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XMODMAP(1)		    General Commands Manual		    XMODMAP(1)

       xmodmap	- utility for modifying	keymaps	and pointer button mappings in

       xmodmap [-options ...] [filename]

       The xmodmap program is used to edit and display the  keyboard  modifier
       map  and	 keymap	 table that are	used by	client applications to convert
       event keycodes into keysyms.  It	is usually run from the	user's session
       startup script to configure the keyboard	according to personal tastes.

       The following options may be used with xmodmap:

       -display	display
	       This option specifies the host and display to use.

       -help   This  option  indicates that a brief description	of the command
	       line arguments should be	printed	on the standard	error channel.
	       This  will  be  done whenever an	unhandled argument is given to

	       This option indicates that a help message  describing  the  ex-
	       pression	 grammar  used in files	and with -e expressions	should
	       be printed on the standard error.

	       This option indicates that xmodmap should print its version in-
	       formation and exit.

	       This  option indicates that xmodmap should print	logging	infor-
	       mation as it parses its input.

       -quiet  This option turns off the verbose logging.   This  is  the  de-

       -n      This  option  indicates that xmodmap should not change the map-
	       pings, but should display what it would do, like	 make(1)  does
	       when given this option.

       -e expression
	       This option specifies an	expression to be executed.  Any	number
	       of expressions may be specified from the	command	line.

       -pm     This option indicates that the current modifier map  should  be
	       printed	on  the	standard output.   This	is the default mode of
	       operation if no other mode options are specified.

       -pk     This option indicates that the current keymap table  should  be
	       printed on the standard output.

       -pke    This  option  indicates that the	current	keymap table should be
	       printed on the standard output in the form of expressions  that
	       can be fed back to xmodmap.

       -pp     This  option  indicates	that the current pointer map should be
	       printed on the standard output.

       -       A lone dash means that the standard input should	be used	as the
	       input file.

       The filename specifies a	file containing	xmodmap	expressions to be exe-
       cuted.  This file is usually kept in the	user's home directory  with  a
       name like .xmodmaprc.

       The xmodmap program reads a list	of expressions and parses them all be-
       fore attempting to execute any of them.	This makes it possible to  re-
       fer to keysyms that are being redefined in a natural way	without	having
       to worry	as much	about name conflicts.

       The  list  of  keysym  names  may  be  found   in   the	 header	  file
       _X11/keysymdef.h_  (without  the	XK_ prefix).  Keysyms matching Unicode
       characters may be specified  as	"U0020"	 to  "U007E"  and  "U00A0"  to
       "U10FFFF" for all possible Unicode characters.

       keycode NUMBER =	KEYSYMNAME ...
	       The list	of keysyms is assigned to the indicated	keycode	(which
	       may be specified	in decimal, hex	or octal and can be determined
	       by  running  the	 xev program).	Up to eight keysyms may	be at-
	       tached to a key,	however	the last four are not used in any  ma-
	       jor  X server implementation.  The first	keysym is used when no
	       modifier	key is pressed in conjunction with this	key, the  sec-
	       ond with	Shift, the third when the Mode_switch key is used with
	       this key	and the	fourth when both  the  Mode_switch  and	 Shift
	       keys are	used.

       keycode any = KEYSYMNAME	...
	       If  no  existing	key has	the specified list of keysyms assigned
	       to it, a	spare key on the keyboard is selected and the  keysyms
	       are  assigned  to  it.  The list	of keysyms may be specified in
	       decimal,	hex or octal.

       keysym KEYSYMNAME = KEYSYMNAME ...
	       The KEYSYMNAME on the left hand side is translated into	match-
	       ing  keycodes  used to perform the corresponding	set of keycode
	       expressions.  Note that if the same keysym is bound to multiple
	       keys, the expression is executed	for each matching keycode.

       clear MODIFIERNAME
	       This removes all	entries	in the modifier	map for	the given mod-
	       ifier, where valid name are: Shift, Lock, Control, Mod1,	 Mod2,
	       Mod3,  Mod4,  and Mod5 (case does not matter in modifier	names,
	       although	it does	matter for all	other  names).	 For  example,
	       ``clear	Lock'' will remove all any keys	that were bound	to the
	       shift lock modifier.

	       This adds all keys containing the given keysyms	to  the	 indi-
	       cated  modifier	map.  The keysym names are evaluated after all
	       input expressions are read to make it easy to write expressions
	       to swap keys (see the EXAMPLES section).

	       This removes all	keys containing	the given keysyms from the in-
	       dicated modifier	map.  Unlike add, the keysym names are	evalu-
	       ated  as	 the  line is read in.	This allows you	to remove keys
	       from a modifier without having to worry about  whether  or  not
	       they have been reassigned.

       pointer = default
	       This  sets the pointer map back to its default settings (button
	       1 generates a code of 1,	button 2 generates a 2,	etc.).

       pointer = NUMBER	...
	       This sets the pointer  map  to  contain	the  indicated	button
	       codes.	The list always	starts with the	first physical button.
	       Setting a button	code to	0 disables events from that button.

       Lines that begin	with an	exclamation point (!) are taken	as comments.

       If you want to change the binding of a modifier key, you	must also  re-
       move it from the	appropriate modifier map.

       Many  pointers are designed such	that the first button is pressed using
       the index finger	of the right hand.  People who	are  left-handed  fre-
       quently	find  that  it is more comfortable to reverse the button codes
       that get	generated so that the primary button is	pressed	using the  in-
       dex  finger of the left hand.  This could be done on a 3	button pointer
       as follows:
       %  xmodmap -e "pointer =	3 2 1"

       Many applications support the notion of Meta keys (similar  to  Control
       keys  except that Meta is held down instead of Control).	 However, some
       servers do not have a Meta keysym in the	default	keymap table,  so  one
       needs  to  be added by hand.  The following command will	attach Meta to
       the Multi-language key (sometimes labeled Compose Character).  It  also
       takes advantage of the fact that	applications that need a Meta key sim-
       ply need	to get the keycode and don't require the keysym	to be  in  the
       first  column  of  the keymap table.  This means	that applications that
       are looking for a Multi_key (including the default modifier map)	 won't
       notice any change.
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym Multi_key = Multi_key Meta_L"

       Similarly,  some	 keyboards  have  an Alt key but no Meta key.  In that
       case the	following may be useful:
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym Alt_L = Meta_L Alt_L"

       One of the more simple, yet convenient, uses of xmodmap is to  set  the
       keyboard's  "rubout"  key  to  generate an alternate keysym.  This fre-
       quently involves	exchanging Backspace with Delete to be	more  comfort-
       able  to	 the  user.  If	the ttyModes resource in xterm is set as well,
       all terminal emulator windows will use the same key for erasing charac-
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
       %  echo "XTerm*ttyModes:	 erase ^?" | xrdb -merge

       Some keyboards do not automatically generate less than and greater than
       characters when the comma and period keys are  shifted.	 This  can  be
       remedied	 with  xmodmap by resetting the	bindings for the comma and pe-
       riod with the following scripts:
       ! make shift-, be < and shift-. be >
       keysym comma = comma less
       keysym period = period greater

       One of the more irritating differences between keyboards	is  the	 loca-
       tion  of	 the Control and CapsLock keys.	 A common use of xmodmap is to
       swap these two keys as follows:
       ! Swap Caps_Lock	and Control_L
       remove Lock = Caps_Lock
       remove Control =	Control_L
       keysym Control_L	= Caps_Lock
       keysym Caps_Lock	= Control_L
       add Lock	= Caps_Lock
       add Control = Control_L

       This example can	be run again to	swap the keys back to  their  previous

       The keycode command is useful for assigning the same keysym to multiple
       keycodes.  Although unportable, it also	makes  it  possible  to	 write
       scripts	that  can  reset the keyboard to a known state.	 The following
       script sets the backspace key to	 generate  Delete  (as	shown  above),
       flushes	all  existing  caps lock bindings, makes the CapsLock key be a
       control key, make F5 generate Escape, and makes Break/Reset be a	 shift
       ! On the	HP, the	following keycodes have	key caps as listed:
       !     101  Backspace
       !      55  Caps
       !      14  Ctrl
       !      15  Break/Reset
       !      86  Stop
       !      89  F5
       keycode 101 = Delete
       keycode 55 = Control_R
       clear Lock
       add Control = Control_R
       keycode 89 = Escape
       keycode 15 = Caps_Lock
       add Lock	= Caps_Lock

       DISPLAY to get default host and display number.

       X(7),  xev(1),  setxkbmap(1), XStringToKeysym(3), Xlib documentation on
       key and pointer events

       Every time a keycode expression is evaluated, the  server  generates  a
       MappingNotify  event  on	 every client.	This can cause some thrashing.
       All of the changes  should  be  batched	together  and  done  at	 once.
       Clients	that  receive  keyboard	 input and ignore MappingNotify	events
       will not	notice any changes made	to keyboard mappings.

       Xmodmap should generate "add" and  "remove"  expressions	 automatically
       whenever	a keycode that is already bound	to a modifier is changed.

       There  should be	a way to have the remove expression accept keycodes as
       well as keysyms for those times when you	really mess up your mappings.

       Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium, rewritten	from  an  earlier  version  by
       David Rosenthal of Sun Microsystems.

X Version 11			xmodmap	1.0.10			    XMODMAP(1)


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