	(There is no
     home key on the Mime.)

   Tabs	and Initialization
     If	the terminal needs to be in a special mode when	running	a program that
     uses these	capabilities, the codes	to enter and exit this mode can	be
     given as ti and te.  This arises, for example, from terminals like	the
     Concept with more than one	page of	memory.	 If the	terminal has only mem-
     ory-relative cursor addressing and	not screen-relative cursor addressing,
     a screen-sized window must	be fixed into the display for cursor address-
     ing to work properly.  This is also used for the Tektronix	4025, where ti
     sets the command character	to be the one used by termcap.

     Other capabilities	include	is, an initialization string for the terminal,
     and if, the name of a file	containing long	initialization strings.	 These
     strings are expected to set the terminal into modes consistent with the
     rest of the termcap description.  They are	normally sent to the terminal
     by	the tset(1) program each time the user logs in.	 They will be printed
     in	the following order: is; setting tabs using ct and st; and finally if.
     (Terminfo uses i1-i2 instead of is	and runs the program iP	and prints i3
     after the other initializations.)	A pair of sequences that does a	harder
     reset from	a totally unknown state	can be analogously given as rs and if.
     These strings are output by the reset(1) program, which is	used when the
     terminal gets into	a wedged state.	 (Terminfo uses	r1-r3 instead of rs.)
     Commands are normally placed in rs	and rf only if they produce annoying
     effects on	the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For exam-
     ple, the command to set the VT100 into 80-column mode would normally be
     part of is, but it	causes an annoying glitch of the screen	and is not
     normally needed since the terminal	is usually already in 80-column	mode.

     If	the terminal has hardware tabs,	the command to advance to the next tab
     stop can be given as ta (usually ^I).  A "backtab"	command	which moves
     leftward to the previous tab stop can be given as bt.  By convention, if
     the terminal driver modes indicate	that tab stops are being expanded by
     the computer rather than being sent to the	terminal, programs should not
     use ta or bt even if they are present, since the user may not have	the
     tab stops properly	set.  If the terminal has hardware tabs	that are ini-
     tially set	every n	positions when the terminal is powered up, then	the
     numeric parameter it is given, showing the	number of positions between
     tab stops.	 This is normally used by the tset(1) command to determine
     whether to	set the	driver mode for	hardware tab expansion,	and whether to
     set the tab stops.	 If the	terminal has tab stops that can	be saved in
     nonvolatile memory, the termcap description can assume that they are
     properly set.

     If	there are commands to set and clear tab	stops, they can	be given as ct
     (clear all	tab stops) and st (set a tab stop in the current column	of ev-
     ery row).	If a more complex sequence is needed to	set the	tabs than can
     be	described by this, the sequence	can be placed in is or if.

     Certain capabilities control padding in the terminal driver.  These are
     primarily needed by hardcopy terminals and	are used by the	tset(1)	pro-
     gram to set terminal driver modes appropriately.  Delays embedded in the
     capabilities cr, sf, le, ff, and ta will cause the	appropriate delay bits
     to	be set in the terminal driver.	If pb (padding baud rate) is given,
     these values can be ignored at baud rates below the value of pb.  For
     4.2BSD tset(1), the delays	are given as numeric capabilities dC, dN, dB,
     dF, and dT	instead.

     If	the terminal requires other than a NUL (zero) character	as a pad, this
     can be given as pc.  Only the first character of the pc string is used.

     If	the terminal has commands to save and restore the position of the cur-
     sor, give them as sc and rc.

     If	the terminal has an extra "status line"	that is	not normally used by
     software, this fact can be	indicated.  If the status line is viewed as an
     extra line	below the bottom line, then the	capability hs should be	given.
     Special strings to	go to a	position in the	status line and	to return from
     the status	line can be given as ts	and fs.	 (fs must leave	the cursor po-
     sition in the same	place that it was before ts.  If necessary, the	sc and
     rc	strings	can be included	in ts and fs to	get this effect.)  The capa-
     bility ts takes one parameter, which is the column	number of the status
     line to which the cursor is to be moved.  If escape sequences and other
     special commands such as tab work while in	the status line, the flag es
     can be given.  A string that turns	off the	status line (or	otherwise
     erases its	contents) should be given as ds.  The status line is normally
     assumed to	be the same width as the rest of the screen, i.e., co.	If the
     status line is a different	width (possibly	because	the terminal does not
     allow an entire line to be	loaded), then its width	in columns can be in-
     dicated with the numeric parameter	ws.

     If	the terminal can move up or down half a	line, this can be indicated
     with hu (half-line	up) and	hd (half-line down).  This is primarily	useful
     for superscripts and subscripts on	hardcopy terminals.  If	a hardcopy
     terminal can eject	to the next page (form feed), give this	as ff (usually

     If	there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of times
     (to save time transmitting	a large	number of identical characters), this
     can be indicated with the parameterized string rp.	 The first parameter
     is	the character to be repeated and the second is the number of times to
     repeat it.	 (This is a terminfo(5)	feature	that is	unlikely to be sup-
     ported by a program that uses termcap.)

     If	the terminal has a settable command character, such as the Tektronix
     4025, this	can be indicated with CC.  A prototype command character is
     chosen which is used in all capabilities.	This character is given	in the
     CC	capability to identify it.  The	following convention is	supported on
     some UNIX systems:	The environment	is to be searched for a	CC variable,
     and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character are replaced by
     the character in the environment variable.	 This use of the CC environ-
     ment variable is a	very bad idea, as it conflicts with make(1).

     Terminal descriptions that	do not represent a specific kind of known ter-
     minal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network,	should include the gn
     (generic) capability so that programs can complain	that they do not know
     how to talk to the	terminal.  (This capability does not apply to virtual
     terminal descriptions for which the escape	sequences are known.)

     If	the terminal uses xoff/xon (DC3/DC1) handshaking for flow control,
     give xo.  Padding information should still	be included so that routines
     can make better decisions about costs, but	actual pad characters will not
     be	transmitted.

     If	the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting the
     8th bit of	any character transmitted, then	this fact can be indicated
     with km.  Otherwise, software will	assume that the	8th bit	is parity and
     it	will usually be	cleared.  If strings exist to turn this	"meta mode" on
     and off, they can be given	as mm and mo.

     If	the terminal has more lines of memory than will	fit on the screen at
     once, the number of lines of memory can be	indicated with lm.  An ex-
     plicit value of 0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed,	but
     that there	is still more memory than fits on the screen.

     If	the terminal is	one of those supported by the UNIX system virtual ter-
     minal protocol, the terminal number can be	given as vt.

     Media copy	strings	which control an auxiliary printer connected to	the
     terminal can be given as ps: print	the contents of	the screen; pf:	turn
     off the printer; and po: turn on the printer.  When the printer is	on,
     all text sent to the terminal will	be sent	to the printer.	 It is unde-
     fined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen when the
     printer is	on.  A variation pO takes one parameter	and leaves the printer
     on	for as many characters as the value of the parameter, then turns the
     printer off.  The parameter should	not exceed 255.	 All text, including
     pf, is transparently passed to the	printer	while pO is in effect.

     Strings to	program	function keys can be given as pk, pl, and px.  Each of
     these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to program
     (from 0 to	9) and the string to program it	with.  Function	key numbers
     out of this range may program undefined keys in a terminal-dependent man-
     ner.  The differences among the capabilities are that pk causes pressing
     the given key to be the same as the user typing the given string; pl
     causes the	string to be executed by the terminal in local mode; and px
     causes the	string to be transmitted to the	computer.  Unfortunately, due
     to	lack of	a definition for string	parameters in termcap, only
     terminfo(5) supports these	capabilities.

   Glitches and	Braindamage
     Hazeltine terminals, which	do not allow `~' characters to be displayed,
     should indicate hz.

     The nc capability,	now obsolete, formerly indicated Datamedia terminals,
     which echo	\r \n for carriage return then ignore a	following linefeed.

     Terminals that ignore a linefeed immediately after	an am wrap, such as
     the Concept, should indicate xn.

     If	ce is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing nor-
     mal text on top of	it), xs	should be given.

     Teleray terminals,	where tabs turn	all characters moved over to blanks,
     should indicate xt	(destructive tabs).  This glitch is also taken to mean
     that it is	not possible to	position the cursor on top of a	"magic
     cookie", and that to erase	standout mode it is necessary to use delete
     and insert	line.

     The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly	transmit the ESC or ^C
     characters, has xb, indicating that the "f1" key is used for ESC and "f2"
     for ^C.  (Only certain Superbees have this	problem, depending on the

     Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more capabil-
     ities of the form x x.

   Similar Terminals
     If	there are two very similar terminals, one can be defined as being just
     like the other with certain exceptions.  The string capability tc can be
     given with	the name of the	similar	terminal.  This	capability must	be
     last, and the combined length of the entries must not exceed 1024.	 The
     capabilities given	before tc override those in the	terminal type invoked
     by	tc.  A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the	left of	the tc
     invocation, where xx is the capability.  For example, the entry


     defines a "2621-nl" that does not have the	ks or ke capabilities, hence
     does not turn on the function key labels when in visual mode.  This is
     useful for	different modes	for a terminal,	or for different user prefer-

     /usr/share/misc/termcap	 File containing terminal descriptions.
     /usr/share/misc/termcap.db	 Hash database file containing terminal	de-
				 scriptions (see cap_mkdb(1)).

     cap_mkdb(1), ex(1), more(1), tset(1), ul(1), vi(1), ncurses(3),
     printf(3),	termcap(3), term(5)

     The Note: termcap functions were replaced by terminfo(5) in AT&T System V
     UNIX Release 2.0.	The transition will be relatively painless if capabil-
     ities flagged as "obsolete" are avoided.

     Lines and columns are now stored by the kernel as well as in the termcap
     entry.  Most programs now use the kernel information primarily; the in-
     formation in this file is used only if the	kernel does not	have any in-

     The vi(1) program allows only 256 characters for string capabilities, and
     the routines in termlib(3)	do not check for overflow of this buffer.  The
     total length of a single entry (excluding only escaped newlines) may not
     exceed 1024.

     Not all programs support all entries.

     The termcap file format appeared in 3BSD.

BSD				April 16, 1994				   BSD


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