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TOP(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual			TOP(1)

     top -- display and	update information about the top cpu processes

     top [-abCHIijnPpqSTtuvxz] [-d count] [-J jail] [-m	mode] [-o field]
	 [-p pid] [-s time] [-U	uid] [number]

     top displays the top processes on the system and periodically updates
     this information.	If standard output is an intelligent terminal (see be-
     low) then as many processes as will fit on	the terminal screen are	dis-
     played by default.	 Otherwise, a good number of them are shown (around
     20).  Raw cpu percentage is used to rank the processes.  If number	is
     given, then the top number	processes will be displayed instead of the de-

     top makes a distinction between terminals that support advanced capabili-
     ties and those that do not.  This distinction affects the choice of de-
     faults for	certain	options.  In the remainder of this document, an
     "intelligent" terminal is one that	supports cursor	addressing, clear
     screen, and clear to end of line.	Conversely, a "dumb" terminal is one
     that does not support such	features.  If the output of top	is redirected
     to	a file,	it acts	as if it were being run	on a dumb terminal.

     The options are as	follows:

     -a	     Display command names derived from	the argv[] vector, rather than
	     real executable name.  It it useful when you want to watch	appli-
	     cations, that puts	their status information there.	 If the	real
	     name differs from argv[0],	it will	be displayed in	parenthesis.
	     Non-printable characters in the command line are encoded in C-
	     style backslash sequences or a three digit	octal sequences.

     -b	     Use "batch" mode.	In this	mode, all input	from the terminal is
	     ignored.  Interrupt characters (such as ^C	and ^\)	still have an
	     effect.  This is the default on a dumb terminal, or when the out-
	     put is not	a terminal.

     -C	     Toggle CPU	display	mode.  By default top displays the weighted
	     CPU percentage in the WCPU	column (this is	the same value that
	     ps(1) displays as CPU).  Each time	-C flag	is passed it toggles
	     between "raw cpu" mode and	"weighted cpu" mode, showing the "CPU"
	     or	the "WCPU" column respectively.

     -d	count
	     Show only count displays, then exit.  A display is	considered to
	     be	one update of the screen.  The default is 1 for	dumb termi-
	     nals.  Note that for count	= 1 no information is available	about
	     the percentage of time spent by the CPU in	every state.

     -H	     Display each thread for a multithreaded process individually.  By
	     default a single summary line is displayed	for each process.

     -I	     Do	not display idle processes.  By	default, top displays both ac-
	     tive and idle processes.

     -i	     Use "interactive" mode.  In this mode, any	input is immediately
	     read for processing.  See the section on "Interactive Mode" for
	     an	explanation of which keys perform what functions.  After the
	     command is	processed, the screen will immediately be updated,
	     even if the command was not understood.  This mode	is the default
	     when standard output is an	intelligent terminal.

     -J	jail
	     Show only those processes owned by	jail.  This may	be either the
	     jid or name of the	jail.  Use 0 to	limit to host processes.  Us-
	     ing this option implies -j.

     -j	     Display the jail(8) ID.

     -m	mode
	     Display statistics	in the specified mode.	Available modes	are
	     cpu and io.  Default is cpu.

     -n	     Use "non-interactive" mode.  This is identical to "batch" mode.

     -o	field
	     Sort the process display area on the specified field.  The	field
	     name is the name of the column as seen in the output, but in
	     lower case: "cpu",	"size",	"res", "time", "pri", "threads",
	     "total", "read", "write", "fault",	"vcsw",	"ivcsw", "jid",
	     "swap", or	"pid".

     -P	     Display per-cpu CPU usage statistics.

     -p	pid  Show only the process pid.

     -q	     Renice top	to -20 so that it will run faster.  This can be	used
	     when the system is	being very sluggish to improve the possibility
	     of	discovering the	problem.  This option can only be used by

     -S	     Show system processes in the display.  Normally, system processes
	     such as the pager and the swapper are not shown.  This option
	     makes them	visible.

     -s	time
	     Set the delay between screen updates to time seconds, which may
	     be	fractional.  The default delay between updates is 1 second.

     -T	     Toggle displaying thread ID (tid) instead of process id (pid).

     -t	     Do	not display the	top process itself.

     -U	username
	     Show only those processes owned by	username.  This	option cur-
	     rently only accepts usernames and will not	understand uid num-

     -u	     Do	not map	uid numbers to usernames.  Normally, top will read as
	     much of the file /etc/passwd as is	necessary to map all the user
	     id	numbers	it encounters into login names.	 This option disables
	     all that, while possibly decreasing execution time.  The uid num-
	     bers are displayed	instead	of the names.

     -v	     Write version number information to stderr	then exit immediately.

     -w	     Display approximate swap usage for	each process.

     -z	     Do	not display the	system idle process.

     Both count	and number fields can be specified as "infinite", indicating
     that they can stretch as far as possible.	This is	accomplished by	using
     any proper	prefix of the keywords "infinity", "maximum", or "all".	 Bool-
     ean flags are toggles.  A second specification of any of these options
     will negate the first.

     When top is running in "interactive mode",	it reads commands from the
     terminal and acts upon them accordingly.  In this mode, the terminal is
     put in "CBREAK", so that a	character will be processed as soon as it is
     typed.  Almost always, a key will be pressed when top is between dis-
     plays; that is, while it is waiting for time seconds to elapse.  If this
     is	the case, the command will be processed	and the	display	will be	up-
     dated immediately thereafter (reflecting any changes that the command may
     have specified).  This happens even if the	command	was incorrect.	If a
     key is pressed while top is in the	middle of updating the display,	it
     will finish the update and	then process the command.  Some	commands re-
     quire additional information, and the user	will be	prompted accordingly.
     While typing this information in, the user's erase	and kill keys (as set
     up	by the command stty(1))	are recognized,	and a newline terminates the

     These commands are	currently recognized (^L refers	to control-L):

     ^L	     Redraw the	screen.

     h	     Display a summary of the commands (help screen).  Version infor-
	     mation is included	in this	display.

     q	     Quit top

     d	     Change the	number of displays to show (prompt for new number).
	     Remember that the next display counts as one, so typing 'd1' will
	     make top show one final display and then immediately exit.

     /	     Display only processes that contain the specified string in their
	     command name.  If displaying arguments is enabled,	the arguments
	     are searched too. '+' shows all processes.

     m	     Toggle the	display	between	'cpu' and 'io' modes.

     n or #  Change the	number of processes to display (prompt for new num-

     s	     Change the	number of seconds to delay between displays (prompt
	     for new number).

     S	     Toggle the	display	of system processes.

     a	     Toggle the	display	of process titles.

     k	     Send a signal (SIGKILL by default)	to a list of processes.	 This
	     acts similarly to the command kill(1).

     r	     Change the	priority (the "nice") of a list	of processes.  This
	     acts similarly to renice(8).

     u	     Display only processes owned by a specific	set of usernames
	     (prompt for username).  If	the username specified is simply "+"
	     or	"-", then processes belonging to all users will	be displayed.
	     Usernames can be added to and removed from	the set	by prepending
	     them with "+" and "-", respectively.

     o	     Change the	order in which the display is sorted.  The sort	key
	     names include "cpu", "res", "size", and "time." The default is

     p	     Display a specific	process	(prompt	for pid).  If the pid speci-
	     fied is simply "+", then show all processes.

     e	     Display a list of system errors (if any) generated	by the last

     H	     Toggle the	display	of threads.

     i or I  Toggle the	display	of idle	processes.

     j	     Toggle the	display	of jail(8) ID.

     J	     Display only processes owned by a specific	jail (prompt for
	     jail).  If	the jail specified is simply "+", then processes be-
	     longing to	all jails and the host will be displayed.  This	will
	     also enable the display of	JID.

     P	     Toggle the	display	of per-CPU statistics.

     T	     Toggle display of TID and PID

     t	     Toggle the	display	of the top process.

     w	     Toggle the	display	of swap	usage.

     z	     Toggle the	display	of the system idle process.

     The top few lines of the display show general information about the state
     of	the system, including the last process id assigned to a	process	(on
     most systems), the	three load averages, the current time, the number of
     existing processes, the number of processes in each state (sleeping, run-
     ning, starting, zombies, and stopped), and	a percentage of	time spent in
     each of the processor states (user, nice, system, and idle).  It also in-
     cludes information	about physical and virtual memory allocation.

     The remainder of the screen displays information about individual pro-
     cesses.  This display is similar in spirit	to ps(1) but it	is not exactly
     the same.	PID is the process id, JID, when displayed, is the jail(8) ID
     corresponding to the process, USERNAME is the name	of the process's owner
     (if -u is specified, a UID	column will be substituted for USERNAME), PRI
     is	the current priority of	the process, NICE is the nice(1) amount, SIZE
     is	the total size of the process (text, data, and stack), RES is the cur-
     rent amount of resident memory, SWAP is the approximate amount of swap,
     if	enabled	(SIZE, RES and SWAP are	given in kilobytes), STATE is the cur-
     rent state	(one of	"START", "RUN" (shown as "CPUn"	on SMP systems),
     "SLEEP", "STOP", "ZOMB", "WAIT", "LOCK", or the event on which the
     process waits), C is the processor	number on which	the process is execut-
     ing (visible only on SMP systems),	TIME is	the number of system and user
     cpu seconds that the process has used, WCPU, when displayed, is the
     weighted cpu percentage (this is the same value that ps(1)	displays as
     CPU), CPU is the raw percentage and is the	field that is sorted to	deter-
     mine the order of the processes, and COMMAND is the name of the command
     that the process is currently running (if the process is swapped out,
     this column is marked "<swapped>").

     If	a process is in	the "SLEEP" or "LOCK" state, the state column will re-
     port the name of the event	or lock	on which the process is	waiting.  Lock
     names are prefixed	with an	asterisk "*" while sleep events	are not.

     Mem: 61M Active, 86M Inact, 368K Laundry, 22G Wired, 102G Free
     ARC: 15G Total, 9303M MFU,	6155M MRU, 1464K Anon, 98M Header, 35M Other
	  15G Compressed, 27G Uncompressed, 1.75:1 Ratio, 174M Overhead
     Swap: 4096M Total,	532M Free, 13% Inuse, 80K In, 104K Out

   Physical Memory Stats
     Active	   number of bytes active
     Inact	   number of clean bytes inactive
     Laundry	   number of dirty bytes queued	for laundering
     Wired	   number of bytes wired down, including IO-level cached file
		   data	pages
     Buf	   number of bytes used	for IO-level disk caching
     Free	   number of bytes free

   ZFS ARC Stats
     These stats are only displayed when the ARC is in use.

     Total	   number of wired bytes used for the ZFS ARC
     MRU	   number of ARC bytes holding most recently used data
     MFU	   number of ARC bytes holding most frequently used data
     Anon	   number of ARC bytes holding in flight data
     Header	   number of ARC bytes holding headers
     Other	   miscellaneous ARC bytes
     Compressed	   bytes of memory used	by ARC caches
     Uncompressed  bytes of data stored	in ARC caches before compression
     Ratio	   compression ratio of	data cached in the ARC

   Swap	Stats
     Total	   total available swap	usage
     Free	   total free swap usage
     Inuse	   swap	usage
     In		   bytes paged in from swap devices (last interval)
     Out	   bytes paged out to swap devices (last interval)

     TOP	   Default set of arguments to top.

     LC_CTYPE	   The locale to use when displaying the argv vector when -a
		   flag	is specified.

     kill(1), ps(1), stty(1), getrusage(2), humanize_number(3),	mem(4),

     William LeFebvre, EECS Department,	Northwestern University

     The command name for swapped processes should be tracked down, but	this
     would make	the program run	slower.

     As	with ps(1), things can change while top	is collecting information for
     an	update.	 The picture it	gives is only a	close approximation to real-

FreeBSD	13.0		       November	18, 2021		  FreeBSD 13.0


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