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WI(4)			 BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			 WI(4)

     wi	-- Lucent Hermes, Intersil PRISM and Spectrum24	IEEE 802.11 driver

     To	compile	this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

	   device wi
	   device wlan

     Alternatively, to load the	driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):


     The wi driver provides support for	wireless network adapters based	around
     the Lucent	Hermes,	Intersil PRISM-II, Intersil PRISM-2.5, Intersil
     Prism-3, and Symbol Spectrum24 chipsets.  All five	chipsets provide a
     similar interface to the driver.

     Supported features	include	802.11 and 802.3 frames, power management,
     BSS, IBSS,	WDS and	old-style Lucent ad-hoc	operation modes.  Cards	based
     on	the Intersil PRISM chips also support a	host-based access point	mode
     which allows a card to act	as a normal access point (with some assistance
     from the wi driver).  The Lucent Hermes and Symbol	Spectrum24 chipsets do
     not contain this functionality.  The PRISM	family of chips	do not support
     the WDS functionality.  All host/device interaction is via	programmed
     I/O, even on those	cards that support a DMA interface.

     The wi driver encapsulates	all IP and ARP traffic as 802.11 frames, how-
     ever it can receive either	802.11 or 802.3	frames.	 Transmit speed	is se-
     lectable between 1Mbps, 2Mbps, 5.5	Mbps and 11Mbps	depending on your
     hardware.	Most hardware supports 11Mbps where the	signal quality allows,
     but falls back to slower speeds when it does not.	Except for the Lucent
     WaveLAN Bronze cards, all cards supported by the wi driver	support	WEP
     for encryption.  To enable	encryption, use	ifconfig(8) as shown below.

     By	default, the wi	driver configures the card for BSS operation (aka in-
     frastructure mode).  This mode requires the use of	an access point	(base

     The wi driver also	supports a point-to-point mode where stations can com-
     municate amongst themselves without the aid of an access point.  Note
     that there	are two	possible point-to-point	modes.	One mode, referred to
     as	"ad-hoc	demo mode", or "legacy Lucent ad-hoc mode", predates the IEEE
     802.11 specification and so may not interoperate with cards from differ-
     ent vendors.  The standardized point-to-point mode	is called IBSS (or
     confusingly just ad-hoc mode), but	is not supported by cards with very
     old firmware revisions.  If your cards supports IBSS mode,	it is recom-
     mended that you use it in preference to the "ad-hoc demo mode" in new in-

     Cards supported by	the driver based on the	Intersil PRISM family of chips
     also have a host-based access point mode which allows the card to act as
     an	access point (base station).  Access points are	different than operat-
     ing in IBSS mode.	They operate in	BSS mode.  They	allow for easier roam-
     ing and bridge all	Ethernet traffic such that machines connected via an
     access point appear to be on the local Ethernet segment.

     For more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

     Cards supported by	the wi driver come in a	variety	of packages, though
     the most common are of the	PCMCIA type.  In many cases, the PCI version
     of	a wireless card	is simply a PCMCIA card	bundled	with a PCI adapter.
     The PCI adapters come in two flavors: true	PCMCIA bridges and dumb	PCMCIA
     bridges.  A true PCMCIA bridge (such as those sold	by Lucent) will	attach
     as	a real PCMCIA controller.  The wireless	card will then attach to the
     PCMCIA bus.  Wireless cards in PCMCIA slots may be	inserted and ejected
     on	the fly.

     A dumb bridge, on the other hand, does not	show up	as a true PCMCIA bus.
     The wireless card will simply appear to the host as a normal PCI device
     and will not require any PCMCIA support.  Cards in	this type of adapter
     should only be removed when the machine is	powered	down.

     The following cards are among those supported by the wi driver:

     Card				   Chip		 Bus
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE737A		   Spectrum24	 PCMCIA
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A		   Prism-II	 PCI
     Accton airDirect WN3301				 PCMCIA
     ACTIONTEC HWC01170			   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     Adaptech ANW-8030			   Prism-3	 PCMCIA
     Addtron AWP-100			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Adtec Adlink/340C			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Airvast WN	100			   Prism-3	 PCMCIA
     Airway 802.11 Adapter				 PCMCIA
     Agere Orinoco			   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Allied Telesis WR211PCM		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     ArTem OnAir			   Prism?	 PCMCIA
     Asus WL100				   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     Avaya Wireless			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Bay eMobility 11B			   Prism-2.5?	 PCMCIA
     Blue Concentric Circle WL-379F	   Prism-II	 CF
     BreezeNet Wireless			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-PCM-S11		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-PCM-L11G		   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-CF-S11G		   Prism-II	 CF
     Buffalo WLI2-CF-S11G		   Prism 2.5	 CF
     Cabletron RoamAbout		   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Compaq Agency NC5004		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Compaq WL100			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Compaq WL110			   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Compaq WL200			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Contec FLEXLAN/FX-DS110-PCC	   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Corega PCC-11			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Corega PCCA-11			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Corega PCCB-11			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Corega CGWLPCIA11			   Prism-II	 PCI
     Dell TrueMobile 1150		   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Dlink Air 660			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Dlink DWL520			   Prism-2.5	 PCI
     Dlink DWL650			   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     ELECOM Air@Hawk/LD-WL11/PCC			 PCMCIA
     ELSA MC-11						 PCMCIA
     ELSA XI300				   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     ELSA XI800				   Prism-II	 CF
     EMTAC A2424i			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Ericsson Wireless LAN CARD	C11	   Spectrum24	 PCMCIA
     Farallon Skyline			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Gemtek WL-311			   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     Hawking Technology	WE110P		   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     Home Wireless Networks		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     IBM High Rate Wireless		   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     ICOM SL-1100			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     I-O DATA WN-B11/PCM		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Intel PRO/Wireless	2011		   Spectrum24	 PCMCIA
     Intersil Prism II			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Intersil Mini-PCI			   Prism-2.5	 PCI
     Intersil ISL37100P			   Prism-3			  PCMCIA
     Intersil ISL37110P			   Prism-3			  PCMCIA
     Intersil ISL37300P			   Prism-3			  PCMCIA
     Laneed Wireless					 PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11	   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 2.5	   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 3.0	   Prism-3	 PCMCIA
     Linksys WCF11			   Prism-3	 PCMCIA
     Linksys WCF12			   Prism-3	 CF
     Lucent WaveLAN			   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Melco Airconnect			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Microsoft MN-520 WLAN		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     NCR WaveLAN/IEEE 802.11				 PCMCIA
     NDC/Sohoware NCP130		   Prism-II	 PCI
     NEC CMZ-RT-WP			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     NEC PK-WL001			   Lucent	 PCMCIA
     NEC PC-WL/11C			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Netgear MA311			   Prism-2.5	 PCI
     Netgear MA401			   Prism-II/2.5	 PCMCIA
     Netgear MA401RA			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Netgear MA701			   Prism-II	 CF
     NOKIA C020	WLAN			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     NOKIA C110	WLAN			   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     NTT-ME 11Mbps Wireless LAN		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Planex GeoWave/GW-NS110		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Planex GW-NS11H			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Proxim Harmony			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Proxim RangeLAN-DS			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Samsung MagicLAN SWL-2000N		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     SENAO SL-2511CD			   Prism-3	 PCMCIA
     Siemens SpeedStream SS1021		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     SMC 2602 EZ Connect (3.3V)		   Prism-II	 PCI or	PCMCIA
     SMC 2632 EZ Connect		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Socket Low	Power WLAN-CF		   Prism-II	 CF
     Sony PCWA-C100			   Lucent	 PCMCIA
     Sony PEGA-WL110			   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     Symbol Spectrum24			   Spectrum24	 PCMCIA
     Symbol LA-4100			   Spectrum24	 CF
     TDK LAK-CD011WL			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Toshiba Wireless LAN Card		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     U.S. Robotics Wireless Card 2410	   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     YIS YWL-11B			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA

     Several vendors sell PCI adapters built around the	PLX Technology 9050 or
     9052 chip.	 The following such adapters are supported or expected to

     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A (3.3V)
     Belkin F5D6000 (a rebadged	WL11000P)
     Eumitcom WL11000P
     Global Sun	Technology GL24110P (untested)
     Global Sun	Technology GL24110P02
     LinkSys WDT11 (a rebadged GL24110P02)
     Netgear MA301
     US	Robotics 2415 (rebadged	WL11000P)
     Wisecom Wireless LAN PCI Adapter

     The following adapters have the same model	numbers	as those listed	above,
     but might not work	if the actual card is after the	change away from the
     Prism family:

     DLink DWL520

     Join an existing BSS network (ie: connect to an access point):

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00

     Join a specific BSS network with network name "my_net":

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with WEP encryption:

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   wepmode on wepkey 0x8736639624

     Join a Lucent legacy demo ad-hoc network with network name	"my_net":

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   media DS/11Mbps mediaopt adhoc,link0

     Join/create an IBSS network with network name "my_net":

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   media DS/11Mbps mediaopt adhoc

     Create a host-based access	point (Prism only):

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap	\
		   media DS/11Mbps mediaopt hostap

     Create a host-based access	point with WEP enabled (Prism only):

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap	\
		   wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 media	DS/11Mbps \
		   mediaopt hostap

     Create a host-based wireless bridge to fxp0 (Prism	only):

	   ifconfig wi0	inet up	ssid my_ap media DS/11Mbps mediaopt hostap
	   sysctl net.inet.ip.check_interface=0
	   ifconfig bridge0 create
	   ifconfig bridge0 addm wi0 addm fxp0 up

     This will give you	the same functionality as an access point.

     wi%d: init	failed	The WaveLAN card failed	to become ready	after an ini-
     tialization command was issued.

     wi%d: failed to allocate %d bytes on NIC  The driver was unable to	allo-
     cate memory for transmit frames in	the NIC's on-board RAM.	 This can also
     be	an indication of an incorrectly	configured interrupt.

     wi%d: device timeout  The WaveLAN card failed to generate an interrupt to
     acknowledge a transmit command.

     altq(4), an(4), arp(4), ath(4), card(4), netintro(4), pccard(4),
     pccbb(4), pcic(4),	wlan(4), ifconfig(8), wicontrol(8)

     HCF Light programming specification,

     The wi device driver first	appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.

     The wi driver was written by Bill Paul <>.  This
     man page comes from OpenBSD.

     Different regulatory domains have different default channels for adhoc
     mode.  See	ifconfig(8) for	information on how to change the channel.  See
     wicontrol(8) for information on different regulatory domains.

     The Intersil Prism	family of chips' host-based access point mode has bugs
     for station firmware versions prior to 0.8.3.  The	driver currently pre-
     cludes hostap functionality with older station firmware.  The best	ver-
     sion of the station firmware for the Prism	family of chips	seems to be
     1.4.9.  Some users	of Prism-II and	2.5 based cards	report that station
     firmware version 1.3.4 works better for them in hostap than 1.4.9.	 Older
     versions of the Prism station firmware have a number of issues with
     hostap mode.  The IBSS/adhoc mode appears to work well on station
     firmware 1.3.1 and	later.	The IBSS/adhoc mode appears to have problems
     for some people with older	versions of station firmware.

     Lucent cards prior	to firmware version 6.0.6 do not support IBSS mode.
     These cards support only the pre-802.11 mode known	as "demo ad-hoc	mode"
     which does	not interoperate with stations in IBSS mode.

     Prism cards prior to version 0.8.0	do not support IBSS mode.

     Symbol cards prior	to version 2.50.00 do not support IBSS mode.

     Not all the new messages are documented here, and many of them are	indi-
     cations of	transient errors that are not indications of serious problems.

     WL200 PCI wireless	cards are based	on a Cirrus Logic CL-PD6729 bridge
     chips glued to an Intersil	Prism-II PCMCIA	chipset	w/o the	PC Card	form
     factor being present.  These chips	are special and	require	special	care
     to	use properly.  One must	set hw.pcic.pd6729_intr_path="2" in
     /boot/loader.conf.	 This tells the	PC Card	system to use PCI interrupts
     for this odd beast.  It is	not possible to	know automatically which kind
     of	interrupts to use.  OLDCARD devices (pcic(4) and card(4)) support this
     device.  NEWCARD devices (pccbb(4)	and pccard(4)) do not support it at
     this time.

BSD				 July 16, 2005				   BSD


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