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terminfo(5)			 File Formats			   terminfo(5)

       terminfo	- terminal capability data base


       Terminfo	 is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs	such as	nvi(1),	rogue(1) and  libraries	 such  as  curses(3X).
       Terminfo	describes terminals by giving a	set of capabilities which they
       have, by	specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding	requirements  and  initialization  sequences.	This describes
       ncurses version 5.6 (patch 20080503).

       Entries in terminfo consist of a	sequence of `,'	separated fields  (em-
       bedded  commas  may  be	escaped	 with a	backslash or notated as	\054).
       White space after the `,' separator is ignored.	The  first  entry  for
       each  terminal  gives the names which are known for the terminal, sepa-
       rated by	`|' characters.	 The first name	given is the most  common  ab-
       breviation  for the terminal, the last name given should	be a long name
       fully identifying the terminal, and all others are understood  as  syn-
       onyms for the terminal name.  All names but the last should be in lower
       case and	contain	no blanks; the last name may well contain  upper  case
       and blanks for readability.

       Lines beginning with a `#' in the first column are treated as comments.
       While comment lines are legal at	any point, the output  of  @CAPTOINFO@
       and @INFOTOCAP@ (aliases	for tic) will move comments so they occur only
       between entries.

       Newlines	and leading tabs may be	used for formatting entries for	 read-
       ability.	 These are removed from	parsed entries.	 The infocmp -f	option
       relies on this to format	if-then-else expressions: the  result  can  be
       read by tic.

       Terminal	 names	(except	 for the last, verbose entry) should be	chosen
       using the following conventions.	 The particular	piece of hardware mak-
       ing  up	the  terminal  should have a root name,	thus ``hp2621''.  This
       name should not contain hyphens.	 Modes that the	hardware can be	in, or
       user  preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and	a mode
       suffix.	Thus, a	vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.   The  fol-
       lowing suffixes should be used where possible:

	    Suffix		    Meaning		      Example
	    -nn	     Number of lines on	the screen	      aaa-60
	    -np	     Number of pages of	memory		      c100-4p
	    -am	     With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
	    -m	     Mono mode;	suppress color		      ansi-m
	    -mc	     Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
	    -na	     No	arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
	    -nam     Without automatic margins		      vt100-nam
	    -nl	     No	status line			      att4415-nl
	    -ns	     No	status line			      hp2626-ns
	    -rv	     Reverse video			      c100-rv
	    -s	     Enable status line			      vt100-s
	    -vb	     Use visible bell instead of beep	      wy370-vb
	    -w	     Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more	on terminal naming conventions,	see the	term(7)	manual page.

       The  following  is  a  complete table of	the capabilities included in a
       terminfo	description block and available	to  terminfo-using  code.   In
       each line of the	table,

       The  variable  is  the  name  by	 which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short	name used in the text of the database, and  is
       used  by	 a  person updating the	database.  Whenever possible, capnames
       are chosen to be	the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now  superseded	 by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or very similar
       names).	Semantics are also intended to match those of  the  specifica-

       The  termcap code is the	old termcap capability name (some capabilities
       are new,	and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names	have no	hard length limit, but an informal limit of  5
       characters has been adopted to keep them	short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally,	the description	field attempts to convey the semantics of  the
       capability.  You	may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates	that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in  the  description  field  indicates that the string is	passed
	      through tparm with parms as given	(#i).

       (P*)   indicates	that padding may vary in proportion to the  number  of
	      lines affected

       (#i)   indicates	the ith	parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

	       Variable		     Cap-	TCap	      Description
	       Booleans		     name	Code
       auto_left_margin		     bw		bw	  cub1 wraps from col-
							  umn 0	to last	column
       auto_right_margin	     am		am	  terminal has auto-
							  matic	margins
       back_color_erase		     bce	ut	  screen erased	with
							  background color
       can_change		     ccc	cc	  terminal can re-de-
							  fine existing	colors
       ceol_standout_glitch	     xhp	xs	  standout not erased
							  by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch		     xhpa	YA	  only positive	motion
							  for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res		     cpix	YF	  changing character
							  pitch	changes	reso-
       cr_cancels_micro_mode	     crxm	YB	  using	cr turns off
							  micro	mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso	     xt		xt	  tabs destructive,
							  magic	so char
       eat_newline_glitch	     xenl	xn	  newline ignored af-
							  ter 80 cols (con-
       erase_overstrike		     eo		eo	  can erase over-
							  strikes with a blank
       generic_type		     gn		gn	  generic line type
       hard_copy		     hc		hc	  hardcopy terminal

       hard_cursor		     chts	HC	  cursor is hard to
       has_meta_key		     km		km	  Has a	meta key
							  (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel		     daisy	YC	  printer needs	opera-
							  tor to change	char-
							  acter	set
       has_status_line		     hs		hs	  has extra status
       hue_lightness_saturation	     hls	hl	  terminal uses	only
							  HLS color notation
       insert_null_glitch	     in		in	  insert mode distin-
							  guishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res		     lpix	YG	  changing line	pitch
							  changes resolution
       memory_above		     da		da	  display may be re-
							  tained above the
       memory_below		     db		db	  display may be re-
							  tained below the
       move_insert_mode		     mir	mi	  safe to move while
							  in insert mode
       move_standout_mode	     msgr	ms	  safe to move while
							  in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff		     nxon	nx	  padding will not
							  work,	xon/xoff re-
       no_esc_ctlc		     xsb	xb	  beehive (f1=escape,
							  f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char		     npc	NP	  pad character	does
							  not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region	     ndscr	ND	  scrolling region is
       non_rev_rmcup		     nrrmc	NR	  smcup	does not re-
							  verse	rmcup
       over_strike		     os		os	  terminal can over-
       prtr_silent		     mc5i	5i	  printer will not
							  echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch		     xvpa	YD	  only positive	motion
							  for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin	     sam	YE	  printing in last
							  column causes	cr
       status_line_esc_ok	     eslok	es	  escape can be	used
							  on the status	line
       tilde_glitch		     hz		hz	  cannot print ~'s
       transparent_underline	     ul		ul	  underline character
       xon_xoff			     xon	xo	  terminal uses
							  xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

	       Variable		     Cap-	TCap	      Description
		Numeric		     name	Code
       columns			     cols	co	  number of columns in
							  a line
       init_tabs		     it		it	  tabs initially every
							  # spaces
       label_height		     lh		lh	  rows in each label
       label_width		     lw		lw	  columns in each la-

       lines			     lines	li	  number of lines on
							  screen or page
       lines_of_memory		     lm		lm	  lines	of memory if >
							  line.	0 means	varies
       magic_cookie_glitch	     xmc	sg	  number of blank
							  characters left by
							  smso or rmso
       max_attributes		     ma		ma	  maximum combined at-
							  tributes terminal
							  can handle
       max_colors		     colors	Co	  maximum number of
							  colors on screen
       max_pairs		     pairs	pa	  maximum number of
							  color-pairs on the
       maximum_windows		     wnum	MW	  maximum number of
							  defineable windows
       no_color_video		     ncv	NC	  video	attributes
							  that cannot be used
							  with colors
       num_labels		     nlab	Nl	  number of labels on
       padding_baud_rate	     pb		pb	  lowest baud rate
							  where	padding	needed
       virtual_terminal		     vt		vt	  virtual terminal
							  number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line	     wsl	ws	  number of columns in
							  status line

       The  following  numeric	capabilities  are  present  in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but are not yet documented in	the man	page.	They  came  in
       with SVr4's printer support.

	       Variable		     Cap-	TCap	      Description
		Numeric		     name	Code
       bit_image_entwining	     bitwin	Yo	  number of passes for
							  each bit-image row
       bit_image_type		     bitype	Yp	  type of bit-image
       buffer_capacity		     bufsz	Ya	  numbers of bytes
							  buffered before
       buttons			     btns	BT	  number of buttons on
       dot_horz_spacing		     spinh	Yc	  spacing of dots hor-
							  izontally in dots
							  per inch
       dot_vert_spacing		     spinv	Yb	  spacing of pins ver-
							  tically in pins per
       max_micro_address	     maddr	Yd	  maximum value	in mi-
       max_micro_jump		     mjump	Ye	  maximum value	in
       micro_col_size		     mcs	Yf	  character step size
							  when in micro	mode
       micro_line_size		     mls	Yg	  line step size when
							  in micro mode
       number_of_pins		     npins	Yh	  numbers of pins in
       output_res_char		     orc	Yi	  horizontal resolu-
							  tion in units	per

       output_res_horz_inch	     orhi	Yk	  horizontal resolu-
							  tion in units	per
       output_res_line		     orl	Yj	  vertical resolution
							  in units per line
       output_res_vert_inch	     orvi	Yl	  vertical resolution
							  in units per inch
       print_rate		     cps	Ym	  print	rate in	char-
							  acters per second
       wide_char_size		     widcs	Yn	  character step size
							  when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

	       Variable		     Cap-	TCap	      Description
		String		     name	Code
       acs_chars		     acsc	ac	  graphics charset
							  pairs, based on
       back_tab			     cbt	bt	  back tab (P)
       bell			     bel	bl	  audible signal
							  (bell) (P)
       carriage_return		     cr		cr	  carriage return (P*)
       change_char_pitch	     cpi	ZA	  Change number	of
							  characters per inch
							  to #1
       change_line_pitch	     lpi	ZB	  Change number	of
							  lines	per inch to #1
       change_res_horz		     chr	ZC	  Change horizontal
							  resolution to	#1
       change_res_vert		     cvr	ZD	  Change vertical res-
							  olution to #1
       change_scroll_region	     csr	cs	  change region	to
							  line #1 to line #2
       char_padding		     rmp	rP	  like ip but when in
							  insert mode
       clear_all_tabs		     tbc	ct	  clear	all tab	stops
       clear_margins		     mgc	MC	  clear	right and left
							  soft margins
       clear_screen		     clear	cl	  clear	screen and
							  home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol			     el1	cb	  Clear	to beginning
							  of line
       clr_eol			     el		ce	  clear	to end of line
       clr_eos			     ed		cd	  clear	to end of
							  screen (P*)
       column_address		     hpa	ch	  horizontal position
							  #1, absolute (P)
       command_character	     cmdch	CC	  terminal settable
							  cmd character	in
							  prototype !?
       create_window		     cwin	CW	  define a window #1
							  from #2,#3 to	#4,#5
       cursor_address		     cup	cm	  move to row #1 col-
							  umns #2
       cursor_down		     cud1	do	  down one line
       cursor_home		     home	ho	  home cursor (if no
       cursor_invisible		     civis	vi	  make cursor invisi-

       cursor_left		     cub1	le	  move left one	space
       cursor_mem_address	     mrcup	CM	  memory relative cur-
							  sor addressing, move
							  to row #1 columns #2
       cursor_normal		     cnorm	ve	  make cursor appear
							  normal (undo
       cursor_right		     cuf1	nd	  non-destructive
							  space	(move right
							  one space)
       cursor_to_ll		     ll		ll	  last line, first
							  column (if no	cup)
       cursor_up		     cuu1	up	  up one line
       cursor_visible		     cvvis	vs	  make cursor very
       define_char		     defc	ZE	  Define a character
							  #1, #2 dots wide,
							  descender #3
       delete_character		     dch1	dc	  delete character
       delete_line		     dl1	dl	  delete line (P*)
       dial_phone		     dial	DI	  dial number #1
       dis_status_line		     dsl	ds	  disable status line
       display_clock		     dclk	DK	  display clock
       down_half_line		     hd		hd	  half a line down
       ena_acs			     enacs	eA	  enable alternate
							  char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode	     smacs	as	  start	alternate
							  character set	(P)
       enter_am_mode		     smam	SA	  turn on automatic
       enter_blink_mode		     blink	mb	  turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode		     bold	md	  turn on bold (extra
							  bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode		     smcup	ti	  string to start pro-
							  grams	using cup
       enter_delete_mode	     smdc	dm	  enter	delete mode
       enter_dim_mode		     dim	mh	  turn on half-bright
       enter_doublewide_mode	     swidm	ZF	  Enter	double-wide
       enter_draft_quality	     sdrfq	ZG	  Enter	draft-quality
       enter_insert_mode	     smir	im	  enter	insert mode
       enter_italics_mode	     sitm	ZH	  Enter	italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode	     slm	ZI	  Start	leftward car-
							  riage	motion
       enter_micro_mode		     smicm	ZJ	  Start	micro-motion
       enter_near_letter_quality     snlq	ZK	  Enter	NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality	     snrmq	ZL	  Enter	normal-quality
       enter_protected_mode	     prot	mp	  turn on protected
       enter_reverse_mode	     rev	mr	  turn on reverse
							  video	mode
       enter_secure_mode	     invis	mk	  turn on blank	mode
							  (characters invisi-
       enter_shadow_mode	     sshm	ZM	  Enter	shadow-print
       enter_standout_mode	     smso	so	  begin	standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode	     ssubm	ZN	  Enter	subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode	     ssupm	ZO	  Enter	superscript
       enter_underline_mode	     smul	us	  begin	underline mode

       enter_upward_mode	     sum	ZP	  Start	upward car-
							  riage	motion
       enter_xon_mode		     smxon	SX	  turn on xon/xoff
       erase_chars		     ech	ec	  erase	#1 characters
       exit_alt_charset_mode	     rmacs	ae	  end alternate	char-
							  acter	set (P)
       exit_am_mode		     rmam	RA	  turn off automatic
       exit_attribute_mode	     sgr0	me	  turn off all at-
       exit_ca_mode		     rmcup	te	  strings to end pro-
							  grams	using cup
       exit_delete_mode		     rmdc	ed	  end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode	     rwidm	ZQ	  End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode		     rmir	ei	  exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode	     ritm	ZR	  End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode	     rlm	ZS	  End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode		     rmicm	ZT	  End micro-motion
       exit_shadow_mode		     rshm	ZU	  End shadow-print
       exit_standout_mode	     rmso	se	  exit standout	mode
       exit_subscript_mode	     rsubm	ZV	  End subscript	mode
       exit_superscript_mode	     rsupm	ZW	  End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode	     rmul	ue	  exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode		     rum	ZX	  End reverse charac-
							  ter motion
       exit_xon_mode		     rmxon	RX	  turn off xon/xoff
       fixed_pause		     pause	PA	  pause	for 2-3	sec-
       flash_hook		     hook	fh	  flash	switch hook
       flash_screen		     flash	vb	  visible bell (may
							  not move cursor)
       form_feed		     ff		ff	  hardcopy terminal
							  page eject (P*)
       from_status_line		     fsl	fs	  return from status
       goto_window		     wingo	WG	  go to	window #1
       hangup			     hup	HU	  hang-up phone
       init_1string		     is1	i1	  initialization
       init_2string		     is2	is	  initialization
       init_3string		     is3	i3	  initialization
       init_file		     if		if	  name of initializa-
							  tion file
       init_prog		     iprog	iP	  path name of program
							  for initialization
       initialize_color		     initc	Ic	  initialize color #1
							  to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair		     initp	Ip	  Initialize color
							  pair #1 to
       insert_character		     ich1	ic	  insert character (P)
       insert_line		     il1	al	  insert line (P*)
       insert_padding		     ip		ip	  insert padding after
							  inserted character
       key_a1			     ka1	K1	  upper	left of	keypad
       key_a3			     ka3	K3	  upper	right of key-
       key_b2			     kb2	K2	  center of keypad

       key_backspace		     kbs	kb	  backspace key
       key_beg			     kbeg	@1	  begin	key
       key_btab			     kcbt	kB	  back-tab key
       key_c1			     kc1	K4	  lower	left of	keypad
       key_c3			     kc3	K5	  lower	right of key-
       key_cancel		     kcan	@2	  cancel key
       key_catab		     ktbc	ka	  clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear		     kclr	kC	  clear-screen or
							  erase	key
       key_close		     kclo	@3	  close	key
       key_command		     kcmd	@4	  command key
       key_copy			     kcpy	@5	  copy key
       key_create		     kcrt	@6	  create key
       key_ctab			     kctab	kt	  clear-tab key
       key_dc			     kdch1	kD	  delete-character key
       key_dl			     kdl1	kL	  delete-line key
       key_down			     kcud1	kd	  down-arrow key
       key_eic			     krmir	kM	  sent by rmir or smir
							  in insert mode
       key_end			     kend	@7	  end key
       key_enter		     kent	@8	  enter/send key
       key_eol			     kel	kE	  clear-to-end-of-line
       key_eos			     ked	kS	  clear-to-end-of-
							  screen key
       key_exit			     kext	@9	  exit key
       key_f0			     kf0	k0	  F0 function key
       key_f1			     kf1	k1	  F1 function key
       key_f10			     kf10	k;	  F10 function key
       key_f11			     kf11	F1	  F11 function key
       key_f12			     kf12	F2	  F12 function key
       key_f13			     kf13	F3	  F13 function key
       key_f14			     kf14	F4	  F14 function key
       key_f15			     kf15	F5	  F15 function key
       key_f16			     kf16	F6	  F16 function key
       key_f17			     kf17	F7	  F17 function key
       key_f18			     kf18	F8	  F18 function key
       key_f19			     kf19	F9	  F19 function key
       key_f2			     kf2	k2	  F2 function key
       key_f20			     kf20	FA	  F20 function key
       key_f21			     kf21	FB	  F21 function key
       key_f22			     kf22	FC	  F22 function key
       key_f23			     kf23	FD	  F23 function key
       key_f24			     kf24	FE	  F24 function key
       key_f25			     kf25	FF	  F25 function key
       key_f26			     kf26	FG	  F26 function key
       key_f27			     kf27	FH	  F27 function key
       key_f28			     kf28	FI	  F28 function key
       key_f29			     kf29	FJ	  F29 function key
       key_f3			     kf3	k3	  F3 function key
       key_f30			     kf30	FK	  F30 function key
       key_f31			     kf31	FL	  F31 function key
       key_f32			     kf32	FM	  F32 function key
       key_f33			     kf33	FN	  F33 function key
       key_f34			     kf34	FO	  F34 function key
       key_f35			     kf35	FP	  F35 function key
       key_f36			     kf36	FQ	  F36 function key
       key_f37			     kf37	FR	  F37 function key
       key_f38			     kf38	FS	  F38 function key
       key_f39			     kf39	FT	  F39 function key
       key_f4			     kf4	k4	  F4 function key
       key_f40			     kf40	FU	  F40 function key
       key_f41			     kf41	FV	  F41 function key
       key_f42			     kf42	FW	  F42 function key
       key_f43			     kf43	FX	  F43 function key

       key_f44			     kf44	FY	  F44 function key
       key_f45			     kf45	FZ	  F45 function key
       key_f46			     kf46	Fa	  F46 function key
       key_f47			     kf47	Fb	  F47 function key
       key_f48			     kf48	Fc	  F48 function key
       key_f49			     kf49	Fd	  F49 function key
       key_f5			     kf5	k5	  F5 function key
       key_f50			     kf50	Fe	  F50 function key
       key_f51			     kf51	Ff	  F51 function key
       key_f52			     kf52	Fg	  F52 function key
       key_f53			     kf53	Fh	  F53 function key
       key_f54			     kf54	Fi	  F54 function key
       key_f55			     kf55	Fj	  F55 function key
       key_f56			     kf56	Fk	  F56 function key
       key_f57			     kf57	Fl	  F57 function key
       key_f58			     kf58	Fm	  F58 function key
       key_f59			     kf59	Fn	  F59 function key
       key_f6			     kf6	k6	  F6 function key
       key_f60			     kf60	Fo	  F60 function key
       key_f61			     kf61	Fp	  F61 function key
       key_f62			     kf62	Fq	  F62 function key
       key_f63			     kf63	Fr	  F63 function key
       key_f7			     kf7	k7	  F7 function key
       key_f8			     kf8	k8	  F8 function key
       key_f9			     kf9	k9	  F9 function key
       key_find			     kfnd	@0	  find key
       key_help			     khlp	%1	  help key
       key_home			     khome	kh	  home key
       key_ic			     kich1	kI	  insert-character key
       key_il			     kil1	kA	  insert-line key
       key_left			     kcub1	kl	  left-arrow key
       key_ll			     kll	kH	  lower-left key (home
       key_mark			     kmrk	%2	  mark key
       key_message		     kmsg	%3	  message key
       key_move			     kmov	%4	  move key
       key_next			     knxt	%5	  next key
       key_npage		     knp	kN	  next-page key
       key_open			     kopn	%6	  open key
       key_options		     kopt	%7	  options key
       key_ppage		     kpp	kP	  previous-page	key
       key_previous		     kprv	%8	  previous key
       key_print		     kprt	%9	  print	key
       key_redo			     krdo	%0	  redo key
       key_reference		     kref	&1	  reference key
       key_refresh		     krfr	&2	  refresh key
       key_replace		     krpl	&3	  replace key
       key_restart		     krst	&4	  restart key
       key_resume		     kres	&5	  resume key
       key_right		     kcuf1	kr	  right-arrow key
       key_save			     ksav	&6	  save key
       key_sbeg			     kBEG	&9	  shifted begin	key
       key_scancel		     kCAN	&0	  shifted cancel key
       key_scommand		     kCMD	*1	  shifted command key
       key_scopy		     kCPY	*2	  shifted copy key
       key_screate		     kCRT	*3	  shifted create key
       key_sdc			     kDC	*4	  shifted delete-char-
							  acter	key
       key_sdl			     kDL	*5	  shifted delete-line
       key_select		     kslt	*6	  select key
       key_send			     kEND	*7	  shifted end key
       key_seol			     kEOL	*8	  shifted clear-to-
							  end-of-line key
       key_sexit		     kEXT	*9	  shifted exit key
       key_sf			     kind	kF	  scroll-forward key

       key_sfind		     kFND	*0	  shifted find key
       key_shelp		     kHLP	#1	  shifted help key
       key_shome		     kHOM	#2	  shifted home key
       key_sic			     kIC	#3	  shifted insert-char-
							  acter	key
       key_sleft		     kLFT	#4	  shifted left-arrow
       key_smessage		     kMSG	%a	  shifted message key
       key_smove		     kMOV	%b	  shifted move key
       key_snext		     kNXT	%c	  shifted next key
       key_soptions		     kOPT	%d	  shifted options key
       key_sprevious		     kPRV	%e	  shifted previous key
       key_sprint		     kPRT	%f	  shifted print	key
       key_sr			     kri	kR	  scroll-backward key
       key_sredo		     kRDO	%g	  shifted redo key
       key_sreplace		     kRPL	%h	  shifted replace key
       key_sright		     kRIT	%i	  shifted right-arrow
       key_srsume		     kRES	%j	  shifted resume key
       key_ssave		     kSAV	!1	  shifted save key
       key_ssuspend		     kSPD	!2	  shifted suspend key
       key_stab			     khts	kT	  set-tab key
       key_sundo		     kUND	!3	  shifted undo key
       key_suspend		     kspd	&7	  suspend key
       key_undo			     kund	&8	  undo key
       key_up			     kcuu1	ku	  up-arrow key
       keypad_local		     rmkx	ke	  leave	'key-
							  board_transmit' mode
       keypad_xmit		     smkx	ks	  enter	'key-
							  board_transmit' mode
       lab_f0			     lf0	l0	  label	on function
							  key f0 if not	f0
       lab_f1			     lf1	l1	  label	on function
							  key f1 if not	f1
       lab_f10			     lf10	la	  label	on function
							  key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2			     lf2	l2	  label	on function
							  key f2 if not	f2
       lab_f3			     lf3	l3	  label	on function
							  key f3 if not	f3
       lab_f4			     lf4	l4	  label	on function
							  key f4 if not	f4
       lab_f5			     lf5	l5	  label	on function
							  key f5 if not	f5
       lab_f6			     lf6	l6	  label	on function
							  key f6 if not	f6
       lab_f7			     lf7	l7	  label	on function
							  key f7 if not	f7
       lab_f8			     lf8	l8	  label	on function
							  key f8 if not	f8
       lab_f9			     lf9	l9	  label	on function
							  key f9 if not	f9
       label_format		     fln	Lf	  label	format
       label_off		     rmln	LF	  turn off soft	labels
       label_on			     smln	LO	  turn on soft labels
       meta_off			     rmm	mo	  turn off meta	mode
       meta_on			     smm	mm	  turn on meta mode
							  (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address	     mhpa	ZY	  Like column_address
							  in micro mode
       micro_down		     mcud1	ZZ	  Like cursor_down in
							  micro	mode
       micro_left		     mcub1	Za	  Like cursor_left in
							  micro	mode
       micro_right		     mcuf1	Zb	  Like cursor_right in
							  micro	mode

       micro_row_address	     mvpa	Zc	  Like row_address #1
							  in micro mode
       micro_up			     mcuu1	Zd	  Like cursor_up in
							  micro	mode
       newline			     nel	nw	  newline (behave like
							  cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins		     porder	Ze	  Match	software bits
							  to print-head	pins
       orig_colors		     oc		oc	  Set all color	pairs
							  to the original ones
       orig_pair		     op		op	  Set default pair to
							  its original value
       pad_char			     pad	pc	  padding char (in-
							  stead	of null)
       parm_dch			     dch	DC	  delete #1 characters
       parm_delete_line		     dl		DL	  delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor		     cud	DO	  down #1 lines	(P*)
       parm_down_micro		     mcud	Zf	  Like parm_down_cur-
							  sor in micro mode
       parm_ich			     ich	IC	  insert #1 characters
       parm_index		     indn	SF	  scroll forward #1
							  lines	(P)
       parm_insert_line		     il		AL	  insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor		     cub	LE	  move #1 characters
							  to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro		     mcub	Zg	  Like parm_left_cur-
							  sor in micro mode
       parm_right_cursor	     cuf	RI	  move #1 characters
							  to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro		     mcuf	Zh	  Like parm_right_cur-
							  sor in micro mode
       parm_rindex		     rin	SR	  scroll back #1 lines
       parm_up_cursor		     cuu	UP	  up #1	lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro		     mcuu	Zi	  Like parm_up_cursor
							  in micro mode
       pkey_key			     pfkey	pk	  program function key
							  #1 to	type string #2
       pkey_local		     pfloc	pl	  program function key
							  #1 to	execute	string
       pkey_xmit		     pfx	px	  program function key
							  #1 to	transmit
							  string #2
       plab_norm		     pln	pn	  program label	#1 to
							  show string #2
       print_screen		     mc0	ps	  print	contents of
       prtr_non			     mc5p	pO	  turn on printer for
							  #1 bytes
       prtr_off			     mc4	pf	  turn off printer
       prtr_on			     mc5	po	  turn on printer
       pulse			     pulse	PU	  select pulse dialing
       quick_dial		     qdial	QD	  dial number #1 with-
							  out checking
       remove_clock		     rmclk	RC	  remove clock
       repeat_char		     rep	rp	  repeat char #1 #2
							  times	(P*)
       req_for_input		     rfi	RF	  send next input char
							  (for ptys)
       reset_1string		     rs1	r1	  reset	string
       reset_2string		     rs2	r2	  reset	string
       reset_3string		     rs3	r3	  reset	string
       reset_file		     rf		rf	  name of reset	file

       restore_cursor		     rc		rc	  restore cursor to
							  position of last
       row_address		     vpa	cv	  vertical position #1
							  absolute (P)
       save_cursor		     sc		sc	  save current cursor
							  position (P)
       scroll_forward		     ind	sf	  scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse		     ri		sr	  scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set		     scs	Zj	  Select character
							  set, #1
       set_attributes		     sgr	sa	  define video at-
							  tributes #1-#9 (PG9)
       set_background		     setb	Sb	  Set background color
       set_bottom_margin	     smgb	Zk	  Set bottom margin at
							  current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm	     smgbp	Zl	  Set bottom margin at
							  line #1 or (if smgtp
							  is not given)	#2
							  lines	from bottom
       set_clock		     sclk	SC	  set clock, #1	hrs #2
							  mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair		     scp	sp	  Set current color
							  pair to #1
       set_foreground		     setf	Sf	  Set foreground color
       set_left_margin		     smgl	ML	  set left soft	margin
							  at current col-
							  umn.	      See
							  smgl.	(ML is not in
							  BSD termcap).
       set_left_margin_parm	     smglp	Zm	  Set left (right)
							  margin at column #1
       set_right_margin		     smgr	MR	  set right soft mar-
							  gin at current col-
       set_right_margin_parm	     smgrp	Zn	  Set right margin at
							  column #1
       set_tab			     hts	st	  set a	tab in every
							  row, current columns
       set_top_margin		     smgt	Zo	  Set top margin at
							  current line
       set_top_margin_parm	     smgtp	Zp	  Set top (bottom)
							  margin at row	#1
       set_window		     wind	wi	  current window is
							  lines	#1-#2 cols
       start_bit_image		     sbim	Zq	  Start	printing bit
							  image	graphics
       start_char_set_def	     scsd	Zr	  Start	character set
							  definition #1, with
							  #2 characters	in the
       stop_bit_image		     rbim	Zs	  Stop printing	bit
							  image	graphics
       stop_char_set_def	     rcsd	Zt	  End definition of
							  character set	#1
       subscript_characters	     subcs	Zu	  List of subscript-
							  able characters
       superscript_characters	     supcs	Zv	  List of superscript-
							  able characters
       tab			     ht		ta	  tab to next 8-space
							  hardware tab stop

       these_cause_cr		     docr	Zw	  Printing any of
							  these	characters
							  causes CR
       to_status_line		     tsl	ts	  move to status line,
							  column #1
       tone			     tone	TO	  select touch tone
       underline_char		     uc		uc	  underline char and
							  move past it
       up_half_line		     hu		hu	  half a line up
       user0			     u0		u0	  User string #0
       user1			     u1		u1	  User string #1
       user2			     u2		u2	  User string #2
       user3			     u3		u3	  User string #3
       user4			     u4		u4	  User string #4
       user5			     u5		u5	  User string #5
       user6			     u6		u6	  User string #6
       user7			     u7		u7	  User string #7
       user8			     u8		u8	  User string #8
       user9			     u9		u9	  User string #9
       wait_tone		     wait	WA	  wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character		     xoffc	XF	  XOFF character
       xon_character		     xonc	XN	  XON character
       zero_motion		     zerom	Zx	  No motion for	subse-
							  quent	character

       The following string capabilities are present in	the SVr4.0 term	struc-
       ture, but were originally not documented	in the man page.

	       Variable		     Cap-	  TCap	       Description
		String		     name	  Code
       alt_scancode_esc		     scesa	  S8	    Alternate escape
							    for	scancode emu-
       bit_image_carriage_return     bicr	  Yv	    Move to beginning
							    of same row
       bit_image_newline	     binel	  Zz	    Move to next row
							    of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat		     birep	  Xy	    Repeat bit image
							    cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names		     csnm	  Zy	    Produce #1'th item
							    from list of char-
							    acter set names
       code_set_init		     csin	  ci	    Init sequence for
							    multiple codesets
       color_names		     colornm	  Yw	    Give name for
							    color #1
       define_bit_image_region	     defbi	  Yx	    Define rectan-
							    gualar bit image
       device_type		     devt	  dv	    Indicate lan-
							    guage/codeset sup-
       display_pc_char		     dispc	  S1	    Display PC charac-
							    ter	#1
       end_bit_image_region	     endbi	  Yy	    End	a bit-image
       enter_pc_charset_mode	     smpch	  S2	    Enter PC character
							    display mode
       enter_scancode_mode	     smsc	  S4	    Enter PC scancode
       exit_pc_charset_mode	     rmpch	  S3	    Exit PC character
							    display mode
       exit_scancode_mode	     rmsc	  S5	    Exit PC scancode

       get_mouse		     getm	  Gm	    Curses should get
							    button events, pa-
							    rameter #1 not
       key_mouse		     kmous	  Km	    Mouse event	has
       mouse_info		     minfo	  Mi	    Mouse status in-
       pc_term_options		     pctrm	  S6	    PC terminal	op-
       pkey_plab		     pfxl	  xl	    Program function
							    key	#1 to type
							    string #2 and show
							    string #3
       req_mouse_pos		     reqmp	  RQ	    Request mouse po-
       scancode_escape		     scesc	  S7	    Escape for scan-
							    code emulation
       set0_des_seq		     s0ds	  s0	    Shift to codeset 0
							    (EUC set 0,	ASCII)
       set1_des_seq		     s1ds	  s1	    Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq		     s2ds	  s2	    Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq		     s3ds	  s3	    Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background		     setab	  AB	    Set	background
							    color to #1, using
							    ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground		     setaf	  AF	    Set	foreground
							    color to #1, using
							    ANSI escape
       set_color_band		     setcolor	  Yz	    Change to ribbon
							    color #1
       set_lr_margin		     smglr	  ML	    Set	both left and
							    right margins to
							    #1,	#2.  (ML is
							    not	in BSD term-
       set_page_length		     slines	  YZ	    Set	page length to
							    #1 lines
       set_tb_margin		     smgtb	  MT	    Sets both top and
							    bottom margins to
							    #1,	#2

	The  XSI Curses	standard added these.  They are	some post-4.1 versions
	of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  The ncurses term-
	cap names for them are invented; according to the XSI Curses standard,
	they have no termcap names.  If	your  compiled	terminfo  entries  use
	these,	they  may  not be binary-compatible with System	V terminfo en-
	tries after SVr4.1; beware!

		Variable	      Cap-	 TCap	      Description
		 String		      name	 Code
	enter_horizontal_hl_mode      ehhlm	 Xh	  Enter	horizontal
							  highlight mode
	enter_left_hl_mode	      elhlm	 Xl	  Enter	left highlight
	enter_low_hl_mode	      elohlm	 Xo	  Enter	low highlight
	enter_right_hl_mode	      erhlm	 Xr	  Enter	right high-
							  light	mode
	enter_top_hl_mode	      ethlm	 Xt	  Enter	top highlight
	enter_vertical_hl_mode	      evhlm	 Xv	  Enter	vertical high-
							  light	mode

	set_a_attributes	      sgr1	 sA	  Define second	set of
							  video	attributes
	set_pglen_inch		      slength	 sL	  YI Set page length
							  to #1	hundredth of
							  an inch

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard	terminal, is represen-
       tative  of  what	a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically looks

     ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
	     colors#8, ncv#3, pairs#64,
	     cub=\E[%p1%dD, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cuf=\E[%p1%dC,
	     cuu=\E[%p1%dA, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dl=\E[%p1%dM,
	     ech=\E[%p1%dX, el1=\E[1K, hpa=\E[%p1%dG, ht=\E[I,
	     ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, indn=\E[%p1%dS, .indn=\E[%p1%dT,
	     kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z,	kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
	     kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kf1=\E[M, kf10=\E[V,
	     kf11=\E[W,	kf12=\E[X, kf2=\E[N, kf3=\E[O, kf4=\E[P,
	     kf5=\E[Q, kf6=\E[R, kf7=\E[S, kf8=\E[T, kf9=\E[U,
	     kich1=\E[L, mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S,
	     op=\E[37;40m, rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db,
	     rin=\E[%p1%dT, s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B,
	     s3ds=\E+B,	setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
	     sgr0=\E[0;10m, tbc=\E[2g, u6=\E[%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
	     u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines	by placing white space at  the
       beginning  of  each line	except the first.  Comments may	be included on
       lines beginning with ``#''.  Capabilities  in  terminfo	are  of	 three
       types:  Boolean	capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some
       particular feature, numeric capabilities	giving the size	of the	termi-
       nal  or	the  size of particular	delays,	and string capabilities, which
       give a sequence which can be used to perform particular terminal	opera-

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities	have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals have automatic	margins	(i.e., an automatic return  and	 line-
       feed  when the end of a line is reached)	is indicated by	the capability
       am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.	 Numeric  capabilities
       are  followed  by  the  character  `#' and then a positive value.  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number	of columns the terminal	has, gives the
       value  `80' for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con-
       ventions	(e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally,	 string	 valued	capabilities, such as el (clear	to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character	 code,	an  `=',  and  then  a
       string ending at	the next following `,'.

       A number	of escape sequences are	provided in the	string valued capabil-
       ities for easy encoding of characters there.  Both \E and \e map	to  an
       ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a control-x	for any	appropriate x, and the
       sequences \n \l \r \t \b	\f \s give a newline, line-feed, return,  tab,
       backspace,  form-feed,  and  space.  Other escapes include \^ for ^, \\
       for \, \, for comma, \: for :, and \0 for null.	(\0 will produce \200,
       which  does  not	 terminate a string but	behaves	as a null character on
       most terminals, providing CS7 is	specified.   See  stty(1).)   Finally,
       characters may be given as three	octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a	string capability, en-
       closed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters  are
       supplied	 by  tputs  to provide this delay.  The	delay must be a	number
       with at most one	decimal	place of precision; it may be followed by suf-
       fixes `*' or '/'	or both.  A `*'	indicates that the padding required is
       proportional to the number of lines affected by the operation, and  the
       amount  given  is the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the case
       of insert character, the	factor is still	the number of lines affected.)
       Normally,  padding is advisory if the device has	the xon	capability; it
       is used for cost	computation but	does not trigger delays.  A `/'	suffix
       indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a delay of the given
       number of milliseconds even on devices for which	xon is present to  in-
       dicate flow control.

       Sometimes  individual  capabilities must	be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.	 For example, see  the	second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       If  the	environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted	as the
       pathname	of a directory containing the  compiled	 description  you  are
       working on.  Only that directory	is searched.

       If TERMINFO is not set, the ncurses version of the terminfo reader code
       will instead look in the	directory $HOME/.terminfo for a	 compiled  de-
       scription.  If it fails to find one there, and the environment variable
       TERMINFO_DIRS is	set, it	will interpret the contents of	that  variable
       as  a list of colon- separated directories to be	searched (an empty en-
       try is interpreted as a command	to  search  /usr/share/misc/terminfo).
       If no description is found in any of the	TERMINFO_DIRS directories, the
       fetch fails.

       If neither TERMINFO nor TERMINFO_DIRS is	set, the last place tried will
       be the system terminfo directory, /usr/share/misc/terminfo.

       (Neither	 the  $HOME/.terminfo lookups nor TERMINFO_DIRS	extensions are
       supported under stock System V terminfo/curses.)

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare descriptions of terminals.	 The most  ef-
       fective	way  to	prepare	a terminal description is by imitating the de-
       scription of a similar terminal in terminfo and to build	up a  descrip-
       tion  gradually,	 using	partial	 descriptions  with  vi	 or some other
       screen-oriented program to check	that they are correct.	Be aware  that
       a  very	unusual	terminal may expose deficiencies in the	ability	of the
       terminfo	file to	describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code	of the
       test program.

       To  get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
       did not document	it) a severe test is to	edit  a	 large	file  at  9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from	the middle of the screen, then hit the
       `u' key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The  number  of	columns	 on each line for the terminal is given	by the
       cols numeric capability.	 If the	terminal is a CRT, then	the number  of
       lines  on the screen is given by	the lines capability.  If the terminal
       wraps around to the beginning of	the next  line	when  it  reaches  the
       right  margin,  then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, leaving the cursor	in  the	 home  position,  then
       this  is	 given	by the clear string capability.	 If the	terminal over-
       strikes (rather than clearing a position	when  a	 character  is	struck
       over)  then  it	should	have  the os capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing	terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies	to  storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
       well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to  move  the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give	this as	cr.  (Normally
       this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a	code  to  pro-
       duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc)	give this as bel.

       If there	is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.   Similarly,	 codes
       to  move	 to the	right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and
       cud1.  These local cursor motions should	not alter the text  they  pass
       over,  for  example,  you  would	 not normally use `cuf1= ' because the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important	point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo	 are  undefined	 at  the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs	should never attempt to	backspace around the left edge,	unless
       bw  is given, and never attempt to go up	locally	off the	top.  In order
       to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner  of  the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To  scroll  text	 down,	a  program  goes to the	top left corner	of the
       screen and sends	the ri (reverse	index) string.	The strings ind	and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized  versions	of  the	 scrolling  sequences are indn and rin
       which have the same semantics as	ind and	ri except that they  take  one
       parameter,  and scroll that many	lines.	They are also undefined	except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the	right edge  of
       the  screen when	text is	output,	but this does not necessarily apply to
       a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion  which  is  defined
       from  the  left	edge is	if bw is given,	then a cub1 from the left edge
       will move to the	right edge of the previous row.	 If bw is  not	given,
       the  effect  is undefined.  This	is useful for drawing a	box around the
       edge of the screen, for example.	 If the	terminal has switch selectable
       automatic  margins,  the	terminfo file usually assumes that this	is on;
       i.e., am.  If the terminal has a	command	which moves to the first  col-
       umn  of	the next line, that command can	be given as nel	(newline).  It
       does not	matter if the command clears  the  remainder  of  the  current
       line,  so  if the terminal has no cr and	lf it may still	be possible to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy	and "glass-tty"	termi-
       nals.  Thus the model 33	teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
	    bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
	    am,	bel=^G,	clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
	    ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the	termi-
       nal are described by a parameterized string capability, with  printf(3)
       like escapes %x in it.  For example, to address the cursor, the cup ca-
       pability	is given, using	two parameters:	the row	and column to  address
       to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from	zero and refer to the physical
       screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the terminal
       has memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The  parameter mechanism	uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate
       it.  Typically a	sequence will push one	of  the	 parameters  onto  the
       stack  and  then	print it in some format.  Print	(e.g., "%d") is	a spe-
       cial case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop	their operand from the
       stack.	It  is noted that more complex operations are often necessary,
       e.g., in	the sgr	string.

       The % encodings have the	following meanings:

       %%   outputs `%'

	    as in printf, flags	are [-+#] and space.  Use a `:'	to  allow  the
	    next  character to be a `-'	flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as an

       %c   print pop()	like %c	in printf

       %s   print pop()	like %s	in printf

	    push i'th parameter

	    set	dynamic	variable [a-z] to pop()

	    get	dynamic	variable [a-z] and push	it

	    set	static variable	[a-z] to pop()

	    get	static variable	[a-z] and push it

	    The	terms "static" and "dynamic"  are  misleading.	 Historically,
	    these are simply two different sets	of variables, whose values are
	    not	reset between calls to tparm.  However,	that fact is not docu-
	    mented in other implementations.  Relying on it will adversely im-
	    pact portability to	other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

	    integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+ %- %*	%/ %m
	    arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %& %| %^
	    bit	operations (AND, OR and	exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %= %> %<
	    logical operations:	push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
	    logical AND	and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %! %~
	    unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add	1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
	    This forms an if-then-else.	 The %e	elsepart is optional.  Usually
	    the	 %?  expr  part	 pushes	a value	onto the stack,	and %t pops it
	    from the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).  If  it  is  zero
	    (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

	    It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol	68:
	    %? c1 %t b1	%e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3	%e c4 %t b4 %e %;

	    where ci are conditions, bi	are bodies.

	    Use	 the  -f  option of tic	or infocmp to see the structure	of if-
	    the-else's.	 Some strings, e.g., sgr can be	very complicated  when
	    written  on	 one line.  The	-f option splits the string into lines
	    with the parts indented.

       Binary operations are in	postfix	form with the operands	in  the	 usual
       order.  That is,	to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g vari-
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider	the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs	to  be
       sent  \E&a12c03Y	padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order	of the
       rows and	columns	is inverted here, and that  the	 row  and  column  are
       printed	  as	two    digits.	   Thus	   its	 cup   capability   is

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded  by
       a   ^T,	 with	the   row   and	  column  simply  encoded  in  binary,
       "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".  Terminals which  use  "%c"	need  to  be  able  to
       backspace  the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line	on the
       screen (cuu1).  This is necessary because it  is	 not  always  safe  to
       transmit	 \n ^D and \r, as the system may change	or discard them.  (The
       library routines	dealing	with terminfo set tty modes so that  tabs  are
       never  expanded,	so \t is safe to send.	This turns out to be essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which	uses row and column offset  by
       a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%'	'%+%c".	 After sending
       `\E=', this pushes the first parameter, pushes the ASCII	 value	for  a
       space (32), adds	them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous	values)	and outputs that value as a character.	Then the  same
       is  done	for the	second parameter.  More	complex	arithmetic is possible
       using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very  upper  left
       corner  of screen) then this can	be given as home; similarly a fast way
       of getting to the lower left-hand corner	can be given as	ll;  this  may
       involve going up	with cuu1 from the home	position, but a	program	should
       never do	this itself (unless ll does) because it	can make no assumption
       about  the  effect  of moving up	from the home position.	 Note that the
       home position is	the same as addressing to (0,0): to the	top left  cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP	termi-
       nals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be  given as single parameter capabilities hpa (horizontal position ab-
       solute) and vpa (vertical  position  absolute).	 Sometimes  these  are
       shorter	than  the  more	 general  two  parameter sequence (as with the
       hp2645) and can be used in preference to	cup.  If there are  parameter-
       ized  local  motions  (e.g.,  move  n spaces to the right) these	can be
       given as	cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating  how
       many  spaces  to	move.  These are primarily useful if the terminal does
       not have	cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to	be in a	special	mode when  running  a  program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter	and exit this mode can
       be given	as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from  terminals
       like  the  Concept  with	more than one page of memory.  If the terminal
       has only	memory relative	cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the	termi-
       nal for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for  the
       TEKTRONIX  4025,	 where	smcup sets the command character to be the one
       used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence	will not  restore  the	screen
       after an	rmcup sequence is output (to the state prior to	outputting rm-
       cup), specify nrrmc.

   Area	Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end  of  the
       line,  leaving  the cursor where	it is, this should be given as el.  If
       the terminal can	clear from the beginning of the	line  to  the  current
       position	 inclusive,  leaving  the  cursor  where it is,	this should be
       given as	el1.  If the terminal can clear	from the current  position  to
       the  end	 of  the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is only
       defined from the	first column of	a line.	 (Thus,	it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not	avail-

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If the terminal can open	a new blank line before	 the  line  where  the
       cursor  is,  this  should  be  given as il1; this is done only from the
       first position of a line.  The cursor must then	appear	on  the	 newly
       blank  line.   If  the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is
       on, then	this should be given as	dl1; this is done only from the	 first
       position	on the line to be deleted.  Versions of	il1 and	dl1 which take
       a single	parameter and insert or	delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If  the	terminal  has a	settable scrolling region (like	the vt100) the
       command to set this can be described with  the  csr  capability,	 which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom	lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this	command.

       It is possible to get the effect	of insert or delete line using csr  on
       a  properly chosen region; the sc and rc	(save and restore cursor) com-
       mands may be useful for ensuring	that  your  synthesized	 insert/delete
       string  does  not  move the cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3X) library
       does  this  synthesis  automatically,  so  you  need  not  compose  in-
       sert/delete strings for an entry	with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a	combi-
       nation of index with the	memory-lock feature found  on  some  terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also be done us-
       ing ri or ind on	many terminals without a true insert/delete line,  and
       is often	faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set	if each	scrolling win-
       dow is effectively a view port on a screen-sized	canvas.	 To  test  for
       this capability,	create a scrolling region in the middle	of the screen,
       write something to the bottom line, move	the cursor to the top  of  the
       region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom of the region by the ri re-appears, then	scrolling  is  non-de-
       structive.   System V and XSI Curses expect that	ind, ri, indn, and rin
       will simulate destructive scrolling; their documentation	 cautions  you
       not  to	define csr unless this is true.	 This curses implementation is
       more liberal and	will do	explicit erases	after scrolling	 if  ndstr  is

       If  the	terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
       which all commands affect, it should  be	 given	as  the	 parameterized
       string  wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in	that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above,	then the da capability
       should  be  given;  if  display	memory	can be retained	below, then db
       should be given.	 These indicate	that deleting a	line or	scrolling  may
       bring  non-blank	lines up from below or that scrolling back with	ri may
       bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of intelligent	terminals with respect to  in-
       sert/delete  character which can	be described using terminfo.  The most
       common insert/delete character operations affect	only the characters on
       the  current line and shift characters off the end of the line rigidly.
       Other terminals,	such as	the Concept 100	and the	Perkin Elmer Owl, make
       a  distinction between typed and	untyped	blanks on the screen, shifting
       upon an insert or delete	only to	an untyped blank on the	 screen	 which
       is  either  eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.  You can de-
       termine the kind	of terminal you	have by	clearing the screen  and  then
       typing text separated by	cursor motions.	 Type "abc    def" using local
       cursor motions (not spaces) between the "abc" and the "def".  Then  po-
       sition the cursor before	the "abc" and put the terminal in insert mode.
       If typing characters causes the rest of the line	to shift  rigidly  and
       characters to fall off the end, then your terminal does not distinguish
       between blanks and untyped positions.  If the "abc" shifts over to  the
       "def"  which  then move together	around the end of the current line and
       onto the	next as	you insert, you	have the second	type of	terminal,  and
       should  give  the capability in,	which stands for "insert null".	 While
       these are two logically separate	attributes (one	line versus multi-line
       insert  mode,  and special treatment of untyped spaces) we have seen no
       terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the	single	attri-

       Terminfo	 can  describe	both  terminals	which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a	blank position on  the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence	to get into insert mode.  Give
       as rmir the sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as	ich1  any  se-
       quence  needed  to  be sent just	before sending the character to	be in-
       serted.	Most terminals with a true insert mode	will  not  give	 ich1;
       terminals  which	 send a	sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal	has both, insert mode is usually preferable  to	 ich1.
       Technically,  you should	not give both unless the terminal actually re-
       quires both to be used in combination.	Accordingly,  some  non-curses
       applications  get  confused if both are present;	the symptom is doubled
       characters in an	update using insert.  This requirement	is  now	 rare;
       most  ich  sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir	insert
       modes do	not require ich1 before	each character.	  Therefore,  the  new
       curses  actually	 assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or
       ich/ich1	as appropriate (but not	both).	If you have to write an	 entry
       to be used under	new curses for a terminal old enough to	need both, in-
       clude the rmir/smir sequences in	ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a	number of milliseconds
       in  ip (a string	option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an	insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal	 needs	both  to be placed into	an `insert mode' and a special
       code to precede each inserted character,	then both smir/rmir  and  ich1
       can  be given, and both will be used.  The ich capability, with one pa-
       rameter,	n, will	repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed	while  not  in	insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It  is  occasionally  necessary	to move	around while in	insert mode to
       delete characters on the	same line (e.g., if there is a tab  after  the
       insertion  position).   If  your	terminal allows	motion while in	insert
       mode you	can give the capability	mir to	speed  up  inserting  in  this
       case.   Omitting	 mir  will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the  way  their  insert  mode

       Finally,	 you  can  specify dch1	to delete a single character, dch with
       one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and  delete  mode  by	giving
       smdc  and  rmdc	to  enter  and exit delete mode	(any mode the terminal
       needs to	be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters	(equivalent  to	 outputting  n	blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal	has one	or more	kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You  should  choose  one
       display	form  as  standout  mode,  representing	a good,	high contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes, format	for highlighting error messages	and other  at-
       tention getters.	 (If you have a	choice,	reverse	video plus half-bright
       is good,	or reverse video alone.)  The  sequences  to  enter  and  exit
       standout	mode are given as smso and rmso, respectively.	If the code to
       change into or out of standout mode leaves one or even two blank	spaces
       on  the	screen,	as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061	do, then xmc should be
       given to	tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to	begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move the cursor one space to the right, such as  the  Mi-
       croterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other  capabilities  to	enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or	extra bright) dim (dim or  half-bright)	 invis
       (blanking  or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
       (turn off all attribute modes) smacs  (enter  alternate	character  set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on	any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other	modes.

       If there	is a sequence to set arbitrary	combinations  of  modes,  this
       should be given as sgr (set attributes),	taking 9 parameters.  Each pa-
       rameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is on or
       off.   The  9  parameters  are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank,	protect, alternate  character  set.   Not  all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep-
       arate attribute commands	exist.

       For example, the	DEC vt220 supports most	of the modes:

 tparm parameter		attribute    escape sequence

 none				none	     \E[0m
 p1				standout     \E[0;1;7m
 p2				underline    \E[0;4m
 p3				reverse	     \E[0;7m
 p4				blink	     \E[0;5m
 p5				dim	     not available
 p6				bold	     \E[0;1m
 p7				invis	     \E[0;8m
 p8				protect	     not used
 p9				altcharset   ^O	(off) ^N (on)

       We begin	each escape sequence by	turning	off any	existing modes,	 since
       there  is  no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
       is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220	termi-
       nal  has	 a protect mode, though	it is not commonly used	in sgr because
       it protects characters on the screen from  the  host's  erasures.   The
       altcharset  mode	 also  is different in that it is either ^O or ^N, de-
       pending on whether it is	off or on.  If all modes are  turned  on,  the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is out-
       put when	either p1 or p3	is true, that is, if either  standout  or  re-
       verse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences,	along with their dependencies yields

sequence			when to	output	   terminfo translation

\E[0			       always		   \E[0
;1			       if p1 or	p6	   %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;

;4			       if p2		   %?%p2%|%t;4%;
;5			       if p4		   %?%p4%|%t;5%;
;7			       if p1 or	p3	   %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
;8			       if p7		   %?%p7%|%t;8%;
m			       always		   m
^N or ^O		       if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all	together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember	 that  if  you specify sgr, you	must also specify sgr0.	 Also,
       some implementations rely on sgr	being given if sgr0 is,	Not  all  ter-
       minfo  entries  necessarily have	an sgr string, however.	 Many terminfo
       entries are derived from	termcap	entries	which have no sgr string.  The
       only drawback to	adding an sgr string is	that termcap also assumes that
       sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with  the  ``magic  cookie''  glitch  (xmc)  deposit  special
       ``cookies''  when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the
       display algorithm rather	than having extra  bits	 for  each  character.
       Some  terminals,	such as	the HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode
       when they move to a new line or the cursor is addressed.	 Programs  us-
       ing standout mode should	exit standout mode before moving the cursor or
       sending a newline, unless the msgr capability,  asserting  that	it  is
       safe to move in standout	mode, is present.

       If  the	terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash;  it  must
       not move	the cursor.

       If  the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal	when it	is not
       on the bottom line (to make, for	example, a non-blinking	underline into
       an  easier  to  find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
       cvvis.  If there	is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that  as	 civis.	 The capability	cnorm should be	given which undoes the
       effects of both of these	modes.

       If your terminal	correctly generates  underlined	 characters  (with  no
       special	codes  needed)	even  though  it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability ul.  If  a  character	 overstriking  another
       leaves  both  characters	 on the	screen,	specify	the capability os.  If
       overstrikes are erasable	with a blank, then this	should be indicated by
       giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If  the	terminal  has  a keypad	that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed,	this information can be	given.	Note that it is	 not  possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local	(this applies,
       for example, to the unshifted HP	2621 keys).  If	the keypad can be  set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as	smkx and rmkx.	Other-
       wise the	keypad is assumed to always transmit.  The codes sent  by  the
       left  arrow,  right  arrow,  up arrow, down arrow, and home keys	can be
       given as	kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and	khome respectively.  If	 there
       are  function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the	codes they send	can be
       given as	kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys have labels	other than the
       default f0 through f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.
       The codes transmitted by	certain	other special keys can be  given:  kll
       (home  down),  kbs (backspace), ktbc (clear all tabs), kctab (clear the
       tab stop	in this	column), kclr  (clear  screen  or  erase  key),	 kdch1
       (delete	character),  kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit insert mode), kel
       (clear to end of	line), ked (clear to end  of  screen),	kich1  (insert
       character  or  enter insert mode), kil1 (insert line), knp (next	page),
       kpp (previous page), kind  (scroll  forward/down),  kri	(scroll	 back-
       ward/up),  khts	(set  a	tab stop in this column).  In addition,	if the
       keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four  arrow  keys,  the
       other  five  keys  can  be given	as ka1,	ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.	 These
       keys are	useful when the	effects	of  a  3  by  3	 directional  pad  are

       Strings to program function keys	can be given as	pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A string	to program screen labels should	be specified as	pln.  Each  of
       these  strings takes two	parameters: the	function key number to program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to	program	it with.  Function key numbers
       out  of	this  range may	program	undefined keys in a terminal dependent
       manner.	The difference between the capabilities	is that	 pfkey	causes
       pressing	 the  given  key  to  be the same as the user typing the given
       string; pfloc causes the	string to be executed by the terminal  in  lo-
       cal; and	pfx causes the string to be transmitted	to the computer.

       The  capabilities  nlab,	 lw  and  lh define the	number of programmable
       screen labels and their width and height.  If  there  are  commands  to
       turn  the  labels on and	off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln is nor-
       mally output after one or more pln sequences  to	 make  sure  that  the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs	and Initialization
       If  the	terminal has hardware tabs, the	command	to advance to the next
       tab stop	can be given as	ht (usually control I).	 A  ``back-tab''  com-
       mand  which  moves  leftward  to	the preceding tab stop can be given as
       cbt.  By	convention, if the teletype modes indicate that	tabs are being
       expanded	 by  the computer rather than being sent to the	terminal, pro-
       grams should not	use ht or cbt even if they are present,	since the user
       may  not	have the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has hardware
       tabs which are initially	set every n spaces when	the terminal  is  pow-
       ered  up, the numeric parameter it is given, showing the	number of spa-
       ces the tabs are	set to.	 This is normally used by the tset command  to
       determine  whether  to  set  the	 mode  for hardware tab	expansion, and
       whether to set the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops  that  can
       be  saved  in  non-volatile memory, the terminfo	description can	assume
       that they are properly set.

       Other capabilities include is1, is2, and	 is3,  initialization  strings
       for  the	 terminal, iprog, the path name	of a program to	be run to ini-
       tialize the terminal, and if, the name of a file	containing  long  ini-
       tialization  strings.   These  strings are expected to set the terminal
       into modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.	  They
       are  normally  sent  to	the terminal, by the init option of the	@TPUT@
       program,	each time the user logs	in.  They will be printed in the  fol-
       lowing order:

	      run the program

	      output is1 is2

	      set the margins using
		     mgc, smgl and smgr

	      set tabs using
		     tbc and hts

	      print the	file

	      and finally
		     output is3.

       Most  initialization  is	 done with is2.	 Special terminal modes	can be
       set up without duplicating strings by putting the common	 sequences  in
       is2 and special cases in	is1 and	is3.

       A  set  of  sequences  that  does a harder reset	from a totally unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to	is1 , is2 , if
       and  is3	 respectively.	These strings are output by the	reset program,
       which is	used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally	 placed	 in  rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they produce annoying
       effects on the screen and are not necessary when	logging	in.  For exam-
       ple, the	command	to set the vt100 into 80-column	mode would normally be
       part of is2, but	it causes an annoying glitch of	the screen and is  not
       normally	 needed	 since	the  terminal  is usually already in 80	column

       The reset program writes	strings	including iprog, etc., in the same or-
       der  as the init	program, using rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.	If any
       of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability	strings	are missing, the reset
       program	falls  back  upon  the corresponding initialization capability

       If there	are commands to	set and	clear tab stops, they can be given  as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a	tab stop in the	current	column
       of every	row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to	set  the  tabs
       than can	be described by	this, the sequence can be placed in is2	or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many  older  and	slower terminals do not	support	either XON/XOFF	or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy	terminals and some very	 archaic  CRTs
       (including,  for	example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding char-
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that	is, it
       automatically  emits  ^S	 back  to  the host when its input buffers are
       close to	full), set xon.	 This capability suppresses  the  emission  of
       padding.	  You can also set it for memory-mapped	console	devices	effec-
       tively that do not have a  speed	 limit.	  Padding  information	should
       still be	included so that routines can make better decisions about rel-
       ative costs, but	actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below  the  value  of  pb.  If the entry	has no padding baud rate, then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires	other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can	be  given as pad.  Only	the first character of the pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra `status line' which	is not	normally  used
       by software (and	thus not counted in the	terminal's lines capability).

       The  simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not
       part of the main	scrolling region on the	screen;	the Heathkit H19 has a
       status  line  of	 this  kind,  as  would	a 24-line VT100	with a 23-line
       scrolling region	set up on initialization.  This	situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some  terminals	with status lines need special sequences to access the
       status line.  These may be expressed as a string	with single  parameter
       tsl  which takes	the cursor to a	given zero-origin column on the	status
       line.  The capability fsl must return to	the main-screen	 cursor	 posi-
       tions  before the last tsl.  You	may need to embed the string values of
       sc (save	cursor)	and rc (restore	cursor)	in tsl and fsl	to  accomplish

       The  status  line is normally assumed to	be the same width as the width
       of the terminal.	 If this is untrue, you	can specify it	with  the  nu-
       meric capability	wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The  boolean  capability	 eslok	specifies that escape sequences, tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in	the status line.

       The ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these	 capabilities.
       They are	documented here	in case	they ever become important.

   Line	Graphics
       Many  terminals have alternate character	sets useful for	forms-drawing.
       Terminfo	and curses build in support for	the  drawing  characters  sup-
       ported  by  the VT100, with some	characters from	the AT&T 4410v1	added.
       This alternate character	set may	be specified by	the acsc capability.

		  Glyph		    ACS		 Ascii		 VT100
		   Name		    Name	 Default	  Name
       UK pound	sign		    ACS_STERLING f	  }
       arrow pointing down	    ACS_DARROW	 v	  .
       arrow pointing left	    ACS_LARROW	 <	  ,
       arrow pointing right	    ACS_RARROW	 >	  +
       arrow pointing up	    ACS_UARROW	 ^	  -
       board of	squares		    ACS_BOARD	 #	  h
       bullet			    ACS_BULLET	 o	  ~
       checker board (stipple)	    ACS_CKBOARD	 :	  a
       degree symbol		    ACS_DEGREE	 \	  f
       diamond			    ACS_DIAMOND	 +	  `
       greater-than-or-equal-to	    ACS_GEQUAL	 >	  z
       greek pi			    ACS_PI	 *	  {
       horizontal line		    ACS_HLINE	 -	  q
       lantern symbol		    ACS_LANTERN	 #	  i
       large plus or crossover	    ACS_PLUS	 +	  n
       less-than-or-equal-to	    ACS_LEQUAL	 <	  y
       lower left corner	    ACS_LLCORNER +	  m
       lower right corner	    ACS_LRCORNER +	  j
       not-equal		    ACS_NEQUAL	 !	  |
       plus/minus		    ACS_PLMINUS	 #	  g
       scan line 1		    ACS_S1	 ~	  o
       scan line 3		    ACS_S3	 -	  p
       scan line 7		    ACS_S7	 -	  r
       scan line 9		    ACS_S9	 _	  s
       solid square block	    ACS_BLOCK	 #	  0
       tee pointing down	    ACS_TTEE	 +	  w
       tee pointing left	    ACS_RTEE	 +	  u
       tee pointing right	    ACS_LTEE	 +	  t
       tee pointing up		    ACS_BTEE	 +	  v
       upper left corner	    ACS_ULCORNER +	  l
       upper right corner	    ACS_URCORNER +	  k
       vertical	line		    ACS_VLINE	 |	  x

       The best	way to define a	new device's graphics set is to	add  a	column
       to  a  copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
       (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will	 be  rendered  as  the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence;	these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       Most color terminals are	either `Tektronix-like'	 or  `HP-like'.	  Tek-
       tronix-like  terminals  have a predefined set of	N colors (where	N usu-
       ally 8),	and can	set character-cell foreground and  background  charac-
       ters  independently,  mixing  them  into	N * N color-pairs.  On HP-like
       terminals, the use must set each	color pair up  separately  (foreground
       and  background	are  not independently settable).  Up to M color-pairs
       may be set up from 2*M different	colors.	 ANSI-compatible terminals are

       Some basic color	capabilities are independent of	the color method.  The
       numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the  maximum  numbers  of
       colors  and  color-pairs	 that can be displayed simultaneously.	The op
       (original pair) string resets foreground	and background colors to their
       default	values	for  the terminal.  The	oc string resets all colors or
       color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.   Some  terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur-
       rent background color rather  than  the	power-up  default  background;
       these should have the boolean capability	bce.

       To  change  the	current	foreground or background color on a Tektronix-
       type terminal, use setaf	(set ANSI  foreground)	and  setab  (set  ANSI
       background)  or setf (set foreground) and setb (set background).	 These
       take one	parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documentation describes
       only  setaf/setab;  the	XPG4 draft says	that "If the terminal supports
       ANSI escape sequences to	set background and foreground, they should  be
       coded as	setaf and setab, respectively.	If the terminal	supports other
       escape sequences	to set background and foreground, they should be coded
       as setf and setb, respectively.	The vidputs() function and the refresh
       functions use setaf and setab if	they are defined."

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single	numeric	 argu-
       ment  each.  Argument values 0-7	of setaf/setab are portably defined as
       follows (the middle column is the symbolic  #define  available  in  the
       header  for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca-
       tions in	color space.

		    Color	#define	      Value	  RGB
		    black     COLOR_BLACK	0     0, 0, 0
		    red	      COLOR_RED		1     max,0,0
		    green     COLOR_GREEN	2     0,max,0
		    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW	3     max,max,0
		    blue      COLOR_BLUE	4     0,0,max
		    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA	5     max,0,max
		    cyan      COLOR_CYAN	6     0,max,max
		    white     COLOR_WHITE	7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb	historically correspond	to a different
       mapping,	i.e.,

		    Color	#define	      Value	  RGB
		    black     COLOR_BLACK	0     0, 0, 0
		    blue      COLOR_BLUE	1     0,0,max
		    green     COLOR_GREEN	2     0,max,0
		    cyan      COLOR_CYAN	3     0,max,max
		    red	      COLOR_RED		4     max,0,0
		    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA	5     max,0,max
		    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW	6     max,max,0
		    white     COLOR_WHITE	7     max,max,max
       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; oth-
       erwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On  an  HP-like terminal, use scp with a	color-pair number parameter to
       set which color pair is current.

       On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc	may be present to  in-
       dicate  that  colors can	be modified.  If so, the initc capability will
       take a color number (0 to colors	- 1)and	three  more  parameters	 which
       describe	 the  color.   These  three parameters default to being	inter-
       preted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue)	values.	 If the	boolean	capability hls
       is  present,  they  are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) in-
       dices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       On an HP-like terminal, initp may give  a  capability  for  changing  a
       color-pair  value.   It will take seven parameters; a color-pair	number
       (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing	first  background  and
       then foreground colors.	These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or
       (Hue, Lightness,	Saturation) depending on hls.

       On some color terminals,	colors collide with highlights.	 You can  reg-
       ister  these collisions with the	ncv capability.	 This is a bit-mask of
       attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.  The	correspondence
       with the	attributes understood by curses	is as follows:

		    Attribute			Bit    Decimal
		    A_STANDOUT			0     1
		    A_UNDERLINE			1     2
		    A_REVERSE			2     4
		    A_BLINK			3     8
		    A_DIM			4     16
		    A_BOLD			5     32
		    A_INVIS			6     64
		    A_PROTECT			7     128
		    A_ALTCHARSET		8     256

       For  example, on	many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides
       with the	foreground color blue and is  not  available  in  color	 mode.
       These should have an ncv	capability of 2.

       SVr4  curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.

       If the terminal requires	other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can	be  given as pad.  Only	the first character of the pad
       string is used.	If the terminal	does not have a	pad character, specify
       npc.   Note that	ncurses	implements the termcap-compatible PC variable;
       though the application may set this value to  something	other  than  a
       null,  ncurses will test	npc first and use napms	if the terminal	has no
       pad character.

       If the terminal can move	up or down half	a line,	this can be  indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line	down).	This is	primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and	subscripts on hard-copy	terminals.  If a hard-
       copy  terminal  can eject to the	next page (form	feed), give this as ff
       (usually	control	L).

       If there	is a command to	repeat a given character  a  given  number  of
       times  (to  save	 time transmitting a large number of identical charac-
       ters) this can be indicated with	the  parameterized  string  rep.   The
       first  parameter	 is the	character to be	repeated and the second	is the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10)	is the
       same as `xxxxxxxxxx'.

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025, this can be indicated with	cmdch.	A prototype command  character
       is  chosen  which is used in all	capabilities.  This character is given
       in the cmdch capability to identify it.	The  following	convention  is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be	searched for a
       CC variable, and	if found, all occurrences of the  prototype  character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal	 descriptions  that  do	not represent a	specific kind of known
       terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch,	and  network,  should  include
       the  gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do
       not know	how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not	 apply
       to  virtual  terminal  descriptions  for	which the escape sequences are

       If the terminal has a ``meta key'' which	acts as	a shift	 key,  setting
       the  8th	 bit  of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated
       with km.	 Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th  bit  is	parity
       and  it	will usually be	cleared.  If strings exist to turn this	``meta
       mode'' on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more	lines of memory	than will fit on the screen at
       once,  the number of lines of memory can	be indicated with lm.  A value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed,	but that there
       is still	more memory than fits on the screen.

       If  the terminal	is one of those	supported by the UNIX virtual terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which	control	an auxiliary printer connected to  the
       terminal	 can  be  given	as mc0:	print the contents of the screen, mc4:
       turn off	the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When  the  printer
       is  on,	all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It
       is undefined whether the	text is	also displayed on the terminal	screen
       when  the  printer  is  on.   A variation mc5p takes one	parameter, and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the	param-
       eter, then turns	the printer off.  The parameter	should not exceed 255.
       All text, including mc4,	is transparently passed	to the	printer	 while
       an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and	Braindamage
       Hazeltine  terminals, which do not allow	`~' characters to be displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a	line-feed immediately after an am  wrap,  such
       as the Concept and vt100, should	indicate xenl.

       If  el  is  required  to	get rid	of standout (instead of	merely writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be	given.

       Teleray terminals, where	tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should  indicate	 xt (destructive tabs).	 Note: the variable indicating
       this is now `dest_tabs_magic_smso'; in  older  versions,	 it  was  tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to position the cursor on top of	a  ``magic  cookie'',  that  to	 erase
       standout	 mode  it  is instead necessary	to use delete and insert line.
       The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to	correctly transmit the	escape
       or  control  C  characters, has xsb, indicating that the	f1 key is used
       for escape and f2 for control C.	 (Only	certain	 Superbees  have  this
       problem,	 depending on the ROM.)	 Note that in older terminfo versions,
       this capability was called `beehive_glitch'; it is now `no_esc_ctl_c'.

       Other specific terminal problems	may be corrected by adding more	 capa-
       bilities	of the form xx.

   Similar Terminals
       If  there  are two very similar terminals, one (the variant) can	be de-
       fined as	being just like	the other (the base) with certain  exceptions.
       In  the	definition  of	the  variant, the string capability use	can be
       given with the name of the base terminal.  The capabilities  given  be-
       fore  use  override  those in the base type named by use.  If there are
       multiple	use capabilities, they are merged in reverse order.  That  is,
       the  rightmost  use  reference  is processed first, then	the one	to its
       left, and so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in the  entry	 over-
       ride those brought in by	use references.

       A capability can	be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use ref-
       erence that imports it, where xx	is the capability.  For	 example,  the

				2621-nl, smkx@,	rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the	smkx or	rmkx capabilities, and
       hence does not turn on the function key labels  when  in	 visual	 mode.
       This  is	 useful	 for  different	modes for a terminal, or for different
       user preferences.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be	a problem; to date,  no	 entry
       has  even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.	Unfor-
       tunately, the termcap translations are much more	strictly  limited  (to
       1023  bytes),  thus  termcap  translations of long terminfo entries can
       cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD	and older versions of tgetent()	 instruct  the
       user  to	 allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry
       gets null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the  maximum
       safe  length  for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what
       the application and the termcap library being used does,	and  where  in
       the  termcap file the terminal type that	tgetent() is searching for is,
       several bad things can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find  an
       entry that's longer than	1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries to 1023 bytes.  Some application	programs  allocate  more  than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others	do not.

       Each  termcap  entry has	two important sizes associated with it:	before
       "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability  that
       tacks on	another	termcap	entry to the end of the	current	one, to	add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The  "before tc expansion" length is the	most important one, because it
       affects more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is  the
       length  of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus	the backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent() strips out while reading it.  Some term-
       cap  libraries strip off	the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).
       Now suppose:

       *    a termcap entry before expansion is	more than 1023 bytes long,

       *    and	the application	has only allocated a 1k	buffer,

       *    and	the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1	and GNU) reads
	    the	whole entry into the buffer, no	matter what its	length,	to see
	    if it is the entry it wants,

       *    and	tgetent() is searching for a terminal type that	either is  the
	    long  entry,  appears in the termcap file after the	long entry, or
	    does not appear in the file	at  all	 (so  that  tgetent()  has  to
	    search the whole termcap file).

       Then  tgetent()	will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably
       core dump the program.  Programs	like telnet are	particularly  vulnera-
       ble;  modern telnets pass along values like the terminal	type automati-
       cally.  The results are almost as undesirable with a  termcap  library,
       like  SunOS  4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when it
       reads an	overly long termcap entry.  If	a  termcap  library  truncates
       long  entries,  like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying here but will re-
       turn incorrect data for the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion"	length will  have  a  similar  effect  to  the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM	to that	terminal type,
       since tgetent() only does "tc" expansion	once it	is found the  terminal
       type it was looking for,	not while searching.

       In  summary,  a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can	cause,
       on various combinations of termcap libraries and	applications,  a  core
       dump,  warnings,	or incorrect operation.	 If it is too long even	before
       "tc" expansion, it will have this effect	even for users of  some	 other
       terminal	 types	and  users whose TERM variable does not	have a termcap

       When in -C (translate to	termcap) mode, the ncurses  implementation  of
       tic(1M)	issues	warning	 messages  when	the pre-tc length of a termcap
       translation is too long.	 The -c	(check)	option	also  checks  resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It  is  not wise	to count on portability	of binary terminfo entries be-
       tween commercial	UNIX versions.	The problem is that there are at least
       two versions of terminfo	(under HP-UX and AIX) which diverged from Sys-
       tem V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabilities	to the
       string  table that (in the binary format) collide with System V and XSI
       Curses extensions.

       Some SVr4 curses	implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do not  in-
       terpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not	specify	whether	msgr licenses movement while in	an al-
       ternate-character-set mode (such	modes may, among other things, map  CR
       and  NL	to characters that do not trigger local	motions).  The ncurses
       implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.	This raises the	possi-
       bility  that  an	XPG4 implementation making the opposite	interpretation
       may need	terminfo entries made for ncurses to have msgr turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and	insert-character modes
       in  a  slightly	non-standard way to get	better update efficiency.  See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock  and  display_clock  are  not
       documented  in  SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.	 They are deduced from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the	kmous capability.  The ncurses wants to	inter-
       pret  it	 as  KEY_MOUSE,	 for use by terminals and emulators like xterm
       that  can  return  mouse-tracking  information  in  the	keyboard-input

       Different  commercial  ports  of	 terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different	exten-
       sion sets.  Here	is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4	capabilities.

       SGI -- Supports the SVr4	set, adds one undocumented extended string ca-
       pability	(set_pglen).

       SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabili-
       ties.   The  booleans  end  with	xon_xoff; the numerics with width_sta-
       tus_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       HP/UX --	Supports the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234]  numerics  num_la-
       bels, label_height, label_width,	plus function keys 11 through 63, plus
       plab_norm, label_on, and	label_off, plus	some  incompatible  extensions
       in the string table.

       AIX -- Supports the SVr1	subset,	plus function keys 11 through 63, plus
       a number	of incompatible	string table extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the	SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

				files containing terminal descriptions

       tic(1M),	infocmp(1M), curses(3X), printf(3), term(5).

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel	Curtis.


NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | sequence when to output terminfo translation | EXTENSIONS | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS

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