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WICONTROL(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		  WICONTROL(8)

     wicontrol -- configure WaveLAN/IEEE devices

     wicontrol [-i] iface [-o]
     wicontrol [-i] iface -t tx_rate
     wicontrol [-i] iface -n network_name
     wicontrol [-i] iface -s station_name
     wicontrol [-i] iface -c 0 | 1
     wicontrol [-i] iface -q SSID
     wicontrol [-i] iface -p port_type
     wicontrol [-i] iface -a access_point_density
     wicontrol [-i] iface -m mac_address
     wicontrol [-i] iface -d max_data_length
     wicontrol [-i] iface -e 0 | 1
     wicontrol [-i] iface -k key [-v 1 | 2 | 3 | 4]
     wicontrol [-i] iface -T 1 | 2 | 3 | 4
     wicontrol [-i] iface -r RTS_threshold
     wicontrol [-i] iface -f frequency
     wicontrol [-i] iface -P 0 | 1
     wicontrol [-i] iface -S max_sleep_duration
     wicontrol [-i] iface -Z (zero signal cache)
     wicontrol [-i] iface -C (display signal cache)
     wicontrol [-i] iface -L (list avail access	points)
     wicontrol [-i] iface -l (dump associated stations)

     The wicontrol utility controls the	operation of WaveLAN/IEEE wireless
     networking	devices	via the	wi(4) driver.  Most of the parameters that can
     be	changed	relate to the IEEE 802.11 protocol which the WaveLAN imple-
     ments.  This includes the station name, whether the station is operating
     in	ad-hoc (point to point)	or BSS (service	set) mode, and the network
     name of a service set to join (IBSS) if BSS mode is enabled.  The
     wicontrol utility can also	be used	to view	the current settings of	these
     parameters	and to dump out	the values of the card's statistics counters.

     The iface argument	given to wicontrol should be the logical interface
     name associated with the WaveLAN/IEEE device (wi0,	wi1, etc.).  If	none
     is	specified then "wi0" is	used as	default.

     The options are as	follows:

     [-i] iface	[-o]
	     Display the current settings of the specified WaveLAN/IEEE	inter-
	     face.  This retrieves the current card settings from the driver
	     and prints	them out.  Using the additional	-o flag	will cause
	     wicontrol to print	out the	statistics counters instead of the
	     card settings.  Encryption	keys are only displayed	if wicontrol
	     is	run as root.

     [-i] iface	-t tx_rate
	     Set the transmit rate of the specified interface.	The legal val-
	     ues for the transmit rate vary depending on whether the interface
	     is	a standard WaveLAN/IEEE	or a WaveLAN/IEEE Turbo	adapter.  The
	     standard NICs support a maximum transmit rate of 2Mbps while the
	     turbo NICs	support	a maximum speed	of 6Mbps.  The following table
	     shows the legal transmit rate settings and	the corresponding
	     transmit speeds:

		   TX rate    NIC speed
		   1	      Fixed Low	(1Mbps)
		   2	      Fixed Standard (2Mbps)
		   3	      Auto Rate	Select (High)
		   4	      Fixed Medium (4Mbps)
		   5	      Fixed High (6Mbps)
		   6	      Auto Rate	Select (Standard)
		   7	      Auto Rate	Select (Medium)

	     The standard NICs support only settings 1 through 3.  Turbo NICs
	     support all the above listed speed	settings.  The default driver
	     setting is	3 (auto	rate select).

     [-i] iface	-n network_name
	     Set the name of the service set (IBSS) that this station wishes
	     to	join.  The network_name	can be any text	string up to 30	char-
	     acters in length.	The default name is the	string "ANY" which
	     should allow the station to connect to the	first available	access
	     point.  The interface should be set for BSS mode using the	-p
	     flag in order for this to work.

	     Note: the WaveLAN manual indicates	that an	empty string will al-
	     low the host to connect to	any access point, however I have also
	     seen a reference in another driver	which indicates	that the "ANY"
	     string works as well.

     [-i] iface	-s station_name
	     Sets the station name for the specified interface.	 The
	     station_name is used for diagnostic purposes.  The	Lucent
	     WaveMANAGER software can poll the names of	remote hosts.

     [-i] iface	-c 0 | 1
	     Allow the station to create a service set (IBSS).	Permitted val-
	     ues are 0 (don't create IBSS) and 1 (enable creation of IBSS).
	     The default is 0.

	     Note: this	option is provided for experimental purposes only: en-
	     abling the	creation of an IBSS on a host system doesn't appear to
	     actually work.

     [-i] iface	-q SSID
	     Specify the name of an IBSS (SSID)	to create on a given inter-
	     face.  The	SSID can be any	text string up to 30 characters	long.

	     Note: this	option is provided for experimental purposes only: en-
	     abling the	creation of an IBSS on a host system doesn't appear to
	     actually work.

     [-i] iface	-p port_type
	     Set the port type for a specified interface.  The legal values
	     for port_type are 1 (BSS mode) and	3 (ad-hoc) mode.  In ad-hoc
	     mode, the station can communicate directly	with any other sta-
	     tions within direct radio range (provided that they are also op-
	     erating in	ad-hoc mode).  In BSS mode, hosts must associate with
	     a service set controlled by an access point, which	relays traffic
	     between end stations.  The	default	setting	is 3 (ad-hoc mode).

     [-i] iface	-a access_point_density
	     Specify the access	point density for a given interface.  Legal
	     values are	1 (low), 2 (medium) and	3 (high).  This	setting	influ-
	     ences some	of the radio modem threshold settings.

     [-i] iface	-m mac_address
	     Set the station address for the specified interface.  The
	     mac_address is specified as a series of six hexadecimal values
	     separated by colons, e.g.,	"00:60:1d:12:34:56".  This programs
	     the new address into the card and updates the interface as	well.

     [-i] iface	-d max_data_length
	     Set the maximum receive and transmit frame	size for a specified
	     interface.	 The max_data_length can be any	number from 350	to
	     2304.  The	default	is 2304.

     [-i] iface	-e 0 | 1
	     Enable or disable WEP encryption.	Permitted values are 0 (en-
	     cryption disabled)	or 1 (encryption enabled).  Encryption is off
	     by	default.

	     Both 128-bit and 64-bit WEP have been broken.  See	the BUGS sec-
	     tion for details.

     [-i] iface	-k key [-v 1 | 2 | 3 | 4]
	     Set WEP encryption	keys.  There are four default encryption keys
	     that can be programmed.  A	specific key can be set	using the -v
	     flag.  If the -v flag is not specified, the first key will	be
	     set.  Encryption keys can either be normal	text (i.e. "hello") or
	     a series of hexadecimal digits (i.e. "0x1234512345").  For	Wave-
	     LAN Turbo Silver cards, the key is	restricted to 40 bits, hence
	     the key can be either a 5 character text string or	10 hex digits.
	     For WaveLAN Turbo Gold cards, the key can also be 104 bits, which
	     means the key can be specified as either a	13 character text
	     string or 26 hex digits in	addition to the	formats	supported by
	     the Silver	cards.

	     For maximum portability, hex keys are recommended;	the mapping of
	     text keys to WEP encryption is usually driver-specific.  In par-
	     ticular, the Windows drivers do this mapping differently to

	     Note: Both	128-bit	and 64-bit WEP encryption have been broken.
	     See the BUGS section for details.

     [-i] iface	-T 1 | 2 | 3 | 4
	     Specify which of the four WEP encryption keys will	be used	to en-
	     crypt transmitted packets.

	     Note: Both	128-bit	and 64-bit WEP have been broken.  See the BUGS
	     section for details.

     [-i] iface	-r RTS_threshold
	     Set the RTS/CTS threshold for a given interface.  This controls
	     the number	of bytes used for the RTS/CTS handshake	boundary.  The
	     RTS_threshold can be any value between 0 and 2347.	 The default
	     is	2347.

     [-i] iface	-f frequency
	     Set the radio frequency of	a given	interface.  The	frequency
	     should be specified as a channel ID as shown in the table below.
	     The list of available frequencies is dependent on radio regula-
	     tions specified by	regional authorities.  Recognized regulatory
	     authorities include the FCC (United States), ETSI (Europe),
	     France and	Japan.	Frequencies in the table are specified in MHz.

		   Channel ID	FCC   ETSI   France   Japan
		   1		2412  2412   -	      2412
		   2		2417  2417   -	      2417
		   3		2422  2422   -	      2422
		   4		2427  2427   -	      2427
		   5		2432  2432   -	      2432
		   6		2437  2437   -	      2437
		   7		2442  2442   -	      2442
		   8		2447  2447   -	      2447
		   9		2452  2452   -	      2452
		   10		2457  2457   2457     2457
		   11		2462  2462   2462     2462
		   12		-     2467   2467     2467
		   13		-     2472   2472     2472
		   14		-     -	     -	      2484

	     If	an illegal channel is specified, the NIC will revert to	its
	     default channel.  For NICs	sold in	the United States and Europe,
	     the default channel is 3.	For NICs sold in France, the default
	     channel is	11.  For NICs sold in Japan, the default channel is
	     14, and it	is the only available channel for pre-11Mbps NICs.
	     Note that two stations must be set	to the same channel in order
	     to	communicate.

     [-i] iface	-P 0 | 1
	     Enable or disable power management	on a given interface.  En-
	     abling power management uses an alternating sleep/wake protocol
	     to	help conserve power on mobile stations,	at the cost of some
	     increased receive latency.	 Power management is off by default.
	     Note that power management	requires the cooperation of an access
	     point in order to function; it is not functional in ad-hoc	mode.
	     Also, power management is only implemented	in Lucent WavePOINT
	     firmware version 2.03 or later, and in WaveLAN PCMCIA adapter
	     firmware 2.00 or later.  Older revisions will silently ignore the
	     power management setting.	Legal values for this parameter	are 0
	     (off) and 1 (on).

     [-i] iface	-S max_sleep_interval
	     Specify the sleep interval	to use when power management is	en-
	     abled.  The max_sleep_interval is specified in milliseconds.  The
	     default is	100.

     [-i] iface	-Z
	     Clear the signal strength cache maintained	internally by the
	     wi(4) driver.

     [-i] iface	-C
	     Display the cached	signal strength	information maintained by the
	     wi(4) driver.  The	driver retains information about signal
	     strength and noise	level for packets received from	different
	     hosts.  The signal	strength and noise level values	are displayed
	     in	units of dBms.	The signal quality values is produced by sub-
	     tracting the noise	level from the signal strength (i.e. less
	     noise and better signal yields better signal quality).

     ipsec(4), wi(4), ifconfig(8)

     The WEP encryption	method has been	broken so that third parties can re-
     cover the keys in use relatively quickly at distances that	are surprising
     to	most people.  Do not rely on WEP for anything but the most basic, re-
     medial security.  IPSEC will give you a higher level of security and
     should be used whenever possible.	Do not trust access points or wireless
     machines that connect through them	as they	can provide no assurance that
     the traffic is legitimate.	 MAC addresses can easily be forged and	should
     therefore not be used as the only access control.

     The attack	on WEP is a passive attack, requiring only the ability to
     sniff packets on the network.  The	passive	attack can be launched at a
     distance larger, up to many miles,	than one might otherwise expect	given
     a specialized antenna used	in point to point applications.	 The attacker
     can recover the keys from a 128-bit WEP network with only 5,000,000 to
     6,000,000 packets.	 While this may	sound like a large number of packets,
     emperical evidence	suggests that this amount of traffic is	generated in a
     few hours on a partially loaded network.  Once a key has been compro-
     mised, the	only remedial action is	to discontinue it and use a new	key.

     See for details of
     the attack.

     If	you must use WEP, you are strongly encouraged to pick keys whose bytes
     are random	and not	confined to ASCII characters.

     The wicontrol utility first appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.

     The wicontrol utility was written by Bill Paul <>.

BSD				April 21, 1999				   BSD


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