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VIPW(8)			FreeBSD	System Manager's Manual		       VIPW(8)

     vipw -- edit the password file

     vipw [-d directory]

     The vipw utility edits the	password file after setting the	appropriate
     locks, and	does any necessary processing after the	password file is un-
     locked.  If the password file is already locked for editing by another
     user, vipw	will ask you to	try again later.  The default editor for vipw
     is	vi(1).

     When run without options, vipw will work with the password	files in /etc.
     The -d option may be used to specify an alternative directory to work

     The vipw utility performs a number	of consistency checks on the password
     entries, and will not allow a password file with a	"mangled" entry	to be
     installed.	 If vipw rejects the new password file,	the user is prompted
     to	re-enter the edit session.

     Once the information has been verified, vipw uses pwd_mkdb(8) to update
     the user database.	 This is run in	the background,	and, at	very large
     sites could take several minutes.	Until this update is completed,	the
     password file is unavailable for other updates and	the new	information is
     not available to programs.

     If	the following environment variable exists it will be utilized by vipw:

     EDITOR	      The editor specified by the string EDITOR	will be	in-
		      voked instead of the default editor vi(1).  This can be
		      used to allow a script to	non-interactively modify the
		      password file.

     PW_SCAN_BIG_IDS  See pwd_mkdb(8).

     chpass(1),	passwd(1), passwd(5), adduser(8), pw(8), pwd_mkdb(8)

     The vipw utility appeared in 4.0BSD.

     The mechanism for checking	for password file modifications	requires that
     the modification time of the password file	changes.  This means that in a
     default configuration where file system timestamps	are not	calculated
     with sub-second precision,	EDITOR has to run for at least one second.
     Non-interactive editor scripts should invoke sleep(1) or equivalent to
     ensure this happens.

FreeBSD	13.0		       February	14, 2012		  FreeBSD 13.0


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