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TOP(1)			    General Commands Manual			TOP(1)

       top - display and update	information about the top cpu processes

       top  [ -SbiInqutv ] [ -dcount ] [ -stime	] [ -ofield ] [	-Uusername ] [
       number ]

       Top displays the	top processes on the system and	 periodically  updates
       this  information.   If standard	output is an intelligent terminal (see
       below) then as many processes as	will fit on the	 terminal  screen  are
       displayed  by  default.	 Otherwise,  a	good  number of	them are shown
       (around 20).  Raw cpu percentage	is used	to  rank  the  processes.   If
       number  is  given,  then	the top	number processes will be displayed in-
       stead of	the default.

       Top makes a distinction between terminals that support  advanced	 capa-
       bilities	and those that do not.	This distinction affects the choice of
       defaults	for certain options.  In the remainder of  this	 document,  an
       "intelligent"  terminal	is  one	that supports cursor addressing, clear
       screen, and clear to end	of line.  Conversely, a	"dumb" terminal	is one
       that  does  not	support	 such features.	 If the	output of top is redi-
       rected to a file, it acts as if it were being run on a dumb terminal.

       -S     Show system processes in the  display.   Normally,  system  pro-
	      cesses  such  as	the pager and the swapper are not shown.  This
	      option makes them	visible.

       -b     Use "batch" mode.	 In this mode, all input from the terminal  is
	      ignored.	Interrupt characters (such as ^C and ^\) still have an
	      effect.  This is the default on a	dumb  terminal,	 or  when  the
	      output is	not a terminal.

       -i     Use  "interactive" mode.	In this	mode, any input	is immediately
	      read for processing.  See	the section on "Interactive Mode"  for
	      an  explanation of which keys perform what functions.  After the
	      command is processed, the	screen will  immediately  be  updated,
	      even  if	the  command was not understood.  This mode is the de-
	      fault when standard output is an intelligent terminal.

       -I     Do not display idle processes.  By default,  top	displays  both
	      active and idle processes.

       -t     Do not display the top process.

       -n     Use "non-interactive" mode.  This	is identical to	"batch"	mode.

       -q     Renice  top to -20 so that it will run faster.  This can be used
	      when the system is being very sluggish to	improve	the  possibil-
	      ity of discovering the problem.  This option can only be used by

       -u     Do not take the time to map uid numbers to usernames.  Normally,
	      top  will	read as	much of	the file "/etc/passwd" as is necessary
	      to map all the user id numbers it	encounters into	 login	names.
	      This  option disables all	that, while possibly decreasing	execu-
	      tion time.  The uid numbers are displayed	instead	of the names.

       -v     Write version number information to  stderr  then	 exit  immedi-
	      ately.   No  other  processing  takes  place when	this option is
	      used.  To	see current revision information while top is running,
	      use the help command "?".

	      Show only	count displays,	then exit.  A display is considered to
	      be one update of the screen.  This option	allows the user	to se-
	      lect the number of displays he wants to see before top automati-
	      cally exits.  For	intelligent terminals, no upper	limit is  set.
	      The default is 1 for dumb	terminals.

       -stime Set  the	delay between screen updates to	time seconds.  The de-
	      fault delay between updates is 2 seconds.

	      Sort the process display area on the specified field.  The field
	      name  is	the  name  of the column as seen in the	output,	but in
	      lower case.  Likely values are "cpu", "size", "res", and "time",
	      but  may vary on different operating systems.  Note that not all
	      operating	systems	support	this option.

	      Show only	those processes	owned by username.  This  option  cur-
	      rently  only  accepts usernames and will not understand uid num-

       Both count and number fields can	be specified as	"infinite", indicating
       that  they can stretch as far as	possible.  This	is accomplished	by us-
       ing any proper prefix of	the keywords "infinity", "maximum", or	"all".
       The default for count on	an intelligent terminal	is, in fact, infinity.

       The environment variable	TOP is examined	for options before the command
       line is scanned.	 This enables a	user to	set his	or her	own  defaults.
       The  number  of processes to display can	also be	specified in the envi-
       ronment variable	TOP.  The options -I, -S, -u, and -t are actually tog-
       gles.   A  second specification of any of these options will negate the
       first.  Thus a user who has the environment variable TOP	 set  to  "-I"
       may use the command "top	-I" to see idle	processes.

       When  top  is running in	"interactive mode", it reads commands from the
       terminal	and acts upon them accordingly.	 In this mode, the terminal is
       put in "CBREAK",	so that	a character will be processed as soon as it is
       typed.  Almost always, a	key will be pressed when top is	 between  dis-
       plays;  that  is,  while	 it is waiting for time	seconds	to elapse.  If
       this is the case, the command will be processed and the display will be
       updated immediately thereafter (reflecting any changes that the command
       may have	specified).  This happens even if the command  was  incorrect.
       If a key	is pressed while top is	in the middle of updating the display,
       it will finish the update and then process the command.	Some  commands
       require	additional  information, and the user will be prompted accord-
       ingly.  While typing this information in, the  user's  erase  and  kill
       keys (as	set up by the command stty) are	recognized, and	a newline ter-
       minates the input.

       These commands are currently recognized (^L refers to control-L):

       ^L     Redraw the screen.

       h or ? Display a	summary	of the commands	(help screen).	Version	infor-
	      mation is	included in this display.

       q      Quit top.

       d      Change  the  number of displays to show (prompt for new number).
	      Remember that the	next display counts as one, so typing d1  will
	      make top show one	final display and then immediately exit.

       n or # Change  the  number of processes to display (prompt for new num-

       s      Change the number	of seconds to delay between  displays  (prompt
	      for new number).

       k      Send  a signal ("kill" by	default) to a list of processes.  This
	      acts similarly to	the command kill(1)).

       r      Change the priority (the "nice") of a list of  processes.	  This
	      acts similarly to	the command renice(8)).

       u      Display  only processes owned by a specific username (prompt for
	      username).  If the username specified is simply "+",  then  pro-
	      cesses belonging to all users will be displayed.

       o      Change  the  order in which the display is sorted.  This command
	      is not available on all systems.	The sort key names  vary  fron
	      system  to  system  but  usually include:	 "cpu",	"res", "size",
	      "time".  The default is cpu.

       e      Display a	list of	system errors (if any) generated by  the  last
	      kill or renice command.

       i      (or I) Toggle the	display	of idle	processes.

       t      Toggle the display of the	top process.

       The  actual  display  varies  depending on the specific variant of Unix
       that the	machine	is running.  This description may  not	exactly	 match
       what  is	 seen  by top running on this particular machine.  Differences
       are listed at the end of	this manual entry.

       The top few lines of the	display	show  general  information  about  the
       state  of  the  system,	including  the	last  process id assigned to a
       process (on most	systems), the three load averages, the	current	 time,
       the number of existing processes, the number of processes in each state
       (sleeping, running, starting, zombies, and stopped), and	 a  percentage
       of  time	spent in each of the processor states (user, nice, system, and
       idle).  It also includes	information about physical and virtual	memory

       The  remainder of the screen displays information about individual pro-
       cesses.	This display is	similar	in spirit to ps(1) but it is  not  ex-
       actly  the  same.   PID	is the process id, USERNAME is the name	of the
       process's owner (if -u is specified, a UID column will  be  substituted
       for  USERNAME), PRI is the current priority of the process, NICE	is the
       nice amount (in the range -20 to	20), SIZE is the  total	 size  of  the
       process	(text, data, and stack), RES is	the current amount of resident
       memory (both SIZE and RES are given in kilobytes), STATE	is the current
       state  (one  of "sleep",	"WAIT",	"run", "idl", "zomb", or "stop"), TIME
       is the number of	system and user	cpu seconds that the process has used,
       WCPU,  when displayed, is the weighted cpu percentage (this is the same
       value that ps(1)	displays as CPU), CPU is the raw percentage and	is the
       field  that is sorted to	determine the order of the processes, and COM-
       MAND is the name	of the command that the	process	is  currently  running
       (if the process is swapped out, this column is marked "<swapped>").

       The  "ABANDONED"	 state (known in the kernel as "SWAIT")	was abandoned,
       thus the	name.  A process should	never end up in	this state.

       William LeFebvre, EECS Department, Northwestern University

       TOP  user-configurable defaults for options.

       /dev/kmem      kernel memory
       /dev/mem	      physical memory
       /etc/passwd	   used	to map uid numbers to user names
       /boot/kernel/kernel system image

       Don't shoot me, but the default for -I has changed once again.  So many
       people  were  confused by the fact that top wasn't showing them all the
       processes that I	have decided to	make the default  behavior  show  idle
       processes,  just	 like  it  did in version 2.  But to appease folks who
       can't stand that	behavior, I have added the ability  to	set  "default"
       options	in  the	 environment  variable	TOP (see the OPTIONS section).
       Those who want the behavior that	version	3.0 had	need only set the  en-
       vironment variable TOP to "-I".

       The command name	for swapped processes should be	tracked	down, but this
       would make the program run slower.

       As with ps(1), things can change	while top  is  collecting  information
       for  an	update.	 The picture it	gives is only a	close approximation to

       kill(1),	ps(1), stty(1),	mem(4),	renice(8)

       The '-H'	option will toggle the display of kernel visible  thread  con-
       texts.	At  runtime  the 'H' key will toggle this mode.	The default is

       Mem: 9220K Active, 1032K	Inact, 3284K Wired, 1MB	Cache, 2M  Buf,	 1320K
       Free Swap:   91M	Total, 79M Free, 13% Inuse, 80K	In, 104	K Out

       K: Kilobyte

       M:     Megabyte

       %:     1/100

	      number of	pages active

       Inact: number of	pages inactive

       Wired: number of	pages wired down, including cached file	data pages

       Cache: number of	pages used for VM-level	disk caching

       Buf:   number of	pages used for BIO-level disk caching

       Free:  number of	pages free

       Total: total available swap usage

       Free:  total free swap usage

       Inuse: swap usage

       In:    pages paged in from swap devices (last interval)

       Out:   pages paged out to swap devices (last interval)

4th Berkeley Distribution	     Local				TOP(1)


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