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TROFF(1)		    General Commands Manual		      TROFF(1)

       troff - the troff processor of the groff	text formatting	system

       troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -dcs ] [	-ffam ]	[ -Fdir	] [ -mname ] [ -Mdir ]
	     [ -nnum ] [ -olist	] [ -rcn ] [ -Tname ] [	-wname ] [ -Wname ]
	     [ files...	]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line	option and its

       This manual page	describes the GNU version of troff.  It	is part	of the
       groff  document	formatting system.  It is functionally compatible with
       UNIX troff, but has many	extensions,  see  groff_diff(7).   Usually  it
       should  be  invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run pre-
       processors and postprocessors in	the appropriate	order and with the ap-
       propriate options.

       -a	 Generate an ASCII approximation of the	typeset	output.

       -b	 Print	a  backtrace with each warning or error	message.  This
		 backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
		 line  numbers	given  in the backtrace	may not	always be cor-
		 rect, for troff's idea	of line	numbers	gets confused by as or
		 am requests.

       -c	 Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility	mode).

       -C	 Enable	compatibility mode.

       -dname=s	 Define	 c  or	name  to be a string s;	c must be a one	letter

       -E	 Inhibit all error messages of troff.  Note that this  doesn't
		 affect	 messages  output  to standard error by	macro packages
		 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam	 Use fam as the	default	font family.

       -Fdir	 Search	in directory (or directory path) dir  for  subdirecto-
		 ries  devname	(name is the name of the device) and there for
		 the DESC file and font	files.	 dir  is  scanned  before  all
		 other font directories.

       -i	 Read  the standard input after	all the	named input files have
		 been processed.

       -mname	 Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try
		 instead.   It will be first searched for in directories given
		 with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
		 the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then	in the current
		 directory (only if  in	 unsafe	 mode),	 the  home  directory,
		 /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac, and /usr/share/tmac.

       -Mdir	 Search	 directory  (or	 directory  path) dir for macro	files.
		 This is scanned before	all other macro	directories.

       -nnum	 Number	the first page num.

       -olist	 Output	only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
		 page ranges; n	means print page n, m-n	means print every page
		 between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n-	 means
		 print	every page from	n.  troff will exit after printing the
		 last page in the list.

       -rname=n	 Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character
		 name; n can be	any troff numeric expression.

       -R	 Don't load troffrc and	troffrc-end.

       -Tname	 Prepare output	for device name, rather	than the default ps.

       -U	 Unsafe	 mode.	This will enable the following requests: open,
		 opena,	pso, sy, and pi.  For security reasons,	 these	poten-
		 tially	 dangerous  requests  are disabled otherwise.  It will
		 also add the current directory	to the macro search path.

       -v	 Print the version number.

       -wname	 Enable	warning	name.  Available warnings are described	in the
		 section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
		 use -w	all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname	 Inhibit warning name.	Multiple -W options are	allowed.

       -z	 Suppress formatted output.

       The warnings that can be	given by troff are divided into	the  following
       categories.   The  name	associated with	each warning is	used by	the -w
       and -W options; the number is used by the  warn	request,  and  by  the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

		 |Bit	Code   Warning | Bit	Code	  Warning   |
		 |  0	   1   char    |  10	 1024	reg	    |
		 |  1	   2   number  |  11	 2048	tab	    |
		 |  2	   4   break   |  12	 4096	right-brace |
		 |  3	   8   delim   |  13	 8192	missing	    |
		 |  4	  16   el      |  14	16384	input	    |
		 |  5	  32   scale   |  15	32768	escape	    |
		 |  6	  64   range   |  16	65536	space	    |
		 |  7	 128   syntax  |  17   131072	font	    |
		 |  8	 256   di      |  18   262144	ig	    |
		 |  9	 512   mac     |  19   524288	color	    |
       break	       4   In  fill  mode,  lines which	could not be broken so
			   that	their length was less than  the	 line  length.
			   This	is enabled by default.

       char	       1   Non-existent	 characters.   This  is	enabled	by de-

       color	  524288   Color related warnings.

       delim	       8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di	     256   Use of di or	da without an argument when  there  is
			   no current diversion.

       el	      16   Use of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape	   32768   Unrecognized	 escape	 sequences.   When an unrecog-
			   nized escape	sequence is  encountered,  the	escape
			   character is	ignored.

       font	  131072   Non-existent	fonts.	This is	enabled	by default.

       ig	  262144   Invalid  escapes  in	 text  ignored with the	ig re-
			   quest.  These are conditions	that are  errors  when
			   they	do not occur in	ignored	text.

       input	   16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac	     512   Use	of  undefined  strings,	macros and diversions.
			   When	an undefined string,  macro  or	 diversion  is
			   used,  that	string	is  automatically  defined  as
			   empty.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will
			   be given for	each name.

       missing	    8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number	       2   Invalid  numeric  expressions.   This is enabled by

       range	      64   Out of range	arguments.

       reg	    1024   Use of undefined number registers.  When  an	 unde-
			   fined number	register is used, that register	is au-
			   tomatically defined to have a value of 0.   So,  in
			   most	 cases,	 at most one warning will be given for
			   use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was	expected.

       scale	      32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space	   65536   Missing space between a request or  macro  and  its
			   argument.  This warning will	be given when an unde-
			   fined name longer than two  characters  is  encoun-
			   tered,  and	the  first  two	characters of the name
			   make	a defined name.	 The request or	macro will not
			   be  invoked.	  When this warning is given, no macro
			   is automatically defined.  This is enabled  by  de-
			   fault.   This  warning will never occur in compati-
			   bility mode.

       syntax	     128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab	    2048   Inappropriate use of	a tab character.   Either  use
			   of  a tab character where a number was expected, or
			   use of tab character	in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be	used to	refer to groups	of warnings:

       all    All warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It	is intended that  this
	      covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro pack-

       w      All warnings.

	      A	colon separated	list of	directories in	which  to  search  for
	      macro files.  troff will scan directories	given in the -M	option
	      before these, and	in standard directories	(current directory  if
	      in     unsafe    mode,	home	directory,    /usr/share/tmac,
	      /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac)	after these.

	      Default device.

	      A	colon separated	list of	directories in which to	search for the
	      devname  directory.  troff will scan directories given in	the -F
	      option   before	these,	  and	 in    standard	   directories
	      (/usr/share/groff_font,			/usr/share/groff_font,
	      /usr/share/groff_font) after these.

	      Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

	      Initialization file (called after	any other macro	package).

	      Macro files

	      Device description file for device name.

	      Font file	for font F of device name.

       Note that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in  the  current
       nor  in the home	directory by default for security reasons (even	if the
       -U  option  is  given).	 Use  the  -M  command	line  option  or   the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH	environment  variable  to add these directories	to the
       search path if necessary.

       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation,	Inc.

       This document is	distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation  License)  version  1.1 or later.  You	should have received a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft	 site  <>.	 This document
       was written by James Clark,  with  modifications	 from  Werner  Lemberg
       <> and	Bernd Warken <>

       This document is	part of	groff, the GNU roff distribution.

	      The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

	      A	 description of	the groff language, including a	short but com-
	      plete reference of all predefined	requests, registers,  and  es-
	      capes of plain groff.  From the command line, this is called by

		     man 7 groff

	      The  differences	of  the	groff language and the classical troff
	      language.	 Currently, this is the	most actual  document  of  the
	      groff system.

	      An  overview over	groff and other	roff systems, including	point-
	      ers to further related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf.	 info(1),  presents  all  groff	 documentation
       within a	single document.

Groff Version 1.18.1		11 October 2002			      TROFF(1)


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