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WI(4)                  FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual                  WI(4)

     wi -- Lucent Hermes, Intersil PRISM and Spectrum24 IEEE 802.11 driver

     To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

           device wi
           device wlan

     Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):


     The wi driver provides support for wireless network adapters based around
     the Lucent Hermes, Intersil PRISM-II, Intersil PRISM-2.5, Intersil
     Prism-3, and Symbol Spectrum24 chipsets.  All five chipsets provide a
     similar interface to the driver.

     Supported features include 802.11 and 802.3 frames, power management,
     BSS, IBSS, WDS and old-style Lucent ad-hoc operation modes.  Cards based
     on the Intersil PRISM chips also support a host-based access point mode
     which allows a card to act as a normal access point (with some assistance
     from the wi driver).  The Lucent Hermes and Symbol Spectrum24 chipsets do
     not contain this functionality.  The PRISM family of chips do not support
     the WDS functionality.  All host/device interaction is via programmed
     I/O, even on those cards that support a DMA interface.

     The wi driver encapsulates all IP and ARP traffic as 802.11 frames, how-
     ever it can receive either 802.11 or 802.3 frames.  Transmit speed is
     selectable between 1Mbps, 2Mbps, 5.5 Mbps and 11Mbps depending on your
     hardware.  Most hardware supports 11Mbps where the signal quality allows,
     but falls back to slower speeds when it does not.  Except for the Lucent
     WaveLAN Bronze cards, all cards supported by the wi driver support WEP
     for encryption.  To enable encryption, use ifconfig(8) as shown below.

     By default, the wi driver configures the card for BSS operation (aka in-
     frastructure mode).  This mode requires the use of an access point (base

     The wi driver also supports a point-to-point mode where stations can com-
     municate amongst themselves without the aid of an access point.  Note
     that there are two possible point-to-point modes.  One mode, referred to
     as ``ad-hoc demo mode'', or ``legacy Lucent ad-hoc mode'', predates the
     IEEE 802.11 specification and so may not interoperate with cards from
     different vendors.  The standardized point-to-point mode is called IBSS
     (or confusingly just ad-hoc mode), but is not supported by cards with
     very old firmware revisions.  If your cards supports IBSS mode, it is
     recommended that you use it in preference to the ``ad-hoc demo mode'' in
     new installations.

     Cards supported by the driver based on the Intersil PRISM family of chips
     also have a host-based access point mode which allows the card to act as
     an access point (base station).  Access points are different than operat-
     ing in IBSS mode.  They operate in BSS mode.  They allow for easier roam-
     ing and bridge all Ethernet traffic such that machines connected via an
     access point appear to be on the local Ethernet segment.

     For more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

     Cards supported by the wi driver come in a variety of packages, though
     the most common are of the PCMCIA type.  In many cases, the PCI version
     of a wireless card is simply a PCMCIA card bundled with a PCI adapter.
     The PCI adapters come in two flavors: true PCMCIA bridges and dumb PCMCIA
     bridges.  A true PCMCIA bridge (such as those sold by Lucent) will attach
     as a real PCMCIA controller.  The wireless card will then attach to the
     PCMCIA bus.  Wireless cards in PCMCIA slots may be inserted and ejected
     on the fly.

     A dumb bridge, on the other hand, does not show up as a true PCMCIA bus.
     The wireless card will simply appear to the host as a normal PCI device
     and will not require any PCMCIA support.  Cards in this type of adapter
     should only be removed when the machine is powered down.

     The following cards are among those supported by the wi driver:

     Card                                  Chip          Bus
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE737A             Spectrum24    PCMCIA
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A             Prism-II      PCI
     Accton airDirect WN3301                             PCMCIA
     ACTIONTEC HWC01170                    Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Adaptech ANW-8030                     Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Addtron AWP-100                       Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Adtec Adlink/340C                     Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Airvast WN 100                        Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Airway 802.11 Adapter                               PCMCIA
     Agere Orinoco                         Hermes        PCMCIA
     Allied Telesis WR211PCM               Prism-II      PCMCIA
     ArTem OnAir                           Prism?        PCMCIA
     Asus WL100                            Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Avaya Wireless                        Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Bay eMobility 11B                     Prism-2.5?    PCMCIA
     Blue Concentric Circle WL-379F        Prism-II      CF
     BreezeNet Wireless                    Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-PCM-S11                   Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-PCM-L11G                  Hermes        PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-CF-S11G                   Prism-II      CF
     Buffalo WLI2-CF-S11G                  Prism 2.5     CF
     Cabletron RoamAbout                   Hermes        PCMCIA
     Compaq Agency NC5004                  Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Compaq WL100                          Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Compaq WL110                          Hermes        PCMCIA
     Compaq WL200                          Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Contec FLEXLAN/FX-DS110-PCC           Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Corega PCC-11                         Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Corega PCCA-11                        Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Corega PCCB-11                        Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Corega CGWLPCIA11                     Prism-II      PCI
     Dell TrueMobile 1150                  Hermes        PCMCIA
     Dlink Air 660                         Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Dlink DWL520                          Prism-2.5     PCI
     Dlink DWL650                          Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     ELECOM Air@Hawk/LD-WL11/PCC                         PCMCIA
     ELSA MC-11                                          PCMCIA
     ELSA XI300                            Prism-II      PCMCIA
     ELSA XI800                            Prism-II      CF
     EMTAC A2424i                          Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Ericsson Wireless LAN CARD C11        Spectrum24    PCMCIA
     Farallon Skyline                      Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Gemtek WL-311                         Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Hawking Technology WE110P             Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Home Wireless Networks                Prism-II      PCMCIA
     IBM High Rate Wireless                Hermes        PCMCIA
     ICOM SL-1100                          Prism-II      PCMCIA
     I-O DATA WN-B11/PCM                   Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Intel PRO/Wireless 2011               Spectrum24    PCMCIA
     Intersil Prism II                     Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Intersil Mini-PCI                     Prism-2.5     PCI
     Intersil ISL37100P                    Prism-3                        PCMCIA
     Intersil ISL37110P                    Prism-3                        PCMCIA
     Intersil ISL37300P                    Prism-3                        PCMCIA
     Laneed Wireless                                     PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11        Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 2.5    Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 3.0    Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Linksys WCF11                         Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Linksys WCF12                         Prism-3       CF
     Lucent WaveLAN                        Hermes        PCMCIA
     Melco Airconnect                      Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Microsoft MN-520 WLAN                 Prism-II      PCMCIA
     NANOSPEED ROOT-RZ2000                 Prism-II      PCMCIA
     NCR WaveLAN/IEEE 802.11                             PCMCIA
     NDC/Sohoware NCP130                   Prism-II      PCI
     NEC CMZ-RT-WP                         Prism-II      PCMCIA
     NEC PK-WL001                          Lucent        PCMCIA
     NEC PC-WL/11C                         Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Netgear MA311                         Prism-2.5     PCI
     Netgear MA401                         Prism-II/2.5  PCMCIA
     Netgear MA401RA                       Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Netgear MA701                         Prism-II      CF
     NOKIA C020 WLAN                       Prism-II      PCMCIA
     NOKIA C110 WLAN                       Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     NTT-ME 11Mbps Wireless LAN            Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Planex GeoWave/GW-NS110               Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Planex GW-NS11H                       Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Proxim Harmony                        Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Proxim RangeLAN-DS                    Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Samsung MagicLAN SWL-2000N            Prism-II      PCMCIA
     SENAO SL-2511CD                       Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Siemens SpeedStream SS1021            Prism-II      PCMCIA
     SMC 2602 EZ Connect (3.3V)            Prism-II      PCI or PCMCIA
     SMC 2632 EZ Connect                   Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Socket Low Power WLAN-CF              Prism-II      CF
     Sony PCWA-C100                        Lucent        PCMCIA
     Sony PEGA-WL110                       Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Symbol Spectrum24                     Spectrum24    PCMCIA
     Symbol LA-4100                        Spectrum24    CF
     TDK LAK-CD011WL                       Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Toshiba Wireless LAN Card             Prism-II      PCMCIA
     U.S. Robotics Wireless Card 2410      Prism-II      PCMCIA
     YIS YWL-11B                           Prism-II      PCMCIA

     Several vendors sell PCI adapters built around the PLX Technology 9050 or
     9052 chip.  The following such adapters are supported or expected to

     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A (3.3V)
     Belkin F5D6000 (a rebadged WL11000P)
     Eumitcom WL11000P
     Global Sun Technology GL24110P (untested)
     Global Sun Technology GL24110P02
     LinkSys WDT11 (a rebadged GL24110P02)
     Netgear MA301
     US Robotics 2415 (rebadged WL11000P)
     Wisecom Wireless LAN PCI Adapter

     The following adapters have the same model numbers as those listed above,
     but might not work if the actual card is after the change away from the
     Prism family:

     DLink DWL520

     Join an existing BSS network (ie: connect to an access point):

           ifconfig wi0 inet netmask 0xffffff00

     Join a specific BSS network with network name ``my_net'':

           ifconfig wi0 inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with WEP encryption:

           ifconfig wi0 inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
                   wepmode on wepkey 0x8736639624

     Join a Lucent legacy demo ad-hoc network with network name ``my_net'':

           ifconfig wi0 inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
                   media DS/11Mbps mediaopt adhoc,link0

     Join/create an IBSS network with network name ``my_net'':

           ifconfig wi0 inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
                   media DS/11Mbps mediaopt adhoc

     Create a host-based access point (Prism only):

           ifconfig wi0 inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap \
                   media DS/11Mbps mediaopt hostap

     Create a host-based access point with WEP enabled (Prism only):

           ifconfig wi0 inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap \
                   wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 media DS/11Mbps \
                   mediaopt hostap

     Create a host-based wireless bridge to fxp0 (Prism only):

           ifconfig wi0 inet up ssid my_ap media DS/11Mbps mediaopt hostap
           sysctl net.inet.ip.check_interface=0
           ifconfig bridge0 create
           ifconfig bridge0 addm wi0 addm fxp0 up

     This will give you the same functionality as an access point.

     wi%d: init failed  The WaveLAN card failed to become ready after an ini-
     tialization command was issued.

     wi%d: failed to allocate %d bytes on NIC  The driver was unable to allo-
     cate memory for transmit frames in the NIC's on-board RAM.  This can also
     be an indication of an incorrectly configured interrupt.

     wi%d: device timeout  The WaveLAN card failed to generate an interrupt to
     acknowledge a transmit command.

     an(4), arp(4), ath(4), card(4), netintro(4), pccard(4), pccbb(4),
     pcic(4), wlan(4), ifconfig(8), wicontrol(8)

     HCF Light programming specification,

     The wi device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.

     The wi driver was written by Bill Paul <>.  This
     man page comes from OpenBSD.

     Different regulatory domains have different default channels for adhoc
     mode.  See ifconfig(8) for information on how to change the channel.  See
     wicontrol(8) for information on different regulatory domains.

     The Intersil Prism family of chips' host-based access point mode has bugs
     for station firmware versions prior to 0.8.3.  The driver currently pre-
     cludes hostap functionality with older station firmware.  The best ver-
     sion of the station firmware for the Prism family of chips seems to be
     1.4.9.  Some users of Prism-II and 2.5 based cards report that station
     firmware version 1.3.4 works better for them in hostap than 1.4.9.  Older
     versions of the Prism station firmware have a number of issues with
     hostap mode.  The IBSS/adhoc mode appears to work well on station
     firmware 1.3.1 and later.  The IBSS/adhoc mode appears to have problems
     for some people with older versions of station firmware.

     Lucent cards prior to firmware version 6.0.6 do not support IBSS mode.
     These cards support only the pre-802.11 mode known as ``demo ad-hoc
     mode'' which does not interoperate with stations in IBSS mode.

     Prism cards prior to version 0.8.0 do not support IBSS mode.

     Symbol cards prior to version 2.50.00 do not support IBSS mode.

     Not all the new messages are documented here, and many of them are indi-
     cations of transient errors that are not indications of serious problems.

     WL200 PCI wireless cards are based on a Cirrus Logic CL-PD6729 bridge
     chips glued to an Intersil Prism-II PCMCIA chipset w/o the PC Card form
     factor being present.  These chips are special and require special care
     to use properly.  One must set hw.pcic.pd6729_intr_path="2" in
     /boot/loader.conf.  This tells the PC Card system to use PCI interrupts
     for this odd beast.  It is not possible to know automatically which kind
     of interrupts to use.  OLDCARD devices (pcic(4) and card(4)) support this
     device.  NEWCARD devices (pccbb(4) and pccard(4)) do not support it at
     this time.

FreeBSD 6.2                      July 16, 2005                     FreeBSD 6.2


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