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XDVI(1)			    General Commands Manual		       XDVI(1)

       xdvi - DVI Previewer for	the X Window System

       xdvi  [+[page]] [--help]	[-allowshell] [-altfont	font] [-anchorposition
       anchor] [-bg color] [-browser WWWbrowser] [-copy] [-cr  color]  [-debug
       bitmask|string[,string ...]]  [-display host:display] [-dvipspath path]
       [-editor	command] [-expert] [-expertmode	flag] [-fg color] [-findstring
       string]	[-font	font]  [-fullscreen  ] [-gamma g] [-geometry geometry]
       [-gsalpha]  [-gspalette	palette]  [-h]	[-help]	 [-hl  color]  [-hush]
       [-hushbell]  [-hushchars] [-hushchecksums] [-hushstdout]	[-icongeometry
       geometry]  [-iconic]  [-install]	 [-interpreter	path]	[-keep]	  [-l]
       [-license]  [-linkcolor	color]	[-linkstyle  0|1|2|3] [-margins	dimen]
       [-mfmode	mode-def[:dpi]]	[-mgs[n] size] [-mousemode  0|1|2]  [-nocolor]
       [-nofork]    [-noghostscript]   [-nogrey]   [-nogssafer]	  [-noinstall]
       [-nomakepk]  [-nomatchinverted]	[-noomega]   [-noscan]	 [-notempfile]
       [-notype1fonts]	[-noxi2scrolling] [-offsets dimen] [-p pixels] [-paper
       papertype] [-pause] [-pausespecial special-string]  [-postscript	 flag]
       [-rulecolor color] [-rv]	[-S density] [-s shrink] [-safer] [-sidemargin
       dimen] [-sourceposition	line[:col][ ]filename]	[-statusline]  [-text-
       encoding	 encoding] [-thorough] [-topmargin dimen] [-unique] [-version]
       [-visitedlinkcolor color] [-warnspecials] [-watchfile secs] [-wheelunit
       pixels] [-xoffset dimen]	[-yoffset dimen] [dvi_file]

       Xdvi  is	 a  program  for previewing dvi	files, as produced e.g.	by the
       tex(1) program, under the X window system.

       Xdvi can	show the file shrunken by various integer factors, and it  has
       a  ``magnifying glass'' for viewing parts of the	page enlarged (see the
       section MAGNIFIER below). This version of xdvi is also referred	to  as
       xdvik  since  it	 uses the kpathsea library to locate and generate font
       files.  In addition to that, it supports	the following features:

	 - hyperlinks in DVI files (section HYPERLINKS),

	 - direct rendering of PostScript<tm> Type 1  fonts  (section  TYPE  1

	 - source specials in the DVI file (section SOURCE SPECIALS),

	 - string search in DVI	files (section STRING SEARCH),

	 - saving  or  printing	(parts of) the DVI file	(sections PRINT	DIALOG
	   and SAVE DIALOG).

       Xdvi can	be compiled with the Motif toolkit or the Xaw (Athena) toolkit
       (and  variants  of  it),	and the	Motif version has a slightly different
       GUI; these differences are noted	below.

       Before displaying a page	of a DVI file, xdvi will check to see  if  the
       file  has changed since the last	time it	was displayed.	If this	is the
       case, it	will reload the	file.  This feature allows you to preview many
       versions	of the same file while running xdvi only once. Since it	cannot
       read partial DVI	files, xdvik versions starting from 22.74.3 will  cre-
       ate  a  temporary copy of the DVI file being viewed, to ensure that the
       file can	be viewed without interruptions. (The -notempfile can be  used
       to turn off this	feature).

       Xdvi can	show PostScript<tm> specials by	any of three methods.  It will
       try first to use	Display	PostScript<tm>,	then NeWS, then	it will	try to
       use  Ghostscript	 to render the images.	All of these options depend on
       additional software to work properly; moreover, some of them may	not be
       compiled	into this copy of xdvi.

       For  performance	 reasons,  xdvi	does not render	PostScript specials in
       the magnifying glass.

       If no file name has been	specified on the command line, xdvi  will  try
       to  open	the most recently opened file; if the file history (accessible
       via the File > Open Recent menu)	is empty, or if	none of	the  files  in
       the  history  are  valid	 DVI files, it will pop	up a file selector for
       choosing	a file name.  (In previous versions, which didn't have a  file
       history,	 the file selector was always used; you	can set	the X resource
       noFileArgUseHistory to false to get back	the old	behaviour.)

       In addition to specifying the dvi file (with or without the .dvi	exten-
       sion), xdvi supports the	following command line options.	 If the	option
       begins with a `+' instead of a `-', the option is restored to  its  de-
       fault  value.   By  default,  these options can be set via the resource
       names given in parentheses in the description of	each option.

       +page  Specifies	the first page to show.	 If + is given without a  num-
	      ber, the last page is assumed; the first page is the default.

	      (.allowShell) This option	enables	the shell escape in PostScript
	      specials.	 (For security reasons,	shell escapes are disabled  by
	      default.)	  This	option should be rarely	used; in particular it
	      should not be used just to uncompress files:  that  function  is
	      done  automatically  if  the file	name ends in .Z, .gz, or .bz2.
	      Shell escapes are	always turned off  if  the  -safer  option  is

       -altfont	font
	      (.altFont)  Declares  a default font to use when the font	in the
	      dvi file cannot be found.	 This is  useful,  for	example,  with
	      PostScript <tm> fonts.

       -anchorposition anchor
	      Jump  to	anchor after opening the DVI file. This	is only	useful
	      when invoking xdvi from other applications.

       -background color
	      (.background) Determines the color of the	background.   Same  as

       -bg color
	      (.background) Determines the color of the	background.

       -browser	browser
	      (.wwwBrowser) Defines the	web browser used for handling external
	      URLs. The	value of this option or	resource has the  same	syntax
	      as the BROWSER environment variable; see the explanation of that
	      variable in the section `ENVIRONMENT' below for a	 detailed  de-
	      scription.   If neither the option nor the X resource wwwBrowser
	      is specified, the	environment variables BROWSER  and  WWWBROWSER
	      (in  that	 order)	 are used to determine the browser command. If
	      these are	not set	either,	the following default value  is	 used:
	      xdg-open %s:htmlview %s:firefox -remote -remote "openURL(%s,new-
	      window)":mozilla	  -remote    "openURL(%s,new-window)":netscape
	      -raise -remote "openURL(%s,new-window)":xterm -e w3m %s:xterm -e
	      lynx %s:xterm -e wget %s

       -copy  (.copy) Always use the copy operation when writing characters to
	      the display.  This option	may be necessary for correct operation
	      on a color display, but overstrike characters will be incorrect.
	      If  greyscale  anti-aliasing is in use, the -copy	operation will
	      disable the use of colorplanes and make overstrikes come out in-
	      correctly.  See also -thorough.

       -cr color
	      (.cursorColor)  Determines  the  color of	the mouse cursor.  The
	      default is the same as the foreground color.

       -debug bitmask|string[,string ...]
	      (.debugLevel) If nonzero,	prints additional information on stan-
	      dard  output.  The argument can be either	a bitmask specified as
	      a	decimal	number,	or comma-separated list	of strings.
	      For the bitmask representation, multiple values can be specified
	      by  adding  the numbers that represent the individual bits; e.g.
	      to debug all all file searching and opening commands,  use  4032
	      (= 2048 +	1024 + 512 + 256 + 128 + 64). Use -1 to	turn on	debug-
	      ging of everything (this will produce huge output).
	      For the string representation, use the  strings  listed  in  the
	      following	 table,	 with  a comma to separate the values; e.g. to
	      debug all	file searching and opening  commands,  use  search,ex-
	      pand,paths,hash,stat,open.   (The	 option	`kpathsea' is provided
	      as a shorthand for these.)  Note that such a list	may need to be
	      quoted  to  prevent the shell from interpreting commas or	spaces
	      in the list.
	      The individual numbers and strings have the following meanings:

	       1       bitmap	   Bitmap creation
	       2       dvi	   DVI translation
	       4       pk	   PK fonts
	       8       batch	   Batch mode: Exit after
				   reading the DVI file
	       16      event	   Event handling
	       32      ps	   PostScript interpreter calls
	       64      stat	   Kpathsea stat(2) calls
	       128     hash	   Kpathsea hash table lookups
	       256     open	   Kpathsea file opening
	       512     paths	   Kpathsea path definitions
	       1024    expand	   Kpathsea path expansion
	       2048    search	   Kpathsea searching
	       4032    kpathsea	   All Kpathsea	options
	       4096    htex	   Hypertex specials
	       8192    src	   Source specials
	       16384   client	   Client/server mode (see -unique
				   and -sourceposition options)
	       32768   ft	   FreeType library messages (Type 1 fonts)
	       65536   ft_verbose  Verbose FreeType library messages (currently	unused)
	       131072  gui	   GUI elements

	      Some of the Kpathsea debugging options are actually provided  by
	      Kpathsea;	 see  the Debugging section in the Kpathsea manual for
	      more information on these.

       -density	density
	      (.densityPercent)	Determines the	density	 used  when  shrinking
	      bitmaps for fonts.  A higher value produces a lighter font.  The
	      default value is 40.  If greyscaling is in  use,	this  argument
	      does not apply; use -gamma instead.  See also the	`S' keystroke.
	      Same as -S.

       -display	host:display
	      Specifies	the host and screen to be used for displaying the  dvi
	      file.  By	default	this is	obtained from the environment variable

       -dvipspath path
	      (.dvipsPath) Use path as the dvips program to use	when printing.
	      The  default  for	 this  is dvips.  The program or script	should
	      read the DVI file	from standard input, and write the  PostScript
	      file to standard output.

       -editor editor
	      (.editor)	 Specifies  the	 editor	 that will be invoked when the
	      source-special() action is triggered to start a  reverse	search
	      (by default via Ctrl-Mouse 1).  The argument to this option is a
	      format string in which occurrences of ``%f'' are replaced	by the
	      file name, occurrences of	``%l'' are replaced by the line	number
	      within the file, and optional occurrences	of ``%c'' are replaced
	      by the column number within the line.

	      If  neither  the option nor the X	resource .editor is specified,
	      the following environment	variables are checked to determine the
	      editor  command: XEDITOR,	VISUAL,	and EDITOR (in this sequence).
	      If the string is found as	the value of the VISUAL	or EDITOR  en-
	      vironment	 variables,  then  ``xterm  -e	'' is prepended	to the
	      string; if the editor is specified by other means, then it  must
	      be  in the form of a shell command to pop	up an X	window with an
	      editor in	it. If none of these variables is set, a warning  mes-
	      sage  is	displayed  and	the  command ``xterm -e	vi +%l %f'' is

	      If no ``%f'' or ``%l'' occurs in the string, the missing	format
	      strings  are appended automatically.  (This is for compatibility
	      with other programs when using  one  of  the  environment	 vari-

	      A	 new  instance of the editor is	started	each time this command
	      is used; therefore it is preferable to use an editor that	can be
	      invoked  in  `client'  mode  to load new files into the same in-
	      stance. Example settings are:

	      emacsclient --no-wait
		     (older Emacsen)

	      gnuclient	-q
		     (XEmacs and newer Emacsen)

	      gvim --servername	xdvi --remote
		     (VIM v6.0+; the `--servername  xdvi'  option  will	 cause
		     gvim  to run a dedicated instance for the files opened by

	      nc     (nedit)

	      Note that	those strings need to be enclosed into quotes when us-
	      ing  them	 on  the  command-line to protect them from the	shell;
	      when using them as argument for the .editor resource in an X re-
	      source file, no quotes should be used.

	      NOTE  ON SECURITY: The argument of this option isn't executed as
	      a	shell command, but via exec() to prevent evil tricks with  the
	      contents of source specials.

	      This option is only supported for	backwards compatibility; it is
	      equivalent to -expertmode	0, which should	be preferred.

       -expertmode flag
	      (.expertMode) With an argument of	0, this	 option	 switches  off
	      the  display  of the buttons, scrollbars,	the toolbar (Motif on-
	      ly), the statusline and the page list. These  GUI	 elements  can
	      also  be	(de)activated separately, by combining the appropriate
	      values in	the flag argument. This	acts similar to	the -debug op-
	      tion:  The  integer  flag	 is treated as a bitmap	where each bit
	      represents one element. If the bit has the value 1, the  element
	      is  switched  on,	if it has the value 0, the element is switched
	      off. The meaning of the bits is as follows:

	       1       statusline
	       2       scrollbars
	       4       Motif: pagelist,	Xaw: buttons and pagelist
	       8       toolbar (Motif only)
	       16      menubar (Motif only)

	      For example, to turn on only the statusline and the  scrollbars,
	      use 3 (= 1 + 2).	See also the `x' keystroke, where the bits are
	      addressed	by their positions, from 1 to 3	(Xaw)  or  5  (Motif),

       If  the	statusline  is not active, all messages	that would normally be
       printed to the statusline will be printed to stdout, unless the	-hush-
       stdout option is	used.

       -fg color
	      (.foreground) Determines the color of the	text (foreground).

       -findstring string
	      This  option  triggers  a	search for string in the DVI file men-
	      tioned on	the command-line, similar to forward search  (see  the
	      description  of  the sourceposition option): If there is already
	      another instance of xdvi running	on  the	 displaying  that  DVI
	      file, it will cause that instance	to perform the search instead.
	      The search starts	at the top of the  current  page  of  the  DVI

       -font font
	      (*font)  Sets the	font used in menus, buttons etc., as described
	      in the X(7x) man page. The font for child	 windows  can  be  set
	      separately, e.g.:

	      xdvi*statusline*font: \

       -foreground color
	      Same as -fg.

	      When  this  option is used, xdvi will (try to) run in fullscreen
	      mode, with no window decorations.	 This option is	not guaranteed
	      to work with all windowmanagers/desktops;	if you're experiencing
	      problems with it,	please use the -geometry option	instead, and a
	      suitable	window	manager	 setting  to remove the	window decora-
	      tions.  When using this option for presentations,	you might want
	      to  get  rid  of all the control widgets as well,	using the -ex-
	      pertmode option. This option can also be toggled at runtime  us-
	      ing the fullscreen action	(by default bound to Ctrl-l).

       -gamma gamma
	      (.gamma)	Controls  the interpolation of colors in the greyscale
	      anti-aliasing color palette.  Default value is  1.0.   For  0  <
	      gamma < 1, the fonts will	be lighter (more like the background),
	      and for gamma > 1, the fonts will	be darker (more	like the fore-
	      ground).	Negative values	behave the same	way, but use a slight-
	      ly different algorithm.  For color and grayscale	displays;  for
	      monochrome, see -density.	 See also the `S' keystroke.

       -geometry geometry
	      (.geometry)  Specifies  the initial geometry of the main window,
	      as described in the X(7x)	man page. The geometry of  child  win-
	      dows can be set separately, e.g.:
	      xdvi*helpwindow.geometry:	600x800

	      (.gsAlpha)  Causes  Ghostscript  to  be called with the x11alpha
	      driver instead of	the x11	driver.	 The x11alpha  driver  enables
	      anti-aliasing  in	 PostScript  specials, for a nicer appearance.
	      It is available on newer versions	of Ghostscript.	  This	option
	      can also be toggled with the `V' keystroke.

       -gspalette palette
	      (.palette)  Specifies  the  palette to be	used when using	Ghost-
	      script for rendering PostScript specials.	 Possible  values  are
	      Color, Greyscale,	and Monochrome.	 The default is	Color.

       -h, -help, --help
	      Prints  a	 short	help text with an overview of the command-line
	      options to standard output.

       -hl color
	      (.highlight) Determines the color	of the	page  border,  of  the
	      ruler  in	 `ruler	mode', and of the highlighting markers in for-
	      ward search and string search.  The default  is  the  foreground

       -hush  (.Hush) Causes xdvi to suppress all suppressible warnings.

	      (.hushBell) Don't	sound the X bell when an error occurs.

	      (.hushLostChars)	Causes	xdvi to	suppress warnings about	refer-
	      ences to characters which	are not	defined	in the font.

	      (.hushChecksums) Causes xdvi to suppress warnings	about checksum
	      mismatches between the dvi file and the font file.

	      (.hushStdout)  Suppresses	printing of status messages to stdout.
	      Note that	errors or warnings will	still  be  printed  to	stderr
	      even if this option is used.

       -icongeometry geometry
	      (.iconGeometry) Specifies	the initial position for the icon.

	      (.iconic)	 Causes	 the xdvi window to start in the iconic	state.
	      The default is to	start with the window open.

	      (.install) If xdvi is running under a PseudoColor	 visual,  then
	      (by  default) it will check for TrueColor	visuals	with more bits
	      per pixel, and switch to such a visual if	 one  exists.	If  no
	      such visual exists, it will use the current visual and colormap.
	      If -install is selected, however,	it will	still use a  TrueColor
	      visual  with a greater depth, if one is available; otherwise, it
	      will install its own colormap on the  current  visual.   If  the
	      current visual is	not PseudoColor, then xdvi will	not switch the
	      visual or	colormap, regardless of	its options.  The default val-
	      ue  of  the install resource is the special value, maybe.	 There
	      is no +install option.  See also -noinstall, and the GREYSCALING
	      AND COLORMAPS section.

       -interpreter filename
	      (.interpreter)  Use filename as the Ghostscript interpreter.  By
	      default it uses gs.

       -keep  (.keepPosition) Sets a flag to indicate  that  xdvi  should  not
	      move  to	the home position when moving to a new page.  See also
	      the `k' keystroke. This flag is honored by  all  page  switching
	      actions  and  by up-or-previous()	/ down-or-next(), although the
	      latter only honor	the horizontal postion,	not the	vertical  one.
	      This allows for a	"continuous" scrolling back an forth through a
	      document with a display window narrower than a page width.

       -l     (.listFonts) List	the names of all fonts used.

	      Prints licensing information.

	      (.linkColor) Color used for unvisited hyperlinks (`Blue2'	by de-
	      fault).  Hyperlinks  are	unvisited before you click on them, or
	      after the	DVI file has been reloaded.  The value should  be  ei-
	      ther a valid X color name	(such as DarkGoldenrod4) or a hexadec-
	      imal color string	(such as #8b6508).  See	also -visitedlinkcolor
	      and -linkstyle.

	      (.LinkStyle)  Determines	the style in which hyperlinks are dis-
	      played. Possible values and their	meanings are:

	       0       No highlighting of links
	       1       Underline links with link color
	       2       No underlining, color text with link color
	       3       Underline and display text colored with
		       link color

	      The values for link color	are specified by the options/resources
	      -linkcolor and -visitedlinkcolor (which see).

       -margins	dimen
	      (.Margin)	 Specifies  the	 size  of both the top margin and side
	      margin.  This determines the ``home'' position of	the page with-
	      in  the  window as follows.  If the entire page fits in the win-
	      dow, then	the margin settings are	ignored.  If, even  after  re-
	      moving  the  margins  from the left, right, top, and bottom, the
	      page still cannot	fit in the window, then	the page is put	in the
	      window  such  that the top and left margins are hidden, and pre-
	      sumably the upper	left-hand corner of the	text on	the page  will
	      be  in the upper left-hand corner	of the window.	Otherwise, the
	      text is centered in the window.  The dimension should be a deci-
	      mal number optionally followed by	any of the two-letter abbrevi-
	      ations for units accepted	by TeX (pt, pc,	in, bp,	 cm,  mm,  dd,
	      cc, or sp).  By default, the unit	will be	cm (centimeters).  See
	      also -sidemargin,	-topmargin, and	the keystroke `M.'

       -mfmode mode-def
	      (.mfMode)	Specifies a mode-def string,  which  can  be  used  in
	      searching	 for  fonts (see ENVIRONMENT, below).  Generally, when
	      changing the mode-def, it	is also	necessary to change  the  font
	      size  to	the  appropriate value for that	mode.  This is done by
	      adding a colon and the value in dots per inch; for example, -mf-
	      mode  ljfour:600.	  This method overrides	any value given	by the
	      pixelsPerInch resource or	the  -p	 command-line  argument.   The
	      metafont	mode  is also passed to	metafont during	automatic cre-
	      ation of fonts.  By default, it is unspecified.

       -mgs size
	      Same as -mgs1.

       -mgs[n] size
	      (.magnifierSize[n]) Specifies the	size of	the window to be  used
	      for the ``magnifying glass'' for Button n.  The size may be giv-
	      en as an integer (indicating that	the magnifying glass is	to  be
	      square),	or  it may be given in the form	widthxheight.  See the
	      MOUSE ACTIONS section.  Defaults are 200x150, 400x250,  700x500,
	      1000x800,	and 1200x1200.

       -mousemode [0|1|2]
	      (.mouseMode) Specifies the default mode of xdvi at startup: Mag-
	      nifier (0), Text Selection Mode (1) or Ruler Mode	(2).  See  the
	      section MODES, below, for	more information.

	      (.color)	Turns  off the use of color specials.  This option can
	      be toggled with the `C' keystroke.  (Note: -nocolor  corresponds
	      to color:off; +nocolor to	color:on.)

	      (.fork)  With  the  -sourceposition and -unique options, the de-
	      fault behavior is	for xdvi to put	 itself	 into  the  background
	      (like  a daemon) if there	is no appropriate instance of xdvi al-
	      ready running.  This argument makes it run in the	foreground in-
	      stead.  This is useful for debugging, or if your client applica-
	      tion cannot deal well with a program  self-backgrounding	itself
	      in  this	way  --	 e.g., the IPC functions in emacs are known to
	      have problems with this.	If no -sourceposition or -unique argu-
	      ment  is	given, then this option	has no effect.	(Note: -nofork
	      corresponds to fork:off; +nofork to fork:on.)

	      (.ghostscript) Inhibits the use of  Ghostscript  for  displaying
	      PostScript<tm>  specials.	  (Note: -noghostscript	corresponds to
	      ghostscript:off; +noghostscript to ghostscript:on.)

	      (.grey) Turns off	the use	of greyscale anti-aliasing when	print-
	      ing  shrunken  bitmaps.  (Note: -nogrey corresponds to grey:off;
	      +nogrey to grey:on.)  See	also the `G' keystroke.

	      (.gsSafer) Normally, if Ghostscript is used to render PostScript
	      specials,	 the  Ghostscript  interpreter	is run with the	option
	      -dSAFER.	 The  -nogssafer  option  runs	 Ghostscript   without
	      -dSAFER.	 The -dSAFER option in Ghostscript disables PostScript
	      operators	such as	 deletefile,  to  prevent  possibly  malicious
	      PostScript  programs  from having	any effect.  If	the -safer op-
	      tion is specified, then this option has no effect; in that  case
	      Ghostscript  is always run with -dSAFER.	(Note: -nogssafer cor-
	      responds to gsSafer:off; +nogssafer to gsSafer:on.)

	      (.install) Inhibit the default behavior of switching to a	 True-
	      Color  visual  if	one is available with more bits	per pixel than
	      the current visual.  (Note: -noinstall corresponds  install:off;
	      there  is	 no  +noinstall	 option.)   See	also -install, and the

	      (.makePk)	Turns off automatic generation of font files that can-
	      not  be  found  by other means.  (Note: -nomakepk	corresponds to
	      makePk:off; +nomakepk to makePK:on.)

	      (.matchInverted) Don't highlight string search  matches  in  in-
	      verted  color; instead, draw a rectangle in highlight color (see
	      the -hl option) around the match.	This option is activated auto-
	      matically	 if  the  display  isn't running in TrueColor.	(Note:
	      -nomatchinverted corresponds to  matchInverted:off;  +nomatchin-
	      verted to	matchInverted:on.)

	      (.omega)	This will disable the use of Omega extensions when in-
	      terpreting DVI files.  By	default, the  additional  opcodes  129
	      and  134	are  recognized	by xdvi	as Omega extensions and	inter-
	      preted as	requests to set	2-byte characters. The	only  drawback
	      is  that the virtual font	array will require 65536 positions in-
	      stead of the default 256 positions, i.e. the memory requirements
	      of  xdvi	will be	slightly larger. If you	find this unacceptable
	      or encounter another problem with	the Omega extensions, you  can
	      switch  this extension off by using -noomega (but	please do send
	      a	bug report if you find such problems - see the bug address  in
	      the AUTHORS section below).
	      (Note:  -noomega	corresponds  to	omega: off; +noomega to	omega:

	      (.prescan) By default, xdvi does a preliminary scan of  the  dvi
	      file  to	process	any papersize specials;	this is	especially im-
	      portant at startup since the paper size may be needed to	deter-
	      mine  the	 window	size.  If PostScript<tm> is in use, then pres-
	      canning is also necessary	in order to  properly  process	header
	      files.   In  addition, prescanning is needed to correctly	deter-
	      mine the background color	of a page.  This option	turns off such
	      prescanning.   (Prescanning will be automatically	be turned back
	      on if xdvi detects any of	the specials mentioned above.)	(Note:
	      -noscan corresponds to prescan:off; +noscan to prescan:on.)

	      (.tempFile)  As mentioned	in the section DESCRIPTION above, xdvi
	      will create a temporary copy of the DVI file so that it  can  be
	      accessed	without	 interruptions	even  while  the file is being
	      rewritten	by TeX.	 Since this introduces the overhead of copying
	      the  file	 every time it has changed, the	-notempfile allows you
	      to turn off this behaviour. In this case,	exposing parts of  the
	      window while the DVI file	is being written by TeX	will erase the
	      current window contents until the	DVI  file  can	be  completely
	      (Note:  -notempfile  corresponds to tempFile:off;	+notempfile to

	      (.type1) This will disable the use of the	 FreeType  library  to
	      display PostScript<tm> Type 1 fonts.  Use	this option as a work-
	      around when you encounter	problems with the display  of  Type  1
	      fonts  (but  please  don't  forget  to send a bug	report in this
	      case, to the URL mentioned in the	section	AUTHORS	below).
	      (Note: -notype1fonts corresponds to type1:off; +notype1fonts  to

	      (.xi2Scrolling)  This  will  disable  the	use of high-resolution
	      scrolling	using the XInput 2.1 features of the X	Server.	  When
	      enabled,	horizontal  and	 vertical scrolling is done in smaller
	      increments than would correspond to a single click  of  a	 mouse
	      wheel.   This  is	 only available	for hardware that supports the
	      feature, generally touchpads.  It	is not	available  for	tradi-
	      tional  wheel  mice.   If	suitable hardware is not present or if
	      the X server does	not support XInput 2.1	or  higher,  then  the
	      high-resolution  scrolling  feature is turned off	and has	no ef-
	      (Note:   -noxi2scrolling	 corresponds   to    xi2Scrolling:off;
	      +noxi2scrolling, to xi2Scrolling:on.)

       -offsets	dimen
	      (.Offset)	Specifies the size of both the horizontal and vertical
	      offsets of the output on the page.  By decree  of	 the  Stanford
	      TeX  Project,  the default TeX page origin is always 1 inch over
	      and down from the	top-left page corner, even  when  non-American
	      paper  sizes  are	 used.	Therefore, the default offsets are 1.0
	      inch.  The argument dimen	should be a decimal number  optionally
	      followed	by  any	 of the	two-letter abbreviations for units ac-
	      cepted by	TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or	sp).   By  de-
	      fault, the unit will be cm (centimeters).	 See also -xoffset and

       -p pixels
	      (.pixelsPerInch) Defines the size	of the fonts to	use, in	pixels
	      per  inch.   The	default	value is 600.  This option is provided
	      only for backwards compatibility;	the preferred  way is  to  set
	      both the resolution and the Metafont mode	via the	-mfmode	option
	      (which see).

       -paper papertype
	      (.paper) Specifies the size of the printed page.	Note  that  in
	      most  cases it's best to specify the paper size in the TeX input
	      file via the line


	      which will be recognized by both dvips and xdvi;	in  that  case
	      the use of a `-paper' option should be unnecessary.
	      The paper	size may be specified in the form widthxheight option-
	      ally followed by a unit, where width and height are decimal num-
	      bers giving the width and	height of the paper, respectively, and
	      the unit is any of the two-letter	abbreviations  for  units  ac-
	      cepted  by  TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).	By de-
	      fault, the unit is cm (centimeters).
	      There are	also synonyms which may	be used: us (8.5x11in),	 legal
	      (8.5x14in),  foolscap  (13.5x17in),  as  well  as	 the ISO sizes
	      a1-a7, b1-b7, c1-c7.  Each of these also has a landscape or `ro-
	      tated'  variant: usr (11x8.5in), a1r-a7r,	etc. For compatibility
	      with dvips, the formats letter (8.5x11in), ledger	(17x11in)  and
	      tabloid  (11x17in)  are also supported (these don't have rotated
	      Any of the above sizes may be preceded by	 a  plus  sign	(`+');
	      this causes the paper size given here to override	any paper size
	      given in the dvi file.  The default paper	size is	21 x  29.7  cm
	      (A4 size).

       -pause (.pause)	This option provides a simple implementation of	incre-
	      mental (stepwise)	display, which can be used for	presentations.
	      When  this  option  is  used, xdvi will pause the	display	of the
	      current page whenever it	encounters  a  special	special-string
	      (xdvi:pause  by default; the string can be customized via	-paus-
	      especial,	see below), and	the cursor will	change its shape.  The
	      action  unpause-or-next()	 (by  default  bound to	the Space key)
	      will display the next portion of the page	up  to	the  following
	      special-string,  or  until the end of the	page is	reached.  When
	      the option is not	used, specials containing special-string  will
	      be ignored.

       -pausespecial special-string
	      (.pauseSpecial)  Sets  the  special  string  that	causes xdvi to
	      pause when the -pause option is active.  The  default  value  of
	      special-string is	xdvi:pause.

       -postscript flag
	      (.postscript)  If	flag = 0, rendering of PostScript<tm> specials
	      is disabled; instead,  bounding  boxes  will  be	displayed  (if
	      available).  A  value of 1 (the default) switches	PostScript<tm>
	      specials on. With	a value	of 2, the PostScript<tm> specials  are
	      displayed	 along	with  their bounding boxes; this allows	you to
	      visually check the correctness of	the bounding boxes. The	values
	      can  also	 be  toggled at	runtime	with the `v' keystroke and the
	      corresponding numerical prefix arguments 0, 1 and	2.

       -ps2pdfpath path
	      (.ps2pdfPath) Use	path as	a conversion program  from  PostScript
	      to PDF. The program or script should accept two command-line ar-
	      guments: The PostScript file as first argument, and the PDF out-
	      put file as second argument.

       -rulecolor color
	      (.ruleColor)  Determines the color of the	rules used for the the
	      magnifier	(default: foreground color).

       -q     (.noInitFile) Ignore the $HOME/.xdvirc startup file (i.e.	 don't
	      read it at startup, and don't write it at	exit). This forces the
	      defaults defined in $HOME/.Xdefaults to be used. See  FILES  for
	      more information on $HOME/.xdvirc.

       -rv    (.reverseVideo) Causes the page to be displayed with white char-
	      acters on	a black	background, instead of vice versa.

       -S density
	      (.densityPercent)	Same as	-density (which	see).

       -s shrink
	      (.shrinkFactor) Defines the initial shrink factor.  The  default
	      value  is	 8.   If shrink	is given as 0, then the	initial	shrink
	      factor is	computed so that the page fits within the  window  (as
	      if the `s' keystroke were	given without a	number).

       -safer (.safer) This option turns on all	available security options; it
	      is designed for use when xdvi is called by a  browser  that  ob-
	      tains  a dvi or TeX file from another site.  This	option selects
	      +nogssafer and +allowshell.

       -sidemargin dimen
	      (.sideMargin) Specifies the side margin (see -margins).

       -sourceposition line[:col][ ]filename
	      This option makes	xdvi search in the dvi file for	the place cor-
	      responding  to  the  indicated line (and,	optionally, column) in
	      the .tex source file, and	highlight the place found by drawing a
	      rectangle	in the highlight color (see the	-hl option) around the
	      corresponding text.  In addition,	when run  with	this  argument
	      (and  the	-nofork	option is not given, which see), xdvi will al-
	      ways return immediately:	if it finds another instance  of  xdvi
	      already  showing	dvi_file,  then	it will	cause that instance to
	      raise its	window and move	to the given place in  the  dvi	 file;
	      otherwise	 it  will start	up its own instance in the background.
	      If several instances of xdvi are displaying the  respective  dvi
	      file,  the instance which	was last raised	to the foreground will
	      be used.

	      The space	before filename	is only	needed if the filename	starts
	      with  a digit.  When the space is	used, the argument needs to be
	      enclosed in quotes to prevent the	shell from misinterpreting the
	      space as argument	separator.

	      This  option requires that dvi_file be prepared with source spe-
	      cial information.	 See the section on SOURCE  SPECIALS  for  de-
	      tails on how to do this.

	      Here  is	a more detailed	description of how the filename	in the
	      -sourceposition argument is matched with	the  filename  in  the
	      source specials:

	      1. If  neither  of the filenames contains	a path name component,
		 the filenames are compared ignoring the `.tex'	extensions  in
		 both filenames.

	      2. Otherwise, if one of the filenames does contain a path	compo-
		 nent (e.g.: ./test.tex, ../test.tex, /my/homedir/tex/test.tex
		 or  any combination of	these),	both filenames are expanded to
		 a full	path, with any occurrences of ../ and ./ expanded, and
		 multiple slashes removed.
		 The  pathname	in the -sourceposition is expanded relative to
		 the current working directory of the xdvi -sourceposition in-
		 vocation,  and	 the  pathnames	in the source specials are ex-
		 panded	relative to the	path of	the  current  DVI  file	 being
		 The  path  names are then compared ignoring the `.tex'	exten-
		 sions in both path names.

	      (.statusline) This option	is obsolete; use -expertmode  flag in-
	      stead (which see).

       -text-encoding encoding
	      (.textEncoding)  Use encoding as the text	encoding of the	string
	      in the "Find" window. Usually, this should not be	 needed	 since
	      the encoding is determined from the locale settings.

	      (.thorough)  Xdvi	 will  usually	try  to	ensure that overstrike
	      characters (e.g.,	\notin)	are printed correctly.	On  monochrome
	      displays,	 this  is  always possible with	one logical operation,
	      either and or or.	 On color displays, however, this may take two
	      operations,  one	to  set	 the appropriate bits and one to clear
	      other bits.  If this is the case,	then by	default	xdvi will  in-
	      stead use	the copy operation, which does not handle overstriking
	      correctly.  The -thorough	option chooses	the  slower  but  more
	      correct choice.  See also	-copy.

       -topmargin dimen
	      (.topMargin)  Specifies  the  top	 and bottom margins (see -mar-

	      (.unique)	This option will make another instance of xdvi running
	      on the same display act as a `server'.  For example, the invoca-

	      xdvi -unique +5 file.dvi

	      will cause this other instance to	load file.dvi  on  page	 5  in
	      place  of	 the file that it is currently displaying. If there is
	      already another instance of xdvi	already	 displaying  the  file
	      file.dvi,	 then  it  will	just jump to page 5.  If the other in-
	      stance of	xdvi is	displaying a  different	 file,	it  will  load
	      file.dvi	instead.  Otherwise,  if  no other instance of xdvi is
	      currently	running	on the display,	this option instead  starts  a
	      new  instance  of	xdvi in	the background (unless the -nofork op-
	      tion is specified, which see) displaying page 5 of file.dvi.
	      The filename and the +n option for the page number are the  only
	      options available	for controlling	a remote instance of xdvi like
	      this; all	other options are currently ignored.

	      Use logical TeX pages (the values	of the \count0	register)  in-
	      stead of physical	pages for the pagelist labels and when jumping
	      to a page	in a document with the `g'  keystroke  (or  the	 goto-
	      page()  action).	 This  option  can be toggled via the `T' key-

	      Print information	on the version of xdvi.

	      (.visitedLinkColor) Color	used for visited hyperlinks (`Purple4'
	      by  default).  Hyperlinks	become visited once you	click on them.
	      As for linkColor,	the value should be either  a  valid  X	 color
	      name or a	hexadecimal color string.

	      (.warnSpecials)  Causes  xdvi  to	 print warnings	about \special
	      strings that it cannot process to	 stderr.  These	 warnings  are
	      suppressed by default.

       -watchfile n
	      (.watchFile) If this option is set to a value larger than	0, xd-
	      vi will check the	DVI file for changes every n seconds.  If  the
	      DVI file has been	completely written by TeX, it will be reloaded
	      automatically.  Fractional values	(e.g. `2.5') are possible. The
	      default for this option is 0, i.e. no watching.
	      Since  xdvi  cannot  handle  partial  DVI	files, it tries	not to
	      reload the file while it is being	rewritten.   However,  use  of
	      the magnifier or switching of pages requires reading (a part of)
	      the DVI file, and	if the tempfile	option is switched  off,  this
	      will erase the current contents of the window until the DVI file
	      can be read entirely.

       -wheelunit pixels
	      (.wheelUnit) Sets	the number of pixels that a motion of a	 wheel
	      mouse  will  move	 the  image up,	down, left, or right. (See the
	      wheel and	hwheel actions,	below, for more	information on	this.)
	      If  set  to zero,	the wheel mouse	functionality is (essentially)
	      disabled.	 The default value is 80.

       -xoffset	dimen
	      (.xOffset) Specifies the size of the horizontal  offset  of  the
	      output on	the page.  See -offsets.

       -yoffset	dimen
	      (.yOffset) Specifies the size of the vertical offset of the out-
	      put on the page.	See -offsets.

       Xdvi recognizes the following keystrokes	 when  typed  in  its  window.
       Each  may  optionally be	preceded by a (positive	or negative) number, a
       `prefix argument', whose	interpretation will depend on  the  particular
       keystroke.  This	prefix argument	can be discarded by pressing the ``Es-
       cape'' key.  If present,	the ``Help'', ``Prior''	and ``Next'' keys  are
       synonyms	for `?', `b', and `f' keys, respectively.

       The  key	 bindings  listed here are those that xdvi assigns by default.
       The names appearing in brackets at the beginning	 of  the  descriptions
       are  the	 names	of  the	actions	associated with	the keys; these	can be
       used to customize the key bindings, as explained	in more	detail in  the
       section	CUSTOMIZATION  below.  If  only	a lowercase binding is listed,
       both upper- and lowercase keys will work	for that binding.

       ESC key
	      [discard-number()] The escape key	discards the numerical	prefix
	      for all actions (useful when you mistyped	a number).

       Return key
	      [forward-page()] Moves to	the next page (or to the nth next page
	      if a number is given).  Synonyms are `n',	`f' and	Line Feed.

       Backspace key
	      [back-pagee()] Moves to the previous page	 (or  back  n  pages).
	      Synonyms are `p',	`b' and	Ctrl-h.

       Delete key
	      [up-or-previous()]  Moves	 up two-thirds of a window-full, or to
	      the top of the previous page if already at the top of the	 page.
	      With  a float argument, moves up the corresponding fraction of a

       Space key
	      [unpause-or-next()] Moves	down two-thirds	of a  window-full,  or
	      to the next page if already at the bottom	of the page.
	      When the option -pause special-string is used and	the display is
	      currently	paused,	this key will instead display the next portion
	      of the page until	the next special-string	or the end of the page
	      is encountered.  See the description of the  -pause  option  for
	      details.	The  action [down-or-next()] does a similar thing, but
	      without pausing; it is not bound to a key	by default.

       Ctrl-Home (Xaw),	Ctrl-osfBeginLine (Motif)
	      [goto-page(1)] Moves to the first	page of	the document.

       Ctrl-End	(Xaw), Ctrl-osfEndLine (Motif)
	      [goto-page()] Moves to the last page of the document.

       Home (Xaw), osfBeginLine	(Motif)
	      [home-or-top()] Move to the ``home'' position of the page, or to
	      the  top	of the page if the keep	flag is	set (in	this case, the
	      page doesn't scroll horizontally).

       End (Xaw), osfEndLine (Motif)
	      [end-or-bottom()]	Move to	the ``end'' position of	the page  (the
	      lower  right-hand	 corner),  or to the bottom of the page	if the
	      keep flag	is set (in this	case, the page doesn't scroll horizon-

       Down arrow
	      [down(0.015)] Scrolls page down.

       Up arrow
	      [up(0.015)] Scrolls page up.

       Right arrow
	      [right(0.015)] Scrolls page right.

       Left arrow
	      [left(0.015)] Scrolls page left.

	      [change-density(25)]  Increase  the darkness of the fonts	in the
	      DVI window by adding to the gamma	value (see also	the  `S'  key-

	      [change-density(-25)]  Decrease the darkness of the fonts	in the
	      DVI window by subtracting	from the gamma value (see also the `S'

       Ctrl-+ [set-shrink-factor(+)]  Increase the shrink factor (see also the
	      `s' keystroke).

       Ctrl-- [set-shrink-factor(-)] Decrease the shrink factor	(see also  the
	      `s' keystroke).

       Ctr-[  [pagehistory-delete-backward()]  Delete  the current item	in the
	      page history and move to the history  item  before  the  deleted
	      one.  With a prefix argument n, delete n previous	history	items.
	      See PAGE HISTORY for details.

       [      [pagehistory-back()] Move	back in	the  page  history  (see  PAGE
	      HISTORY for details). With a prefix argument n, move back	n his-
	      tory items.

       Ctr-]  [pagehistory-delete-forward()] Delete the	current	 item  in  the
	      page history and move to the history item	after the deleted one.
	      With a prefix argument n,	delete n next history items. See  PAGE
	      HISTORY for details.

       ]      [pagehistory-forward()]  Move  forward  in the page history (see
	      PAGE HISTORY for details). With a	prefix argument	n,  move  for-
	      ward n history items.

       ^      [home()]	Move  to  the  ``home''	position of the	page.  This is
	      normally the upper left-hand corner of the  page,	 depending  on
	      the margins as described in the -margins option, above.

       ?      [help()] Same as the h key (which	see).

       B      [htex-back()]  This key jumps back to the	previous hyperlink an-
	      chor. See	the section HYPERLINKS for more	information  on	 navi-
	      gating the links.

       b      [back-page()]  Moves  to	the  previous  page (or	back n pages).
	      Synonyms are `p',	Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       C      [set-color()] This key toggles the use of	color  specials.   The
	      key  sequences  `0C'  and	`1C' turn interpretation of color spe-
	      cials off	and on,	respectively.  See also	the -nocolor option.

       c      [center()] Moves the page	so that	the  point  currently  beneath
	      the mouse	cursor is moved	to the middle of the window, and warps
	      the mouse	cursor to the same place.

       D      [toggle-grid-mode()] This	key toggles the	use of a grid  on  the
	      displayed	 page.	 If  no	 number	 is  given,  the  grid mode is
	      switched on or off.  By prepending a number from 1 to 3, 3  dif-
	      ferent grid levels can be	set.  The units	of the grid are	inches
	      or centimeters, depending	on whether the paper format is	letter
	      (in) or a4 (cm).

       d      [down()]	Moves  page  down  two thirds of a window-full.	With a
	      float argument to	``down'', moves	down the  corresponding	 frac-
	      tion of a	window-full.

       Ctrl-f [find()] Pop up a	window to search for a string in the DVI file.
	      See the section STRING SEARCH, below, for	more details.

       f      [forward-page()] Moves to	the next page (or to the nth next page
	      if a number is given).  Synonyms are `n',	Return,	and Line Feed.

       G      [set-greyscaling()]  This	key toggles the	use of greyscale anti-
	      aliasing for displaying shrunken bitmaps.	 In addition, the  key
	      sequences	 `0G'  and `1G'	clear and set this flag, respectively.
	      See also the -nogrey option.

	      If given a numeric argument that is not 0	or 1, greyscale	 anti-
	      aliasing is turned on, and the gamma resource is set to the val-
	      ue divided by 100. E.g., `150G' turns on greyscale and sets gam-
	      ma to 1.5.

       Ctrl-g [find-next()]  Find  the next match string in the	DVI file; this
	      can be used instead of pressing the `Find' button	in the	search

       g      [goto-page()]  Moves  to	the  page with the given number. If no
	      page number is given, xdvi jumps to the last page.
	      If the option/resource useTeXpages is active, the	numbers	corre-
	      spond to the actual page numbers in the TeX file;	otherwise, ab-
	      solute page numbers (starting from 1) are	used.  In  the	latter
	      case,  the  page	numbers	can be changed with the	`P' keystroke,
	      below.  Note that	with the useTeXpages  option  it  is  possible
	      that the same page number	occurs multiple	times; in such a case,
	      xdvi will	use the	first page number that matches.

       h      Pops up a	help window with a short explanation of	the  most  im-
	      portant key bindings and concepts.

       k      [set-keep-flag()]	Normally when xdvi switches pages, it moves to
	      the home position	as well.  The `k' keystroke toggles  a	`keep-
	      position'	flag which, when set, will keep	the same position when
	      moving between pages.  Also `0k' and `1k'	 clear	and  set  this
	      flag, respectively.  See also the	-keep option.

       Ctrl-l [fullscreen(toggle)]  Toggles  fullscreen	mode (see the descrip-
	      tion of the -fullscreen option for more  information  on	this).
	      This  is	even  more  flaky  than	using the command-line option:
	      There is no universal standard how a window could	change its own
	      geometry	or  window  decorations	 at run-time, so this will not
	      work with	most window managers or	desktops. Generally, it's bet-
	      ter  to  use  the	 window	manager	controls to change the size or
	      decorations of the xdvi window.

       l      [left()] Moves page left two thirds of a window-full.

       M      [set-margins()] Sets the margins so that the point currently un-
	      der  the	mouse cursor defines the upper left-hand corner	of the
	      text in the page.	 Note that the command does not	move  the  im-
	      age, but only determines the margins for the page	switching com-
	      mands. For details on how	the margins are	used, see the -margins

       m      [toggle-mark()]  Toggles	the  mark  for the current page	in the
	      page list. When a	page is	marked,	it is displayed	with  a	 small
	      star  `*'	next to	the page number.  The marked pages can then be
	      printed or saved to a file.  A page or several pages can also be
	      marked by	clicking or dragging Mouse-2 in	the page list.

       Ctrl-n [toggle-mark()forward-page()]  Toggles  the mark for the current
	      page in the page list, and moves to the next page. This lets you
	      quickly mark a series of subsequent pages.

       n      [forward-page()] Moves to	the next page (or to the nth next page
	      if a number is given).  Synonyms are `f',	Return,	and Line Feed.

       Ctrl-o [select-dvi-file()] Read a new dvi file. A file-selection	widget
	      is  popped  up  for you to choose	the DVI	file from. If a	prefix
	      argument n is given, the n th file  from	the  file  history  is
	      opened instead.

       P      [declare-page-number()]  ``This is page number n.''  This	can be
	      used to make the `g' keystroke refer to a	different page	number
	      than  the	 physical  page.  (If you want to use `logical'	or TeX
	      page numbers instead of physical pages, consider using  the  op-
	      tion  -useTeXpages  instead.)  The argument n should be given as
	      prefix to	this key.

       Ctrl-p [print()]	Opens a	popup window for printing  the	DVI  file,  or
	      parts of it.  See	the section PRINT DIALOG for an	explanation of
	      the options available, and the resources to  customize  the  de-
	      fault behaviour.

       p      [back-page()]  Moves  to	the  previous  page (or	back n pages).
	      Synonyms are `b',	Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       q      [quit()] Quits the program.

       Ctrl-r [forward-page(0)]	Redisplays the current page.

       R      [reread-dvi-file()] Forces the dvi file to be reread.  This  al-
	      lows you to preview many versions	of the same file while running
	      xdvi only	once.

       r      [right()]	Moves page right two thirds of a window-full.

       Ctrl-s [save()] Opens a popup window for	saving the DVI file, or	 parts
	      of it. See the section SAVE DIALOG below for more	information on

       S      [set-density()] Sets the density factor to be used when  shrink-
	      ing  bitmaps.  This should be a number between 0 and 100;	higher
	      numbers produce lighter characters.  If greyscaling mode	is  in
	      effect,  this changes the	value of gamma instead.	 The new value
	      of gamma is the given number divided by 100; negative values are

       s      [set-shrink-factor()]  Changes  the  shrink  factor to the given
	      number.  If no number is given, the smallest factor  that	 makes
	      the  entire  page	 fit in	the window will	be used.  (Margins are
	      ignored in this computation.)

       T      [use-tex-pages()]	Use logical  TeX  pages	 (the  values  of  the
	      \count0 register)	instead	of physical pages for the pagelist la-
	      bels and when jumping to a page in a document  via  goto-page().
	      See also the -useTeXpages	option.

       t      [switch-magnifier-units()]  Switches the units used for the mag-
	      nifier tick marks, and for reporting the	distance  between  the
	      mouse  pointer  and the ruler centre in ruler mode (see the sec-
	      tion MODES).  The	default	value is specified by the  X  resource
	      tickUnits	 (`mm'	by default). The units toggle through the fol-
	      lowing values; except for	`px', they  all	 correspond  to	 TeX's
	      units: mm	(millimeters) pt (TeX points), in (inches), sp (scaled
	      points, the unit used internally	by  TeX)  bp  (big  points  or
	      `PostScript  points'), cc	(cicero	points), dd (didot points), pc
	      (pica), and px (screen pixels).

       Ctrl-u [back-page()toggle-mark()] Moves to the previous page, and  tog-
	      gles the mark for	that page. This	is the dual action to Ctrl-n.

       u      [up()]  Moves  page up two thirds	of a window-full. With a float
	      argument to ``up'', moves	up the	corresponding  fraction	 of  a

       Ctrl-v [show-source-specials()]	Show  bounding	boxes for every	source
	      special on the current page, and print the strings contained  in
	      these specials to	stderr.	With prefix 1, show every bounding box
	      on the page. This	is for debugging purposes mainly.

       V      [set-gs-alpha()] This key	toggles	 the  anti-aliasing  of	 Post-
	      Script<tm>  specials  when  Ghostscript is used as renderer.  In
	      addition the key sequences `0V' and  `1V'	 clear	and  set  this
	      flag, respectively.  See also the	-gsalpha option.

       v      [set-ps()] This key toggles the rendering	of PostScript<tm> spe-
	      cials between 3 states:

	      -	specials (like EPS graphics) are displayed;

	      -	specials are displayed	along  with  their  bounding  box  (if

	      -	only the bounding box is displayed.

	      The states can also be selected directly by using	`1v', `2v' and
	      `0v' respectively.  See also the -postscript option.

       Ctrl-x [source-what-special()] Display  information  about  the	source
	      special  next to the mouse cursor	in the statusline. This	is the
	      same special that	would be found by source-special(), but	 with-
	      out invoking the editor. For debugging purposes.

       x      [set-expert-mode()]  Toggles  expert  mode,  in  which  the sta-
	      tusline, the scrollbars, the menu	buttons,  the  toolbar	(Motif
	      only)  and the page list are not shown.  Typing `1x' toggles the
	      display of the statusline	at the bottom of  the  window.	Typing
	      `2x'  toggles  the scrollbars (if	available). For	Xaw, `3x' tog-
	      gles the menu buttons and	the page list, for Motif,  it  toggles
	      the page list. In	Motif, the additional bindings `4x' toggle the
	      toolbar, and `5x'	the menu bar.
	      Without a	prefix argument, all of	the mentioned GUI elements are
	      either switched on (if they had been invisible before) or	off.
	      Toggling the scrollbars may behave erratically with the Xaw wid-
	      gets; e.g. the scrollbars	may reappear after resizing  the  win-
	      dow,  and	at certain window sizes	one of the scrollbars may fail
	      to disappear.
	      See also the option -expertmode (the numbers above correspond to
	      the bits in the argument to -expertmode).

       The  mouse  actions  can	be customized by setting the X resource	mouse-
       Translations.  Since there are three different  mouse  modes  (see  the
       section MODES below), there is a	special	action mouse-modes which lists
       the actions for each  of	 the  three  modes:  mouse-modes("ACTIONS-FOR-
       MODE1",	"ACTIONS-FOR-MODE2",  "ACTIONS-FOR-MODE3").  If	only one argu-
       ment is specified, this action is used  for  all	 modes.	  The  default
       bindings	are as follows:

	    xdvi.mouseTranslations: \
	    <Btn1Down>:	mouse-modes("do-href()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
	    <Btn2Down>:	mouse-modes("do-href-newwindow()magnifier(*2)",	"text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
	    <Btn3Down>:	mouse-modes("magnifier(*3)")\n\
	    <Btn4Down>:	mouse-modes("wheel(-0.2)")\n\
	    <Btn5Down>:	mouse-modes("wheel(0.2)")\n\
	    <Btn6Down>:	mouse-modes("hwheel(-0.2)")\n\
	    <Btn7Down>:	mouse-modes("hwheel(0.2)")\n\

       All  of these actions are described in more detail below.  Note the use
       of quote	symbols	around the action  strings,  which  are	 necessary  to
       group  them  into  one argument.	 Buttons 4, 5, 6, and 7	refer to wheel
       movements (wheel	up/down/left/right) on wheel mice.  Not	all mice  sup-
       port horizontal scrolling.

       The X Toolkit routines that implement translations do not support event
       types of	Btn6Down or Btn7Down.  Because of this,	 xdvi  implements  its
       own parser for translations given in mouseTranslations.	This parser is
       more limited than the parser built in to	the  X	Toolkit.   The	string
       given  in mouseTranslations should not begin with ``#replace'', ``#aug-
       ment'', or ``#override''.  Modifiers of the form	@keysym	are  not  sup-
       ported,	and  the  event	 type must be of the form BtnDown or BtnnDown,
       where n is a positive integer without leading zeroes.  Also, some limi-
       tations apply to	the action field.


	      Usually,	if  a  binding specifies more then one action, all ac-
	      tions are	executed in a sequence.	 The  hyperlink	 bindings  do-
	      href() and do-href-newwindow() are special in that they are used
	      as an alternative	to other actions that might follow them	if the
	      mouse  is	 currently located on a	hyperlink.  In this case, none
	      of the other actions will	be executed; otherwise,	only the other
	      actions are executed.
	      The action do-href() jumps to the	link target in the current xd-
	      vi window	(eventually switching to another page),	 and  do-href-
	      newwindow()  opens  a  new instance of xdvi for the link target.
	      In both cases, the location of the  target  is  indicated	 by  a
	      small  arrow  drawn  in  the same	color as a visited link	in the
	      left corner of the window.

       magnifier(n x m)

	      This action will pop up a	``magnifying glass'' which  shows  the
	      unshrunk image of	the region around the mouse pointer.  The mag-
	      nifier disappears	when the mouse button is released. Moving  the
	      mouse  cursor while holding the button down will move the	magni-
	      Different	mouse buttons produce different	sized windows, as  in-
	      dicated by the the argument of the magnifier() action. Its argu-
	      ment is either a string of the  form  widthxheight,  as  in  the
	      -mgsn  command-line option, or one of the	strings	*1 through *5,
	      referring	to the value specified by the corresponding -mgsn  op-



	      Drags  the  page with the	mouse. This action should have one pa-
	      rameter, the character ``|'', ``-'', or ``+'', indicating	verti-
	      cal  dragging only, horizontal dragging only, or dragging	in all

	      This action starts a ``reverse search'', opening the  editor  at
	      the  location in the TeX file corresponding to the pointer loca-
	      tion in the DVI file.  See the section on	SOURCE	SPECIALS,  be-
	      low, for more information	on this.

	      This  action can be used to scroll the image with	a wheel	mouse,
	      where it is usually bound	to mouse button	 4  (wheel  up)	 or  5
	      (wheel  down).   The action takes	one parameter, giving the dis-
	      tance to scroll the image.  If the parameter contains a  decimal
	      point,  the distance is given in wheel units; otherwise, pixels.
	      A	negative value scrolls up, a positive value scrolls down.

	      This action can be used to scroll	the image horizontally with  a
	      wheel  mouse, where it is	usually	bound to mouse button 6	(wheel
	      left) or 7 (wheel	right).	 The action takes one parameter,  giv-
	      ing the distance to scroll the image.  If	the parameter contains
	      a	decimal	point, the distance is given in	 wheel	units;	other-
	      wise,  pixels.   A negative value	scrolls	left, a	positive value
	      scrolls right.  Not all mice support horizontal scrolling;  this
	      is mostly	for touchpads, trackpads, etc.

	      This  action  allows you to mark a rectangular region of text in
	      the DVI file.  The text is put into the X	selection  buffer  and
	      can  be  pasted into other applictions (e.g. text	editors). This
	      works similar to the Plain text option in	the Save  dialog;  see
	      the discussion there for more information	on encoding issues.

	      This  action  creates a cross-shaped ruler. Moving the mouse and
	      holding the button down drags the	ruler  and  lets  you  measure
	      distances	 on the	page.  See the section Ruler Mode for more in-
	      formation	on this.

       The following actions are not bound to a	key by default,	but are	avail-
       able for	customization.

	      Pops  up	a  confirmation	window to quit xdvi. To	bind it	to the
	      `q' key instead of the default `quit()' action, put the  follow-
	      ing into your ~/.Xdefaults file:

	      xdvi.mainTranslations: #override\
	      <Key>q: quit-confirm()\n

	      Similar to unpause-or-next(): Moves down two-thirds of a window-
	      full, or to the next page	if already at the bottom of the	page.

	      This action takes	one (required) argument.  It sets  the	shrink
	      factor  to an integer so as to approximate the use of fonts with
	      the corresponding	number of dots per inch.   If  xdvi  is	 using
	      fonts scaled for p dots per inch,	and the	argument to shrink-to-
	      dpi is n,	then the corresponding shrink factor is	the ratio p/n,
	      rounded to the nearest integer.

       Key  and	 mouse	button assignments can be changed by setting the main-
       Translations resource to	a string of translations  as  defined  in  the
       documentation  for  the X toolkit.  The actions should take the form of
       action names listed in the KEYSTROKES and MOUSE ACTIONS sections.

       An exception to this are	the Motif keys osfPageUp  (PgUp),  osfPageDown
       (PgDown),  osfBeginLine (Home) and osfEndLine (End) which are currently
       not customizable	in the Motif version.

       Key actions will	usually	be without arguments; if they  are  passed  an
       argument,  it represents	the optional number or `prefix argument' typed
       prior to	the action.

       Some key	actions	may take special arguments, as follows:	 The  argument
       of  goto-page  may be the letter	`e', indicating	the action of going to
       the end of the document.	 The argument of set-shrink-factor may be  the
       letter  `a',  indicating	 that  the  shrink factor should be set	to the
       smallest	value such that	the page will fit in the window, or one	of the
       signs `+' or `-', indicating that the shrink factor should be increased
       or decreased, respectively.  Finally, actions that would	perform	a tog-
       gle,  such  as  set-keep-flag,  may receive an argument `t', indicating
       that the	action should toggle regardless	of the	current	 prefix	 argu-

       Mouse   actions	 should	  refer	 only  to  ButtonPress	events	(e.g.,
       <Btn1Down>:magnifier(*1)).  The corresponding motion and	release	events
       will  be	 handled  internally.	A  key	action may be bound to a mouse
       event, but not vice versa.

       Usually the string of translations should begin with ``#override'', in-
       dicating	 that  the default key and mouse button	assignments should not
       be discarded.

       When keys or mouse buttons involving modifiers (such as Ctrl or	Shift)
       are  customized together	with their non-modified	equivalents, the modi-
       fied keys should	come first, for	example:

	    xdvi.mainTranslations: #override \
	    Shift<Key>s: select-dvi-file()\n\
	    Ctrl<Key>s:	save()\n\
	    <Key>s: find()\n

       Because xdvi needs to capture pointer motion events, and	because	the  X
       Toolkit	translations  mechanism	 cannot	accommodate both motion	events
       and double-click	events at the same time, it is not possible to specify
       double-click  actions  in xdvi customizations.  For information on this
       and other aspects of translations, see the X Toolkit  Intrinsics	 docu-

       There  is  no command-line option to set	the mainTranslations resource,
       since changing this resource on the command line	would  be  cumbersome.
       To set the resource for testing purposes, use the -xrm command-line op-
       tion provided by	the X toolkit.	For  example,  xdvi  -xrm  'XDvi.main-
       Translations:  #override	"z":quit()' ...	 or xdvi -xrm 'XDvi.mainTrans-
       lations:	#override <Key>z:quit()' ...  will cause the key `z'  to  quit

       Some  resources	are provided to	allow customization of the geometry of
       the Xaw command buttons.	 Again,	they are not changeable	 via  command-
       line  options,  other than via the -xrm option.	All of these resources
       take integer values.

	      The number of pixels to be placed	on either side of the buttons.
	      The default value	is 6.

	      The  number  of pixels between the top button and	the top	of the
	      window.  The default value is 50.

	      The number of pixels between the buttons.	 The default value  is

	      The  number  of pixels of	additional space to be inserted	if the
	      buttonTranslations resource string  contains  an	extra  newline
	      character.  The default value is 50.

	      The border width of the button windows.  The default value is 1.

       The  scrollable page list on the	right of the main window allows	you to
       jump directly to	a page in the DVI file.

	      Jumps to the page	the mouse is located on.

	      [toggle-mark()] Toggle the mark of the current page.  The	 marks
	      are used by the `Print' and `Save	to file' dialogs to select on-
	      ly marked	pages from the DVI file.

       When the	mouse pointer is inside	the page list, the mouse wheel switch-
       es to the next or previous page.

       The scrollbars (if present) behave in the standard way:	pushing	Button
       2 in a scrollbar	moves the top or left edge of the  scrollbar  to  that
       point  and  optionally drags it;	pushing	Button 1 moves the image up or
       right by	an amount equal	to the distance	from the button	press  to  the
       upper  left-hand	corner of the window; pushing Button 3 moves the image
       down or left by the same	amount.

       The scrollbars can be removed via the -expertmode flag/keystroke	(which

       By default, the mouse buttons 1 to 5 will pop up	a ``magnifying glass''
       that shows an unshrunken	image of the page (i.e.	an image at the	 reso-
       lution determined by the	option/X resource pixels or mfmode) at varying
       sizes. When the magnifier is moved, small  ruler-like  tick  marks  are
       displayed  at  the  edges  of  the magnifier (unless the	X resource de-
       layRulers is set	to false, in which case	the tick marks will always  be
       displayed).   The  unit	of  the	 marks is determined by	the X resource
       tickUnits (mm by	default). This unit can	be changed at runtime via  the
       action  switch-magnifier-units(), by default bound to the keystroke `t'
       (see the	description of that key, and of	 switch-magnifier-units()  for
       more details on the units available).
       The  length  of	the tick marks can be changed via the X	resource tick-
       Length (4 by default). A	zero or	negative  value	 suppresses  the  tick

       Xdvi keeps a history of viewed pages, and you can move through the his-
       tory and	delete items using the keys [ (pagehistory-back()),  ]	(page-
       history-forward()),  Ctr-[  (pagehistory-delete-backward())  and	 Ctr-]

       When one	of the history commands	is used, the page history is displayed
       in  the	status line at the bottom of the window, with the current list
       item marked by square brackets `[', `]' and a left and right context of
       at most 10 items. File boundaries are marked by `#'.

       The  size of the	history	can be customized with the X resource pageHis-
       torySize	(the default size is 1000 items). If the size is set to	0, the
       history commands	are disabled.

       The  actions  do-href()	and  do-href-newwindow()  (by default bound to
       Mouse-1 and Mouse-2 if the pointer is currently located on a hyperlink)
       can  be	used to	open the link target in	the same window	(do-href()) or
       in a new	window (do-href-newwindow()).

       If the link target is not a file	on  the	 local	disk,  xdvi  tries  to
       launch a	web browser (as	specified by the -browser command line option,
       the BROWSER environment variable	or the wwwBrowser X resource, in  this
       order) to retrieve the document.	See the	description of the BROWSER en-
       vironment variable, below, for an example setting.

       If the file is a	local file, xdvi tries to determine if	it  is	a  DVI
       file.  If  it  is, xdvi will try	to display the file; otherwise it will
       try to determine	the MIME type of the file, and from that  an  applica-
       tion  suitable for opening the file.  This is done by parsing the files
       specified by the	environment variable EXTENSIONMAPS for	a  mapping  of
       filename	 extensions to MIME types, and the files determined by the en-
       vironment variable MAILCAPS for a mapping of MIME types to  application
       programs.  See the descriptions of these	variables in the section ENVI-
       RONMENT,	below, for a more detailed description and the default	values
       of  these  variables. If	no suitable files are found, a set of built-in
       default MIME types and applications is used.

       Xdvi currently uses no heuristics apart from the	filename suffix	to de-
       termine the mime	type of	a file.	If a filename has no suffix, the value
       of the resource noMimeSuffix  is	 used  (by  default  application/x-un-
       known).	If the suffix doesn't match any	of the suffixes	in mime.types,
       the value of the	resource unknownMimeSuffix is used (by default	appli-
       cation/x-unknown).   If	the mailcap entries do not list	a viewer for a
       given mime type,	xdvi will show a warning popup.	If you want  to	 avoid
       this  warning,  and for example want to always use the netscape browser
       for unknown MIME	types, you  could  add	the  following	line  to  your
       ~/.mailcap file:

	   application/xdvi-unknown; \
	       netscape	-raise -remote 'openURL(%s,new-window)'

       The keystroke Ctrl-f or the menu	entry File _ Find ...  (or the `Binoc-
       ulars' symbol in	the toolbar, for  Motif)  opens	 a  dialog  window  to
       search  for a text string or a regular expression in the	DVI file.  The
       keystroke Ctrl-g	jumps to the next match	(like pressing the `Find' but-
       ton in the search window).

       By default, the matches are highlighted in inverted color.  If the dis-
       play isn't running in TrueColor,	or if the X resource matchHighlightIn-
       verted  is  set to false	or the command-line option -nomatchinverted is
       used, xdvi will instead draw a rectangle	in highlight  color  (see  the
       -hl option) around the match.

       If  a match crosses a page boundary, only the part on the first page is
       highlighted.  Xdvi will scan up to 2 adjacent pages  to	match  strings
       crossing	 page boundaries; but note that	header or footer lines,	or in-
       tervening float pages will be treated as	parts  of  the	scanned	 text.
       Such text will usually cause multi-page matching	to fail.

       This  emphasizes	the fact that searching	in the formatted text (the DVI
       output) works differently from searching	in the source text:  Searching
       in  the	DVI  file makes	it easier to skip formatting instructions, and
       makes it	possible to search for e.g.  hyphenation and equation numbers;
       but  sometimes  the formatting results can also get in the way, e.g. in
       the case	of footnotes. In these cases it's better to search in the  TeX
       source  instead.	The use	of source specials will	make switching between
       the xdvi	display	and the	editor with the	TeX  source  easier;  see  the
       section SOURCE SPECIALS below for more information on this.

       The  text  extracted  from the DVI file is in encoded in	UTF-8 (you can
       view that text by saving	the file in UTF-8 format via the File  _  Save
       as  ...	menu item).  If	xdvi has been compiled with locale, nl_langin-
       fo() and	iconv support, the search term is converted from the character
       set  specified by the current locale into UTF-8.	(See the output	of lo-
       cale -a for a list of locale settings available on  your	 system).   If
       nl_langinfo() is	not available, but iconv is, you can specify the input
       encoding	for iconv via the X resource textEncoding (see the  output  of
       iconv -l	for a list of valid encodings).	If iconv support is not	avail-
       able, only the encodings	ISO-8859-1  and	 UTF-8	are  supported	(these
       names are case-insensitive).

       Ideographic characters from CJKV	fonts are treated specially: All white
       space (spaces and newlines) before and after such characters is ignored
       in the search string and	in the DVI file.

       To match	a newline character, use \n in the search string; to match the
       string \n, use \\n.

       If the checkbox Regular Expression is activated,	the string is  treated
       as  a  regular  expression in extended POSIX syntax, with the following

	 - a? matches a	zero or	one times.

	 - a* matches a	zero or	more times.

	 - a+ matches a	one or more times.  Note that *	and + are greedy, i.e.
	   they	match the longest possible substring.

	 - The	pattern	 .  matches  any character except for newline. To also
	   match a newline, use	`(.|\n)'.

	 - a{n}	matches	a exactly n times.

	 - a{n,m} matches a at least n and no more than	m times.

	 - a|b matches a or b.	Brackets  can  be  used	 for  grouping,	 e.g.:

	 - The	string	matched	by the nth group can be	referenced by \n, e.g.
	   \1 refers to	the first match.

	 - The characters ^ and	$ match	the beginning and the end of  a	 line,

	 - [abc]  matches  any	of  the	letters	a, b, c, and [a-z] matches all
	   characters from a to	z.

	 - Each	item in	a regular expression can also be one of	the  following
	   POSIX character classes:
	   [[:alnum:]] [[:alpha:]] [[:blank:]] [[:cntrl:]] [[:digit:]]
	   [[:graph:]] [[:lower:]] [[:print:]] [[:space:]] [[:upper:]]

	   These can be	negated	by inserting a ^ symbol	after the first	brack-
	   et: [^[:alpha:]]

	   For more details on POSIX regular expressions, see  e.g.  the  IEEE
	   Std 1003.1 standard definition available online from:

	 - As  a non-standard extension, the following Perl-like abbreviations
	   can be used instead of the POSIX classes:

	   Symbol   Meaning			  POSIX	Class

	       \w   an alphanumeric character	  [[:alnum:]]
	       \W   a non-alphanumeric character  [^[:alnum:]]
	       \d   a digit character		  [[:digit:]]
	       \D   a non-digit	character	  [^[:digit:]]
	       \s   a whitespace character	  [[:space:]]
	       \S   a non-whitespace character	  [^[:space:]]

	 - The following characters are	special	symbols; they need to  be  es-
	   caped with \	in order to match them literally:  ( ) [ ] . * ? + ^ $

	 - Matches of length zero are silently skipped.

       The dialog also provides	checkboxes to:

	 - search backwards;

	 - match in a case-sensitive manner (the default is  to	 ignore	 case,
	   i.e.	a search string	Test will match	both the strings test and TEST
	   in the DVI file);

	 - ignore line breaks and hyphens: This	removes	 all  hyphens  at  the
	   ends	 of  lines  and	the following newline characters, and replaces
	   all remaining newline characters by	white  spaces.	So  hyphenated
	   words  will	appear as one word to the search, and a	search for two
	   words with a	space in between will also match the words if they are
	   separated by	a linebreak.
	   Note	 that  the  hyphen removal may cause unwanted side effects for
	   compound words containing hyphens that are wrapped  after  the  hy-
	   phen, and that replacing the	newlines affects the interpretation of
	   regular expressions as follows: The . pattern will also match  new-
	   lines,  and	^  and	$ won't	match begin and	end of lines any more.
	   (Since currently there is no	option for turning off the  greediness
	   of  *  and +, turning on this option	will usually result in matches
	   that	are longer than	desired.)

       The current checkbox settings are saved in the ~/.xdvirc	file.

       The print dialog	window allows you to print  all	 pages,	 marked	 pages
       (click  or  drag	 Mouse-2 in the	page list to mark them), or a range of
       pages. Note that	the page numbers always	refer to physical pages, so if
       you're  using the option	`use TeX pages', you may want to disable it to
       make it easier to determine the correct page  numbers  (or  avoid  this
       problem altogether by marking the pages to be printed).

       The  value  of  the  Printer  text filed	is passed to dvips via the -o!
       mechanism, as a single argument after the `!'. Any arguments listed  in
       the Dvips options field are segmented at	whitespaces and	passed as sep-
       arate arguments to dvips.  If you e.g. want to print the	file 2-up, you
       should enter the	following string into the Printer field:

		psnup -2 -q | lpr -Plp

       There  are  several resources for customizing the behaviour and the de-
       fault entries of	the print dialog:


	      These can	be used	to provide default entries for the Printer and
	      the Dvips	options	text fields, respectively. If no paper size is
	      specified	in the DVI file	(via e.g. \usepackage[dvips]{geometry}
	      -	 this is the preferred method),	the input field	is initialized
	      with the current value of	the command line option/X resource pa-
	      per.   E.g.,  the	option -paper a4r is translated	into the dvips
	      options -t a4 -t landscape.  Note	that  no  check	 is  performed
	      whether dvips actually understands these options (it will	ignore
	      them if it can't); currently not all options used	 by  xdvi  are
	      also covered by dvips.


	      These  specify  the  time	 (in  milliseconds)  that the printing
	      progress window will stay	open after the dvips process has  ter-
	      minated.	The value of dvipsHangTime is used if the process ter-
	      minates successfully; dvipsFailHangTime is used if it terminates
	      with an error. The default values	are 1.5	and 5 seconds, respec-
	      tively.  If both values are negative, the	window will stay  open
	      until it is closed by the	user.

       This dialog allows you to save all or selected/marked pages in the cur-
       rent DVI	file. You can save in one of the following formats:

	 - PostScript (uses dvips to convert the  DVI  file  to	 a  PostScript
	   file, just like when	printing to a PostScript file).

	 - PDF (first uses dvips to convert the	DVI file to a PostScript file,
	   then	uses ps2pdf to convert the PostScript file to PDF).

	 - Plain text in ISO-8859-1 or UTF-8 encoding. The  latter  will  pre-
	   serve  more	of the special LaTeX characters	e.g. from mathematical
	   mode. Note however that e.g.	only few of LaTeX's mathematical  sym-
	   bols	 can be	rendered correctly as text; so this funcionality works
	   best	for plain text documents.  If a	character cannot be  displayed
	   in  the  selected  charset,	it  is replaced	by `\' followed	by the
	   hexadecimal character code.	If a character is  not	recognized  at
	   all,	it is replaced by `?'.

       The  programs  for  PostScript and PDF conversion can be	customized via
       the command line	 options  or  X	 resources  -dvipspath/.dvipsPath  and
       -ps2pdfpath/.ps2pdfPath,	respectively; see the explanation of these op-
       tions above for more details.

       The keystroke Ctrl-m [switch-mode()] switches between  three  different
       mouse  bindings,	which can also be activated via	the Modes menu (in Mo-
       tif, this is a submenu of the Options menu called Mouse Mode).  The de-
       fault mode at startup can be customized via the X resource mouseMode or
       the command-line	option -mousemode.  The	default	startup	mode is	Magni-
       fier Mode.

       Note:  The  modes  are  implemented by changing the magnifier() action.
       Switching the mode will not work	if Mouse-1 has been customized	to  an
       action sequence that does not contain the magnifier() action.

       Magnifier Mode
	      In  this	mode,  the  mouse buttons 1 to 5 pop up	a ``magnifying
	      glass'' that shows an unshrunken image of	the page (i.e. an  im-
	      age at the resolution determined by the option/X resource	pixels
	      or mfmode) at varying sizes. When	the magnifier is moved,	 small
	      ruler-like tick marks are	displayed at the edges of the magnifi-
	      er (unless the X resource	delayRulers is set to false, in	 which
	      case  the	 tick  marks  are  always displayed).  The unit	of the
	      marks is determined by the X resource tickUnits (mm by default).
	      This unit	can be changed at runtime via the action switch-magni-
	      fier-units(), by default bound to	the keystroke `t' (see the de-
	      scription	 of that key, and of switch-magnifier-units() for more
	      details on the units available).
	      The length of the	tick marks can be changed via the  X  resource
	      tickLength  (4  by default). A zero or negative value suppresses
	      the tick marks.

       Text Selection Mode
	      This mode	allows you to select a rectangular region of  text  in
	      the  DVI	file by	holding	down Mouse-1 and moving	the mouse. The
	      text is put into the X primary selection so that it can be past-
	      ed into other X applications with	Mouse-2	as usual.
	      If  xdvi	has been compiled with locale, nl_langinfo() and iconv
	      support, the selected text is converted into the	character  set
	      of the current locale (see the output of locale -a for a list of
	      locale settings available	on your	system).  If nl_langinfo()  is
	      not  available, but iconv	is, you	can specify the	input encoding
	      for iconv	via the	X resource textEncoding	 (see  the  output  of
	      iconv -l for a list of valid encodings). If iconv	support	is not
	      available, only the encodings ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8 are supported
	      (these names are case-insensitive).
	      Note that	UTF-8 is the only encoding that	can render all charac-
	      ters (e.g. mathematical symbols) of a DVI	file. If ISO-8859-1 is
	      active,  characters that cannot be displayed are replaced	by `\'
	      followed by the hexadecimal character code.   For	 other	encod-
	      ings,  such  characters  may trigger iconv error messages.  If a
	      character	is not recognized at all, it is	replaced by `?'.
	      To extract larger	portions of text, you can  alternatively  save
	      selected	pages or the entire file in text format	via the	File >
	      Save as ...  menu.

       Ruler Mode
	      This mode	provides a simple way of measuring  distances  on  the
	      When  this  mode	is  activated, the mouse cursor	changes	into a
	      thin cross, and a	larger,	cross-shaped ruler  is	drawn  in  the
	      highlight	 color	at  the	mouse location.	The ruler doesn't have
	      units attached to	it; instead, the current distance between  the
	      ruler  and  the mouse cursor is continuously printed to the sta-
	      When activating Ruler Mode, the ruler is at  first  attached  to
	      the  mouse and can be moved around. It can then be positioned at
	      a	fixed place by clicking	Mouse-1.  After	that, the mouse	cursor
	      can  be  moved to	measure	the horizontal (dx), vertical (dy) and
	      direct (shortest)	(dr) distance between the ruler	 center	 point
	      and the mouse.
	      Clicking	Mouse-1	again will move	the ruler to the current mouse
	      position,	and holding down Mouse-1 will drag the ruler around.
	      In Ruler Mode, the following special keybindings extend  or  re-
	      place the	default	bindings:

	      o	     [ruler-snap-origin()]  Snap  the ruler back to the	origin
		     coordinate	(0,0).

	      t	     [overrides	switch-magnifier-units()] Toggle between vari-
		     ous ruler units, which can	be specified by	the X resource
		     tickUnits (`mm' by	default).

	      P	     [overrides	 declare-page-number()]	 Print	the  distances
		     shown in the statusline to	standard output.

TOOLBAR	(Motif only)
       The  Motif  toolbar  can	 also be customized. The XPM file used for the
       toolbar icons can be  specified	via  the  resource  toolbarPixmapFile,
       which  should  contain  a  filename  that can be	found in one of	XFILE-
       SEARCHPATH or XDVIINPUTS	(see the section FILE SEARCHING	below for more
       information  on	these  variables).  Xdvi will try to split this	pixmap
       horizontally into n pieces, where each piece is as wide as  the	pixmap
       is  high	 and  is treated as an image for toolbar button	n.  This means
       that each icon should be	a square, and that the	entire	pixmap	should
       have width n x h	if h is	the height of the pixmap.

       The  resource  toolbarTranslations  can be used to map icons/buttons to
       specific	actions.  The resource should contain a	 string	 separated  by
       newline characters, similar to the resources mainTranslations and menu-
       Translations.  Every line must contain either a spacer  definition,  or
       an icon definition:

       A  spacer  definition  is  a string SPACER(n), where n is the number of
       pixels inserted as separator to the following button.

       An icon definition is a colon-separated list containing	the  following

	 - the index of	an icon	in the pixmap file (starting from zero);

	 - a long tooltip string, displayed in the status area;

	 - a short tooltip string, displayed as	popup;

	 -  a sequence of actions to be	performed when the corresponding tool-
	 bar button is pushed.

       To illustrate this, the default value of	toolbarTranslations  looks  as

	    xdvi.toolbarTranslations: \
	       0:Open a	new document   (Key\\: Ctrl-f):\
		    Open file:select-dvi-file()\n\
	       1:Reread	this document	(Key\\:	R):\
		    Reread file:reread-dvi-file()\n\
	       2:Go to the first page of this document	 (Key\\: 1g):\
		    Go to first	page:goto-page(1)\n\
	       3:Go to the previous page of this document   (Key\\: p):\
		    Go to previous page:back-page(1)\n\
	       4:Go to the next	page of	this document	(Key\\:	n):\
		    Go to next page:forward-page(1)\n\
	       5:Go to the last	page of	this document	(Key\\:	g):\
		    Go to last page:goto-page()\n\
	       6:Enlarge the display   (Key\\: Ctrl-+):Zoom in:\
	       7:Shrink	the display   (Key\\: Ctrl--):Zoom out:\
	       8:Jump back to the previous hyperlink   (Key\\: B):\
		    Back hyperlink:htex-back()\n\
	       10:Print	this document:Print:print()\n\
	       11:Toggle marks for odd pages   (Key\\: 1m):\
		    Toggle odd:toggle-mark(1)\n\
	       12:Toggle marks for even	pages	(Key\\:	2m):\
		    Toggle even:toggle-mark(2)\n\
	       13:Toggle mark for current page	 (Key\\: 2m):\
		    Toggle current:toggle-mark()\n\
	       14:Unmark all pages   (Key\\: 0m):\
		    Unmark all:toggle-mark(0)\n\
	       18:Display fonts	darker	 (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl-+):\
		    Fonts darker:change-density(5)\n\
	       19:Display fonts	lighter	  (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl--):\
		    Fonts lighter:change-density(-5)\n

       When  the  mouse	 remains over a	toolbar	button for a certain period, a
       `tooltip' window	is shown, describing what the button  does  using  the
       short  tooltip  string  from  the above resource. At the	same time, the
       long tooltip string is displayed	in the statusline.  The	appearance and
       behaviour  of  these  tooltips  can be customized via the following re-

	      Background color of the tooltip window.

	      Font used	for the	tooltip.

	      The time (in milliseconds) the mouse pointer needs  to  be  over
	      the  button  before  the	tooltip	is shown. Set it to a negative
	      value to suppress	the tooltips altogether.

       The greyscale anti-aliasing feature in xdvi will	not work at  its  best
       if  the display does not	have enough colors available.  This can	happen
       if other	applications are using most of the colormap (even if they  are
       iconified).   If	this occurs, then xdvi will print an error message and
       turn on the -copy option.  This will result  in	overstrike  characters
       appearing wrong;	it may also result in poor display quality if the num-
       ber of available	colors is very small.

       Typically this problem occurs on	displays that allocate eight  bits  of
       video  memory  per  pixel.  To see how many bits	per pixel your display
       uses, type xwininfo in an xterm window, and then	click the mouse	on the
       root  window  when  asked.  The ``Depth:'' entry	will tell you how many
       bits are	allocated per pixel.

       Displays	using at least 15 bits per pixel are typically TrueColor visu-
       als, which do not have this problem, since their	colormap is permanent-
       ly allocated and	available to all applications.	(The visual  class  is
       also  displayed	by  xwininfo.)	For more information on	visual classes
       see the documentation for the X Window System.

       To alleviate this problem, therefore, one may (a) run  with  more  bits
       per  pixel  (this may require adding more video memory or replacing the
       video card), (b)	shut down other	applications that may be using much of
       the  colormap  and then restart xdvi, or	(c) run	xdvi with the -install

       One application which is	often the cause	of this	problem	 is  Netscape.
       In  this	 case  there are two more alternatives to remedying the	situa-
       tion.  One can run ``netscape -install''	to cause Netscape to install a
       private colormap.  This can cause colors	to change in bizarre ways when
       the mouse is moved to a different window.  Or, one can  run  ``netscape
       -ncols 220'' to limit Netscape to a smaller number of colors.  A	small-
       er number will ensure that other	applications have more	colors	avail-
       able, but will degrade the color	quality	in the Netscape	window.

       Xdvi  can  display  Encapsulated	PostScript (EPS) files included	in the
       dvi file.  Such files are first searched	for in the directory where the
       dvi  file is, and then using normal Kpathsea rules.  There is an	excep-
       tion to this, however:  if the file name	begins with  a	backtick  (`),
       then  the  remaining  characters	 in the	file name give a shell command
       (often zcat) which is executed; its standard output is then sent	to  be
       interpreted as PostScript.  Since the execution of arbitrary shell com-
       mands with the user's permissions is a huge security  risk,  evaluation
       of these	backtick commands is disabled by default. It needs to be acti-
       vated via the -allowshell command-line option.  NOTE: You should	 never
       use  this  option  when viewing documents that you didn't compile your-
       self. The backtick specials are not needed  for	uncompressing  gzipped
       PostScript  files,  since  xdvi	can do that on the fly if the filename
       ends with .eps.gz or .eps.Z (and	if the first bytes of the  file	 indi-
       cate  that the file is indeed compressed).  This	is both	safer and more
       flexible	than the backtick approach, since the default  file  searching
       rules will apply	to such	filenames too.

       Using FreeType (version 2), xdvi	can render PostScript<tm> Type 1 fonts
       directly, without the route via TeX pixel (pk) fonts. The advantage  of
       this  is	 that  only  one size of each font needs to be stored on disk.
       Unless the -notype1fonts	option is used,	xdvi will try to render	 every
       font using FreeType. Only as a fallback will it invoke an external pro-
       gram (like mktexpk, which in turn may invoke utilities  like  ps2pk  or
       gsftopk)	 to  generate  a pixel font from the Type 1 source. The	direct
       rendering of the	Computer Modern	 fonts	should	work  out-of-the  box,
       whereas	other  Type  1	fonts such as the 35 `standard'	PostScript<tm>
       fonts resident in printers may need to be made accessible for use  with
       xdvi,  unless your system administrator or TeX distribution has already
       done so (which is the case e.g. for current TeX Live systems). For  the
       35  PostScript<tm>  resident fonts, xdvik will search using the Fontmap
       provided	with Ghostscript, if necessary.	 Also, the xdvik  distribution
       comes  with a utility called t1mapper to	make these fonts available for
       xdvi; see the manual page for t1mapper(1) for usage details.  This pro-
       gram is likely to be dropped in the future, however, since it is	proba-
       bly not needed anymore.

       Any of the specials used	by xdvi	may  be	 preceded  by  the  characters
       ``xdvi:''.   Doing so does not change the behavior of the special under
       xdvi, but it tells other	dvi drivers (such as e.g. dvips) to ignore the

       Some  TeX implementations or macro packages provide the facility	to au-
       tomatically include so-called `source specials' into a DVI file.	 These
       contain	the  line number, eventually a column number, and the filename
       of the .tex source. This	makes it possible to jump from a .dvi file  to
       the  corresponding place	in the .tex source and vice versa (also	called
       `inverse	search'	- jumping from the DVI file to the TeX	file  is  also
       known  as  `reverse  search',  and jumping from the TeX file to the DVI
       file as `forward	search').

       To be usable with xdvi, source specials in the dvi file must  have  one
       of the following	formats:

		src:line[ ]filename
		src:line:col[ ]filename

       If  filename or line are	omitted, the most recent values	are used.  The
       first source special on each page must be  in  one  of  the  first  two
       forms, since defaults are not inherited across pages.

       You  will need a	TeX implementation that	provides an appropriate	switch
       (e.g.  -src) or a macro package	(such  as  srcltx.sty  or  srctex.sty,
       available  from	CTAN:macros/latex/contrib/supported/srcltx/) to	insert
       such source specials into the DVI file.

       For reverse search, the combination Ctrl-Mouse 1	will make xdvi open an
       editor (the value of the	-editor	command	line option) with the file and
       the line	number of the .tex source. See the description of the  -editor
       option for more information and example settings.

       For  forward  search, xdvi has a	-sourceposition	option that makes xdvi
       jump to the page	in the DVI file	corresponding to the  given  line  (or
       the  closest  line  having  a source special) of	the specified file and
       highlight the found region. See the description of the  -sourceposition
       option for more details.

       More information	on setting up various editors for use with source spe-
       cials can be found at:

       xdvi accepts specials to	set the	paper size for	the  document.	 These
       specials	should be of the form


       where  width and	height give the	width and height of the	paper, respec-
       tively.	Each of	these should appear in the form	of  a  decimal	number
       followed	 by  any of the	two-letter abbreviations for units accepted by
       TeX (pt,	pc, in,	bp, cm,	mm, dd,	cc, or sp).  If	an  asterisk  (*)  ap-
       pears  just  before the width, then the measurements refer to the docu-
       ment dimensions (e.g., pt as opposed to truept).	 This allows  a	 macro
       package	to  vary  the page size	according to elements of the document;

	    \special{xdvi: papersize=*\number\wd\mybox sp,
		     \number\ht\mybox sp}

       Except for the asterisk,	this format is compatible with dvips.

       The last	papersize special on a page determines the size	of that	 page.
       If  there is no such special on a given page, the most recent papersize
       is used,	or, if there are no papersize specials on any preceding	 page,
       then  the  value	of the paper resource (or -paper option	on the command
       line) is	used.  Thus the	paper size may vary for	different pages	of the
       dvi file.

       If  the	paper  resource	 (or -paper command-line option) begins	with a
       plus sign (`+'),	then all papersize specials in the dvi	file  are  ig-

       The color specials supported by xdvi are	the same as those supported by
       dvips, except that the literal PostScript color	specification  (as  in
       the  AggiePattern example in the	dvips documentation) is	not supported.
       There are also some restrictions	due to the way xdvi's	drawing	  rou-
       tines  are  implemented;	e.g. the \colorbox and \fcolorbox macros don't
       work with xdvi.	See the	section	LIMITATIONS below for more information
       on  these restrictions.	Xdvi supports the same list of named colors as
       dvips does, namely:

       Apricot,	Aquamarine, Bittersweet, Black,	Blue,  BlueGreen,  BlueViolet,
       BrickRed, Brown,	BurntOrange, CadetBlue,	CarnationPink, Cerulean, Corn-
       flowerBlue, Cyan, Dandelion, DarkOrchid,	Emerald, ForestGreen, Fuchsia,
       Goldenrod,  Gray, Green,	GreenYellow, JungleGreen, Lavender, LimeGreen,
       Magenta,	Mahogany, Maroon,  Melon,  MidnightBlue,  Mulberry,  NavyBlue,
       OliveGreen,  Orange,  OrangeRed,	 Orchid, Peach,	Periwinkle, PineGreen,
       Plum, ProcessBlue, Purple, RawSienna, Red, RedOrange,  RedViolet,  Rho-
       damine,	RoyalBlue,  RoyalPurple,  RubineRed,  Salmon, SeaGreen,	Sepia,
       SkyBlue,	SpringGreen, Tan, TealBlue, Thistle, Turquoise,	Violet,	Viole-
       tRed, White, WildStrawberry, Yellow, YellowGreen, YellowOrange.

       Note that these names are case sensitive.

       The  documentation  of the LaTeX	color package provides more details on
       how to use such specials	with LaTeX; see	the dvips documentation	for  a
       detailed	description of the syntax and semantics	of the color specials.

       When xdvi receives a SIGUSR1 signal, it rereads the dvi file.

       Xdvik  uses the same environment	variables and algorithms for searching
       for font	files as TeX and  friends.   See  the  documentation  for  the
       Kpathsea	library, kpathsea.dvi, for a detailed description of these.

       In addition, xdvik accepts the following	variables:

	      Specifies	which graphics display terminal	to use.

	      Trace  Kpathsea  lookups;	 set it	to -1 (= all bits on) for com-
	      plete tracing.

	      A	list of	files to be searched for mime types  entries  (as  for
	      Acrobat Reader).	Earlier	entries	in one of these	files override
	      later ones.  If this variable is not set,	the following  default
	      path is used:


	      A	 list  of files	to be searched for mailcap entries, as defined
	      by RFC 1343. See this RFC	or the mailcap(4) manual  page	for  a
	      detailed description of the mailcap file format.	Currently, on-
	      ly the following mailcap features	are supported:

		     The entry is only used if command can be executed via the
		     system() call and if the system() call returns with value
		     0 (success).  The command string may contain  the	format
		     string %s,	which will be replaced by the file name.

		     If	 this  flag is used, the command will be executed in a
		     new xterm window by prepending ``xterm -e '' to the  com-
		     mand string.

	      All other	fields in the mailcap entry are	ignored	by xdvi.  Ear-
	      lier entries in one of these files override later	ones.  If  the
	      variable is not defined, the following default path is used:


	      For  security reasons, some special characters (i.e.: ( )	` \ ;)
	      are escaped in the argument before passing it to system().

	      Determines the web browser used to open  external	 links	(i.e.,
	      all  URLs	 that  don't start with	the `file:' scheme and are not
	      relative links in	the local DVI file), and  to  open  links  for
	      which  no	 viewer	 has  been specified in	the mailcap files. The
	      value of this variable is	a colon-separated  list	 of  commands.
	      Xdvi  will try each of them in sequence until one	succeeds (i.e.
	      doesn't immediately return with status 0). This  allows  you  to
	      specify  your  favourite	browser	at the beginning, and fallback
	      browsers at the end. Every occurrence of %s in the string	is re-
	      placed  by the target URL; every occurrence of %%	is replaced by
	      a	single %.  If no %s is present,	the URL	string is added	as  an
	      extra argument.
	      An example setting is:

	      netscape	-raise	-remote	'openURL(%s,new-window)':xterm -e lynx
	      %s:xterm -e wget %s:lynx %s:wget %s


	      for more details on the BROWSER environment variable.

       GS_LIB A	colon-separated	list of	 directories  to  search  for  Fontmap
	      files,  etc.,  as	used for Ghostscript.  It has the same meaning
	      as it does when running Ghostscript.  In xdvik, it is used  when
	      searching	 for font files	when the map file does not give	a file
	      name for the font	(this should be	quite rare).  The  command  gs
	      -h  will list the	default	value that Ghostscript uses.  See also
	      the XDVI_GS_LIB environment variable (below).

	      This has the same	effect as GS_LIB but affects only  xdvi.   Use
	      this when	you want to use	a different value for GS_LIB when run-
	      ning xdvi, but use either	the compiled-in	default	value or  some
	      other  value  when  running Ghostscript.	If both	GS_LIB and XD-
	      VI_GS_LIB	are set, then xdvi uses	XDVI_GS_LIB.  To use  the  de-
	      fault value compiled in to xdvi while still retaining the	abili-
	      ty to set	GS_LIB for use	with  Ghostscript,  you	 can  set  XD-
	      VI_GS_LIB	to the empty string.

       TMPDIR The  directory  to  use for storing temporary files created when
	      uncompressing PostScript files.

	      Determines the editor command used for source  special  `reverse
	      search', if neither the -editor command-line option nor the .ed-
	      itor resource are	 specified.   See  the description of the -ed-
	      itor command line	option for details on the format.

       VISUAL Determines  an editor to be opened in an xterm window if neither
	      of -editor, .editor, or XEDITOR is specified.

       EDITOR Determines an editor to be opened	in an xterm window if  neither
	      of -editor, .editor, XEDITOR or VISUAL is	specified.

	      Obsolete;	use BROWSER instead.

       xdvi  accepts many but not all types of PostScript specials accepted by
       dvips.  For example, it accepts most specials generated by epsf and ps-
       fig.   It  does not, however, support bop-hook or eop-hook, nor does it
       allow PostScript	commands to affect the rendering of  things  that  are
       not PostScript (for example, the	``NEAT'' and rotated ``A'' examples in
       the dvips manual).  These restrictions are due to the design  of	 xdvi;
       in all likelihood they will always remain.

       LaTeX2e rotation	specials are currently not supported.

       MetaPost	files containing included text are not supported.

       Xdvi's  color  handling	doesn't	 support  the \colorbox	and \fcolorbox
       macros;	this is	not likely to change in	the  near  future.  This  also
       means  that   e.g.  colored tables (as created by the colortbl package)
       may render incorrectly: Text in colors different	from the default fore-
       ground color may	not be displayed. When the page	is redrawn (e.g. after
       using the magnifier), the background color of the  cells	 may  overdraw
       the text.

	      A	 file  that  holds  all	settings that the user changed via the
	      keys, the	`Options' and the Xaw `Modes' menu and the dialogs, as
	      X	  resources.   These   resources   override  the  settings  in
	      $HOME/.Xdefaults.	 This file is ignored if the -q	option is used
	      or the noInitFile	X resource is set.

	      An  optional configuration file for the Type 1 font setup, which
	      specifies	dvips-style map	files specific to xdvik.  If used,  it
	      should  be  present in the directory determined by the TEXCONFIG
	      environment variable.  Its format	is  similar  to	 configuration
	      files for	dvips, except that it is only scanned for the names of
	      map files	(p and p+ directives).

       X(1), dvips(1), mktexpk(1), ps2pk(1),  gsftopk(1),  t1mapper(1),	 mail-
       cap(4),	the  Kpathsea  documentation,  and  the	 Xdvik	home  page  at

       Eric Cooper, CMU, did a version for direct output to a  QVSS.  Modified
       for  X  by Bob Scheifler, MIT Laboratory	for Computer Science. Modified
       for X11 by Mark Eichin, MIT SIPB. Additional enhancements by many  oth-

       The  current maintainer of the original xdvi is Paul Vojta, U.C.	Berke-

       Code for	the xdvik variant has been contributed by many	people,	 whose
       names  are  scattered  across  the  source  files.  Xdvik  is hosted on
       CTAN:dviware/xdvik and on SourceForge; for the most up-to-date informa-
       tion, please visit:

       Please report all bugs to the SourceForge bug tracker:

Xdvik 22.87			  2014-04-12			       XDVI(1)


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